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Department of Biochemistry profile

Professor Warren Tate

PositionProfessor
DepartmentDepartment of Biochemistry
QualificationsMSc (Well) PhD (Otago) FNZIC FRSNZ MA-PIMBN
Research summaryProtein synthesis, genetic recoding, memory mechanisms, infectious disease

Research

My laboratory has had a long-term interest in understanding protein synthesis and, in particular, decoding and recoding mechanisms on the ribosome at stop signals. Important recent investigations have focused on how the decoding release factor as a molecular mimic of tRNA recognises the individual bases of the stop signal, and how alternative genetic codes like those found in vertebrate mitochondria can be accommodated into an integrated model. This has been helped considerably by the 2008 atomic resolution structures of the ribosome:factor complex.


The decoding release factor interacting with stop codon UAG.

From our chance discovery in the 1980s of recoding (frameshifting; a cellular mechanism for regulating gene expression during protein synthesis), we developed an interest in the frameshift mechanism of HIV-1 as a potential site of vulnerability in the virus. Now, our interest has extended to the only gene in the animal kingdom known to use this mechanism, human gene PEG10. The gene was relatively recently acquired as a retroelement insertion and has undergone molecular domestication to become expressed in placenta and amniotic membranes but not, as we have shown, in adult tissues. Significantly, it uses the same frameshifting expression strategy as HIV-1 to produce two proteins.


Morris water maze: testing memory in a rat.

A second long-standing interest has been the molecular mechanisms of mammalian memory and how they are impaired in human neurological diseases, particularly Alzheimer's. These investigations have focused on the molecular changes in neurons of the hippocampus when they receive electrical signals within in vivo models and more recently included behavioural studies. We have developed a simple recombinant production and purification strategy for a processed brain protein, secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha, a protein that is neuroprotective but whose concentration is lowered in Alzheimer's patients. Remarkably, we have shown our recombinant protein alone can restore memory to rats impaired by drug treatment, not only in their electrophysiological responses but also in trials to determine memory of learned spatial tasks. We believe this external secreted protein is a signalling molecule that can switch on a signalling pathway and activate a range of gene responses to protect and enhance memory; an activity that may be critical as a counterbalance in the development of Alzheimer

Publications

Xiong, M., Jones, O. D., Peppercorn, K., Ohline, S. M., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2017). Secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha can restore novel object location memory and hippocampal LTP in aged rats. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 138, 291-299. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.08.002

Kwakowsky, A., Potapov, K., Kim, S., Peppercorn, K., Tate, W. P., & Ábrahám, I. M. (2016). Treatment of beta amyloid 1-42 (Αβ1-42)-induced basal forebrain cholinergic damage by a non-classical estrogen signaling activator in vivo. Scientific Reports, 6, 21101. doi: 10.1038/srep21101

Ramsay, J. P., Tester, L. G. L., Major, A. S., Sullivan, J. T., Edgar, C. D., Kleffmann, T., … Tate, W. P., … Ronson, C. W. (2015). Ribosomal frameshifting and dual-target antiactivation restrict quorum-sensing-activated transfer of a mobile genetic element. PNAS, 112(3), 4104-4109. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1501574112

Cardno, T. S., Shimaki, Y., Sleebs, B. E., Lackovic, K., Parisot, J. P., Moss, R. M., Crowe-McAuliffe, C., Mathew, S. F., Edgar, C. D., Kleffmann, T., & Tate, W. P. (2015). HIV-1 and human PEG10 frameshift elements are functionally distinct and distinguished by novel small molecule modulators. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139036. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139036

Mathew, S. F., Crowe-McAuliffe, C., Graves, R., Cardno, T. S., McKinney, C., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2015). The highly conserved codon following the Slippery Sequence Supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0122176. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122176

Chapter in Book - Research

Poole, E. S., Major, L. L., Cridge, A. G., & Tate, W. P. (2004). The mechanism of recoding in pro- and eukaryotes. In K. H. Nierhaus & D. N. Wilson (Eds.), Protein synthesis and ribosome structure: Translating the genome. (pp. 397-428). Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.

Tate, W. P., Dalphin, M. E., Pel, H. J., & Mannering, S. A. (1996). Decoding efficiencies of translational stop signals: a new facet of cellular regulation. In J. K. Setlow (Ed.), Genetic Engineering, Principles and Methods, Volume 18. (pp. 157-182). New York: Plenum Press.

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Journal - Research Article

Xiong, M., Jones, O. D., Peppercorn, K., Ohline, S. M., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2017). Secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha can restore novel object location memory and hippocampal LTP in aged rats. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 138, 291-299. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.08.002

Kwakowsky, A., Potapov, K., Kim, S., Peppercorn, K., Tate, W. P., & Ábrahám, I. M. (2016). Treatment of beta amyloid 1-42 (Αβ1-42)-induced basal forebrain cholinergic damage by a non-classical estrogen signaling activator in vivo. Scientific Reports, 6, 21101. doi: 10.1038/srep21101

Ramsay, J. P., Tester, L. G. L., Major, A. S., Sullivan, J. T., Edgar, C. D., Kleffmann, T., … Tate, W. P., … Ronson, C. W. (2015). Ribosomal frameshifting and dual-target antiactivation restrict quorum-sensing-activated transfer of a mobile genetic element. PNAS, 112(3), 4104-4109. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1501574112

Mathew, S. F., Crowe-McAuliffe, C., Graves, R., Cardno, T. S., McKinney, C., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2015). The highly conserved codon following the Slippery Sequence Supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0122176. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122176

Cardno, T. S., Shimaki, Y., Sleebs, B. E., Lackovic, K., Parisot, J. P., Moss, R. M., Crowe-McAuliffe, C., Mathew, S. F., Edgar, C. D., Kleffmann, T., & Tate, W. P. (2015). HIV-1 and human PEG10 frameshift elements are functionally distinct and distinguished by novel small molecule modulators. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139036. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139036

Imhoff, F. M., Yang, D., Mathew, S. F., Clarkson, A. N., Kawagishi, Y., Tate, W. P., Koishi, K., & McLennan, I. S. (2013). The type 2 anti-Müllerian hormone receptor has splice variants that are dominant-negative inhibitors. FEBS Letters, 587(12), 1749-1753. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.04.014

Ryan, M. M., Morris, G. P., Mockett, B. G., Bourne, K., Abraham, W. C., Tate, W. P., & Williams, J. M. (2013). Time-dependent changes in gene expression induced by secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha in the rat hippocampus. BMC Genomics, 14, 376. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-376

Baratchi, S., Evans, J., Tate, W. P., Abraham, W. C., & Connor, B. (2012). Secreted amyloid precursor proteins promote proliferation and glial differentiation of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells. Hippocampus, 22(7), 1517-1527. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20988

Ryan, M. M., Ryan, B., Kyrke-Smith, M., Logan, B., Tate, W. P., Abraham, W. C., & Williams, J. M. (2012). Temporal profiling of gene networks associated with the late phase of long-term potentiation in vivo. PLoS ONE, 7(7), e40538. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040538

Bernhardt, H. S., & Tate, W. P. (2012). Primordial soup or vinaigrette: Did the RNA world evolve at acidic pH? Biology Direct, 7(4). doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-7-4

Ryan, M. M., Mason-Parker, S. E., Tate, W. P., Abraham, W. C., & Williams, J. M. (2011). Rapidly induced gene networks following induction of long-term potentiation at perforant path synapses in vivo. Hippocampus, 21(5), 541-553. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20770

Morgan, N. V., Goddard, S., Cardno, T. S., McDonald, D., Rahman, F., Barge, D., Ciupek, A., … Tate, W. P., … Maher, E. R. (2011). Mutation in the TCRα subunit constant gene (TRAC) leads to a human immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a lack of TCRαβ+ T cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 121(2), 695-702. doi: 10.1172/JCI41931

Young, D. J., Edgar, C. D., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2010). The codon specificity of eubacterial release factors is determined by the sequence and size of the recognition loop. RNA, 16, 1623-1633. doi: 10.1261/rna.2117010

Young, D. J., Edgar, C. D., Murphy, J., Fredebohm, J., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2010). Bioinformatic, structural, and functional analyses support release factor-like MTRF1 as a protein able to decode nonstandard stop codons beginning with adenine in vertebrate mitochondria. RNA, 16(6), 1146-1155. doi: 10.1261/rna.1970310

Bernhardt, H. S., & Tate, W. P. (2010). The transition from noncoded to coded protein synthesis: Did coding mRNAs arise from stability-enhancing binding partners to tRNA? Biology Direct, 5, 16. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-5-16

Jacobs, G. H., Chen, A., Stevens, S. G., Stockwell, P. A., Black, M. A., Tate, W. P., & Brown, C. M. (2009). Transterm: A database to aid the analysis of regulatory sequences in mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Research, 37(Database issue), D72-D76. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn763

Cardno, T. S., Poole, E. S., Mathew, S. F., Graves, R., & Tate, W. P. (2009). A homogeneous cell-based bicistronic fluorescence assay for high-throughput identification of drugs that perturb viral gene recoding and read-through of nonsense stop codons. RNA, 15(8), 1614-1621. doi: 10.1261/rna.1586709

Claasen, A. M., Guévremont, D., Mason-Parker, S. E., Bourne, K., Tate, W. P., Abraham, W. C., & Williams, J. M. (2009). Secreted amyloid precursor protein-α upregulates synaptic protein synthesis by a protein kinase G-dependent mechanism. Neuroscience Letters, 460, 92-96. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.05.040

Bernhardt, H. S., & Tate, W. P. (2008). Evidence from glycine transfer RNA of a frozen accident at the dawn of the genetic code. Biology Direct, 3, 53. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-53

Taylor, C. J., Ireland, D. R., Ballagh, I., Bourne, K., Marechal, N. M., Turner, P. R., Bilkey, D. K., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2008). Endogenous secreted amyloid precursor protein-α regulates hippocampal NMDA receptor function, long-term potentiation and spatial memory. Neurobiology of Disease, 31(2), 250-260. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2008.04.011

Bernhardt, H. S., & Tate, W. P. (2008). Self-assembling transfer RNA has potential for nanoparticle arrays. Current Applied Physics, 8(3-4), 380-382. doi: 10.1016/j.cap.2007.10.035

Poole, E. S., Young, D. J., Askarian-Amiri, M. E., Scarlett, D.-J. G., & Tate, W. P. (2007). Accommodating the bacterial decoding release factor as an alien protein among the RNAs at the active site of the ribosome. Cell Research, 17, 591-607.

Clark, M. B., Jänicke, M., Gottesbühren, U., Kleffmann, T., Legge, M., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2007). A mammalian gene PEG10 expresses two reading frames by high efficiency -1 frameshifting in embryonic-associated tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282(52), 37359-37369.

Soleimanpour-Lichaei, H. R., Kühl, I., Gaisne, M., Passos, J. F., Wydro, M., Rorbach, J., … Tate, W., … Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z. (2007). mtRF1a is a human mitochondrial translation release factor decoding the major termination codons UAA and UAG. Molecular Cell, 27, 745-757.

Williams, J. M., Guévremont, D., Mason-Parker, S. E., Luxmanan, C., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2007). Differential trafficking of AMPA and NMDA receptors during long-term potentiation in awake adult animals. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(51), 14171-14178.

Turner, P. R., Bourne, K., Garama, D., Carne, A., Abraham, W. C., & Tate, W. P. (2007). Production, purification and functional validation of human secreted amyloid precursor proteins for use as neuropharmacological reagents. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 164, 68-74.

Jacobs, G. H., Stockwell, P. A., Tate, W. P., & Brown, C. M. (2006). Transterm: Extended search facilities and improved integration with other databases. Nucleic Acids Research, 34(Database), D37-D40.

Cridge, A. G., Major, L. L., Mahagaonkar, A. A., Poole, E. S., Isaksson, L. A., & Tate, W. P. (2006). Comparison of characteristics and function of translation termination signals between and within prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Nucleic Acids Research, 34(7), 1959-1973. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl074

Tate, W. P., & Poole, E. S. (2004). The ribosome: Lifting the veil from a fascinating organelle. BioEssays, 26, 582-588.

Mockett, B. G., Brooks, W. M., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2004). Dopamine D1/D5 receptor activation fails to initiate an activity-independent late-phase LTP in rat hippocampus. Brain Research, 1021, 92-100.

Scarlett, D.-J. G., McCaughan, K. K., Wilson, D. N., & Tate, W. P. (2003). Mapping functionally important motifs SPF and GGQ of the decoding release factor RF2 to the Escherichia coli ribosome by hydroxyl radical footprinting. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278(17), 15095-15104.

Williams, J. M., Guévremont, D., Kennard, J. T. T., Mason-Parker, S. E., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2003). Long-term regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and associated synaptic proteins following hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Neuroscience, 118, 1003-1013.

Poole, E. S., Askarian-Amiri, M. E., Major, L. L., McCaughan, K. K., Scarlett, D.-J. G., Wilson, D. N., & Tate, W. P. (2003). Molecular mimicry in the decoding of translational stop signals. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research & Molecular Biology, 74, 83-121.

Turner, P. R., O'Connor, K., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2003). Roles of amyloid precursor protein and its fragments in regulating neural activity, plasticity and memory. Progress in Neurobiology, 70, 1-32.

Cridge, A. G., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2003). The signal for stop in protein synthesis in eukaryotes: Evidence for a sequence element rather than a simple stop codon. New Zealand BioScience, 12, 37-38.

Major, L. L., Edgar, C. D., Yip, P. Y., Isaksson, L. A., & Tate, W. P. (2002). Tandem termination signals: Myth or reality. FEBS Letters, 514, 84-89.

Jacobs, G. H., Rackham, O., Stockwell, P. A., Tate, W. P., & Brown, C. M. (2002). Transterm: a database of mRNAs and translational control elements. Nucleic Acids Research, 30, 310-311.

Abraham, W. C., Mason-Parker, S. E., Bear, M. F., Webb, S. C., & Tate, W. P. (2001). Heterosynaptic metaplasticity in the hippocampus in vivo: A BCM-like modifiable threshold for LTP. PNAS, 98, 10924-10929.

Stenstrom, M. C., Haining, J., Major, L. L., Tate, W. P., & Isaksson, L. A. (2001). Codon bias at the 3'-side of the initiation codon is correlated with translation initiation efficiency in Escherichia coli. Gene, 263, 273-284.

Mansell, J. B., Guevremont, D., Poole, E. S., & Tate, W. P. (2001). A dynamic competition between release factor 2 and the tRNASec decoding UGA at the recoding site of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase H. EMBO Journal, 20, 7284-7293.

Wilson, D. N., Guevremont, D., & Tate, W. P. (2000). The ribosomal binding and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis functions of Escherichia coli release factor 2 are linked through residue 246. RNA, 6, 1-10.

Poole, E., & Tate, W. (2000). Release factors and their role as decoding proteins: Specificity and fidelity for termination of protein synthesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Gene Structure & Expression, 1493, 1-11.

Askarian-Amiri, M. E., Pel, H. J., Guevremont, D., McCaughan, K. K., Poole, E. S., Sumpter, V. G., & Tate, W. P. (2000). Functional characterization of yeast mitochondrial release factor 1. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275, 17241-17248.

Jacobs, G. H., Stockwell, P. A., Schreiber, M. J., Tate, W. P., & Brown, C. M. (2000). Transterm: A database of messenger RNA components and signals. Nucleic Acids Research, 28, 293-295.

Williams, J. M., Beckmann, A. M., Mason-Parker, S. E., Abraham, W. C., Wilce, P. A., & Tate, W. P. (2000). Sequential increase in Egr-1 and AP-1 DNA binding activity in the dentate gyrus following the induction of long-term potentiation. Molecular Brain Research, 77, 258-266.

Wilson, D. N., Dalphin, M. E., Pel, H. J., Major, L. L., Mansell, J. B., & Tate, W. P. (2000). Factor-mediated termination of protein synthesis: A welcome return to the mainstream of translation. The Ribosome: Structure, Function, Antibiotics and Cellular Interactions, 40, 495-508. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press.

Raymond, C., Thompson, V. L., Tate, W. P., & Abraham, W. C. (2000). Metabotropic glutamate receptors trigger homosynaptic protein synthesis to prolong long-term potentiation. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 969-976.

Tate, W. P., Mansell, J. B., Mannering, S. A., Irvine, J., Major, L. L., & Wilson, D. N. (1999). UGA: A dual signal for "stop" and for recoding in protein synthesis. Biochemistry (Moscow), 64, 1342-1353.

Crawford, D.-J. G., Ito, K., Nakamura, Y., & Tate, W. P. (1999). Indirect regulation of translational termination efficiency at highly expressed genes and recoding sites by the factor recycling function of Escherichia coli release factor RF3. EMBO Journal, 18, 727-732.

Scrimshaw, B. J., Faed, J. M., Tate, W. P., & Yun, K. (1999). Rapid identification of a 1555 A to G mutation in human mitochronical DNA implicated in aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. Journal of Human Genetics, 44, 388-390.

Brown, C. M., Jacobs, G. H., Schreiber, M. J. J., Magnum, J., McNaughton, J. C., Cambray, M., Futschik, M., Major, L. L., Rackham, O., Tate, W. P., … Stockwell, P. A., & Kasabov, N. K. (1999). Using bioinformatics to investigate post-transcriptional control of gene expression. New Zealand BioScience, 7, 11-12.

Scrimshaw, B. J., Faed, J. M., Tate, W. P., & Yun, K. (1999). The frequency in New Zealand of a mitochondrial DNA mutation (1555 A to G) associated with aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. New Zealand Medical Journal, 112, 216-217.

Dalphin, M. E., Stockwell, P. A., Tate, W. P., & Brown, C. M. (1999). TransTerm, the translational signal database, extended to include full coding sequences and untranslated regions. Nucleic Acids Research, 27, 293-294.

Irvine, J., Horsfield, J. A., McKinney, C. Z., & Tate, W. P. (1998). A novel strategy to interfere with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 propagation. New Zealand Medical Journal, 111, 222-224.

Dalphin, M. E., Brown, C. M., Stockwell, P. A., & Tate, W. P. (1998). The translational signal database, TransTerm, is now a relational database. Nucleic Acids Research, 26, 335-337.

McCaughan, K. K., Poole, E. S., Pel, H. J., Mansell, J., Mannering, S. A., & Tate, W. P. (1998). Efficient in vitro translational termination in Escherichia coli is constrained by the orientations of the release factor, stop signal and peptidyl-tRNA within the termination complex. Biological Chemistry, 379(7), 857-866.

Poole, E. S., Major, L. L., Mannering, S. A., & Tate, W. P. (1998). Translational termination in Escherichia coli: three bases following the stop codon crosslink to release factor 2 and affect the decoding efficiency of UGA-containing signals. Nucleic Acids Research, 26, 954-960.

Pel, H. J., Moffat, J. G., Ito, K., Nakamura, Y., & Tate, W. P. (1998). Escherichia coli release factor 3: Resolving the paradox of a typical G protein structure and atypical function with guanine nucleotides. RNA, 4, 47-54.

Williams, J. M., Thompson, V. L., Mason-Parker, S. E., Abraham, W. C., & Tate, W. P. (1998). Synaptic activity-dependent modulation of mitochondrial gene expression in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain Research, 60, 50-56.

Williams, J. M., Mason-Parker, S. E., Abraham, W. C., & Tate, W. P. (1998). Biphasic changes in the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-2 subunits correlate with the induction and persistence of long-term potentiation. Molecular Brain Research, 60, 21-27.

Trotman, C. N. A., Coleman, M., Jellie, A.-M., Shieffelbien, D. C., & Tate, W. P. (1998). Haemoglobin: a primordial role preserved in diapause? Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 52, 441-449.

Dalphin, M. E., Brown, C. M., Stockwell, P. A., & Tate, W. P. (1997). The translational signal database, TransTerm: more organisms, complete genomes. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 246-247.

Abraham, W. C., Logan, B., Thompson, V. L., Williams, J. M., & Tate, W. P. (1997). Sequence-independent effects of phosphorothioated oligonucleotides on synaptic transmission and excitability in the hippocampus in vivo. Neuropharmacology, 36, 345-352.

Poole, E. S., Brimacombe, R., & Tate, W. P. (1997). Decoding the translational termination signal: the polypeptide chain release factor in Escherichia coli crosslinks to the base following the stop codon. RNA, 3, 974-982.

Abraham, W. C., & Tate, W. P. (1997). Metaplasticity: A new vista across the field of synaptic plasticity. Progress in Neurobiology, 52, 303-323.

Dalphin, M. E., Brown, C., Stockwell, P. A., & Tate, W. P. (1996). TransTerm: a database of translational signals. Nucleic Acids Research, 24, 216-218.

Tate, W. P., Poole, E., Dalphin, M. E., Major, L. L. M., Crawford, D.-J. G., & Mannering, S. A. (1996). The translational stop signal: Codon with a context, or extended factor recognition element? Biochimie, 78(11-12), 945-952.

Jellie, A. M., Tate, W. P., & Trotman, C. N. (1996). Evolutionary history of introns in a multi-domain globin gene. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 42, 641-647.

Major, L. L., Poole, E., Dalphin, M. E., Mannering, S. A., & Tate, W. P. (1996). Is the in frame termination signal of the Escherichia coli release factor-2 frameshift site weakened by a particularly poor context? Nucleic Acids Research, 24, 2673-2678.

Tate, W. P., & Mannering, S. A. (1996). Three, four or more: the translational stop signal at length. Molecular Microbiology, 21, 213-219.

Tate, W. P., Poole, E., & Mannering, S. A. (1996). Hidden infidelities of the translational stop signal. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research & Molecular Biology, 52, 293-336.

Tate, W. P., Poole, E. S., Horsfield, J. A., Mannering, S. A., Brown, C. M., Moffat, J. G., Dalphin, M. E., … Major, L. L., & Wilson, D. N. (1995). Translational termination efficiency in both bacteria and mammals is regulated by the base following the stop codon. Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 73, 1095-1103. doi: 10.1139/o95-118

Curran, J. F., Poole, E., Tate, W. P., & Gross, B. L. (1995). Selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs at sense codons: the size of the tRNA variable loop determines whether the immediate 3' nucleotide to the codon has a context effect. Nucleic Acids Research, 23, 4104-4108.

Tate, W. P. (1995). Genetic code revisited: a substratum of cellular regulation revealed. New Zealand BioScience, 3, 22-25.

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Journal - Research Other

Bernhardt, H. S., & Tate, W. P. (2006). Transfer RNA as a potential building block for nanotechnology. Chemistry in New Zealand, 70(1), 7-11.

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