Many gross anatomy groups exist only to teach. The Clinical Anatomy Research Group at Otago is one of only a few groups in the world that also does clinically related anatomy research. The high calibre of their research is evident in the number and quality of their published papers and the amount of times these papers are referenced.
Most of their research is done in close collaboration with engineers and clinical professionals in the field and addresses patient issues that clinicians face on a day-to-day basis. The results can be seen in the new technologies and techniques that come about because of this research: new materials for arthroplasty, refined surgery techniques, and new exercises programmes to improve the recovery rate of patients.
Principal Investigators (PIs)
Dr Yusuf Cakmak
Our major interest is the neuromodulation of internal organs and the brain structures to modulate their functions and blood flow. We focus on the effects of different frequencies of non-invasive electrostimulation on internal organs blood flow to increase and decrease the blood flow.
We had six neuromodulation related Patent Cooperation Treaties (PCTs) and we are interested in investigating more novel non-invasive stimulation techniques to normalize the neuronal network functions and alleviate the symptoms of neurological diseases.
Southwest Research Institute (Texas) is producing a prototype for one of our PCT related neuromodulation devices for internal organ blood flow modulation. Inventram company supports our Parkinson’s Disease related biomedical device clinical trials.
We are also researching for Interactive Virtual Reality (Hand and Forearm Muscular Avatar project is the recent one) and 3D image processing as a treatment modality, teaching and as a diagnostic tool.
Yusuf is also a member of the 'Neuroscience research group'.
Associate Professor George Dias
George trained as a dental surgeon then specialised in oral & maxillofacial surgery, but his research interests have expanded greatly since his clinical days. His main areas of interest today are:
- Development of a biocompatible, biodegradable bone graft substitute from reconstituted keratin, metal alloys and cellulose.
- Development of new composite surgical appliances.
- Assessment of sintered bovine bone "True Bone Ceramics" to be used as bone substitutes.
- Osteological studies; particularly skeletal responses to pathological and environmental factors in contemporary and archaeological skeletal material.
- Investigation of the detailed anatomy of structures in the head and neck region.
- Forensic facial reconstruction.
While not part of his main anatomy research, George has also found a way to extract protein from wool as a premium food ingredient.
Associate Professor Niels Hammer
Niels' background is in clinical biomechanics related to orthopedic surgery and traumatology. He is extremely interested in the relationship between research and clinical practice and how the two can work together to increase knowledge of the human body.
"People think that because we have been studying human anatomy for hundreds of years we know everything. But that's just not true. There is still so much we do not know about how the human body works."
His research interests include:
- The biomechanics of the human musculoskeletal system with focus on the pelvis and lower extremity. Tissues and organ systems are investigated on a level ranging from macromechanical to nanostructural properties.
- Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This research includes anatomical and biomechanical experiments with human body donors as well as clinical trials with patients and volunteers.
- Clinical anatomy in the context of surgical approaches and novel treatment options in pelvic surgery, total hip replacement and neurosurgery. Topographic and functional anatomy is revisited from a surgeon's point of view to fulfill this purpose.
- Visualization of anatomical structures by means of high-field magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and plastination.
Professor Helen Nicholson
Helen trained as a medical doctor in the UK. Her research interests include clinical anatomy, medical education and reproductive biology. She has also worked with Dr Paul Trotman to produce the documentaries “Donated to Science” and “Practising Medicine”.
Her current research interests are:
- The clinical anatomy of the hip.
- Exploring the students’ voice on dissection, body donation, death and dying.
- Exploring the professional development of medical students.
Helen is a member of the Executive Committee of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. She is also the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (External Engagement) at the University of Otago.
Dr Stephanie Woodley
Stephanie has a professional background in physiotherapy, and endeavours to produce applied research that is relevant to clinical practice. Her primary area of interest is musculoskeletal anatomy, particularly of the hip and pelvic regions.
Recent studies have examined the morphology and morphometry of the hamstring muscles using MRI and ultrasound, and the physiotherapy and radiological diagnosis of lateral hip pain. Ongoing research studies include validation of a questionnaire for pregnancy-related symphyseal pain, and investigating the effect of a prehabilitation programme on muscle strength and morphology in individuals with advanced hip joint osteoarthritis.
"Clinical anatomy has an important role in contributing to the understanding of normal function as well as dysfunction and pathology of the musculoskeletal system."
Dr Ming Zhang
Ming's interest is centred on two broad clinical anatomy areas; (1) vascular anatomy associated with neurosurgical approaches and neuroradiology; and (2) tissue patterning of deep fasciae in the human body.
His research group is currently investigating; (1) the configuration of the deep fasciae and fascial spaces, (2) the minimal invasive surgical anatomy of the skull base, and (3) the morphological factors that contribute to dysphagia (difficulty swallowing).
The main techniques used in the clinical anatomy area include dissection, epoxy sheet plastination, SEM, TEM, confocal microscopy and whole-mount immunohistochemistry, micro-CT, MRV and Digital Subtracted Angiography.