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Profile

Professor Vernon Ward

PositionDean, School of Biomedical Sciences
DepartmentDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology
QualificationsBSc(Hons) PhD(Otago)
Research summaryViral pathogenesis, Molecular virology, Applied immunology, Host pathogen interactions

Research

Viruses are well known for their ability to cause disease, but the diversity of virus structure and replication offers many opportunities to exploit virus particles, their structure and their replication for beneficial purposes. My current research involves both the study of pathogenic viruses and the exploitation of virus properties for beneficial purposes.

For more detail see:
micro.otago.ac.nz/our-people/vernon-ward/

Publications

Lateef, Z., Gimenez, G., Baker, E. S., & Ward, V. K. (2017). Transcriptomic analysis of human norovirus NS1-2 protein highlights a multifunctional role in murine monocytes. BMC Genomics, 18, 39. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-3417-4

Nicholson, L. J., Mahar, J. E., Strive, T., Zheng, T., Holmes, E. C., Ward, V. K., & Duckworth, J. A. (2017). Discovery and characterization of a benign rabbit calicivirus in New Zealand. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1128/aem.00090-17

Donaldson, B., Al-Barwani, F., Pelham, S. J., Young, K., Ward, V. K., & Young, S. L. (2017). Multi-target chimaeric VLP as a therapeutic vaccine in a model of colorectal cancer. Journal of ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, 5, 69. doi: 10.1186/s40425-017-0270-1

Mahar, J. E., Nicholson, L., Eden, J.-S., Duchêne, S., Kerr, P. J., Duckworth, J., Ward, V. K., … Strive, T. (2016). Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives. Journal of Virology, 90(20), 9317-9329. doi: 10.1128/jvi.01212-16

Davies, C., & Ward, V. K. (2016). Expression of the NS5 (VPg) protein of murine norovirus induces a G1/S phase arrest. PLoS ONE, 11(8), e0161582. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161582

Chapter in Book - Research

Donaldson, B., Al-Barwani, F., Young, V., Scullion, S., Ward, V., & Young, S. (2015). Virus-like particles, a versatile subunit vaccine platform. In C. Foged, T. Rades, Y. Perrie & S. Hook (Eds.), Subunit vaccine delivery. (pp. 159-180). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1417-3

Dorrington, R. A., Gorbalenya, A. E., Gordon, K. H. J., Lauber, C., & Ward, V. K. (2012). Family Tetraviridae: Taxonomic structure of the family. In A. M. Q. King, M. J. Adams, E. B. Carstens & E. J. Lefkowitz (Eds.), Virus taxonomy: Classification and nomenclature of viruses: Ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (pp. 1091-1102). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Ward, V. K., Cooke, B. D., & Strive, T. (2010). Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus and other lagoviruses. In G. S. Hansman, X. J. Jiang & K. Y. Green (Eds.), Caliciviruses: Molecular and Cellular Virology. (pp. 223-246). Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Williams, T., & Ward, V. K. (2010). Iridoviruses. In S. Asgari & K. N. Johnson (Eds.), Insect virology. (pp. 123-151). Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic.

Hanzlik, T. N., Gordon, K. H. J., Gorbalenya, A. E., Hendry, D. A., Pringle, F. M., Ward, V. K., & Zeddam, J.-L. (2005). Family Tetraviridae: Taxonomic structure of the family. In C. M. Fauquet, M. A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger & L. A. Ball (Eds.), Virus taxonomy: Classification and nomenclature of viruses: Eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (pp. 873-883). San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Ward, V. K., Sneddon, K., Hyink, O., & Kalmakoff, J. (2002). Baculovirus genomics: A resource for biocontrol. In R. K. Upadhyay (Ed.), Advances in Microbial Control of Insect Pests. (pp. 127-144). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

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Journal - Research Article

Lateef, Z., Gimenez, G., Baker, E. S., & Ward, V. K. (2017). Transcriptomic analysis of human norovirus NS1-2 protein highlights a multifunctional role in murine monocytes. BMC Genomics, 18, 39. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-3417-4

Donaldson, B., Al-Barwani, F., Pelham, S. J., Young, K., Ward, V. K., & Young, S. L. (2017). Multi-target chimaeric VLP as a therapeutic vaccine in a model of colorectal cancer. Journal of ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, 5, 69. doi: 10.1186/s40425-017-0270-1

Nicholson, L. J., Mahar, J. E., Strive, T., Zheng, T., Holmes, E. C., Ward, V. K., & Duckworth, J. A. (2017). Discovery and characterization of a benign rabbit calicivirus in New Zealand. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1128/aem.00090-17

Mahar, J. E., Nicholson, L., Eden, J.-S., Duchêne, S., Kerr, P. J., Duckworth, J., Ward, V. K., … Strive, T. (2016). Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives. Journal of Virology, 90(20), 9317-9329. doi: 10.1128/jvi.01212-16

Davies, C., & Ward, V. K. (2016). Expression of the NS5 (VPg) protein of murine norovirus induces a G1/S phase arrest. PLoS ONE, 11(8), e0161582. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161582

Slatter, T. L., Wilson, M., Tang, C., Campbell, H. G., Ward, V. K., Young, V. L., … Fleming, N. I., Braithwaite, A. W., & Baird, M. A. (2016). Antitumor cytotoxicity induced by bone-marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells is facilitated by the tumor suppressor protein p53 via regulation of IL-12. OncoImmunology, 5(3), e1112941. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2015.1112941

Chiu, E., Hijnen, M., Bunker, R. D., Boudes, M., Rajendran, C., Aizel, K., … Young, V., Ward, V. K., … Coulibaly, F. (2015). Structural basis for the enhancement of virulence by viral spindles and their in vivo crystallization. PNAS, 112(13), 3973-3978. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418798112

Davies, C., Brown, C. M., Westphal, D., Ward, J. M., & Ward, V. K. (2015). Murine norovirus replication induces a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in asynchronous growing cells. Journal of Virology, 89(11), 6057-6066. doi: 10.1128/jvi.03673-14

Al-Barwani, F., Young, S. L., Baird, M. A., Larsen, D. S., & Ward, V. K. (2014). Mannosylation of virus-like particles enhances internalization by antigen presenting cells. PLoS ONE, 9(8), e104523. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104523

Waugh, E., Chen, A., Baird, M. A., Brown, C. M., & Ward, V. K. (2014). Characterization of the chemokine response of RAW264.7 cells to infection by murine norovirus. Virus Research, 181, 27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.12.025

Herod, M. R., Prince, C. A., Skilton, R. J., Ward, V. K., Cooper, J. B., & Clarke, I. N. (2014). Structure-based design and functional studies of novel noroviral 3C protease chimaeras offer insights into substrate specificity. Biochemical Journal, 464, 461-472. doi: 10.1042/BJ20140959

Herod, M. R., Salim, O., Skilton, R. J., Prince, C. A., Ward, V. K., Lambden, P. R., & Clarke, I. N. (2014). Expression of the murine norovirus (MNV) ORF1 polyprotein is sufficient to induce apoptosis in a virus-free cell model. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e90679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090679

Sirotkin, S., Mermet, A., Bergoin, M., Ward, V., & Van Etten, J. L. (2014). Viruses as nanoparticles: Structure versus collective dynamics. Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, & Soft Matter Physics, 90(2-1), 022718. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.022718

Al Barwani, F., Donaldson, B., Pelham, S. J., Young, S. L., & Ward, V. K. (2014). Antigen delivery by virus-like particles for immunotherapeutic vaccination. Therapeutic Delivery, 5(11), 1223-1240. doi: 10.4155/TDE.14.74

Li, K., Peers-Adams, A., Win, S. J., Scullion, S., Wilson, M., Young, V. L., Jennings, P., Ward, V. K., Baird, M. A., & Young, S. L. (2013). Antigen incorporated in virus-like particles is delivered to specific dendritic cell subsets that induce an effective antitumor immune response in vivo. Journal of Immunotherapy, 36(1), 11-19. doi: 10.1097/CJI.0b013e3182787f5e

Jemon, K., Young, V., Wilson, M., McKee, S., Ward, V., Baird, M., Young, S., & Hibma, M. (2013). An enhanced heterologous virus-like particle for human papillomavirus type 16 tumour immunotherapy. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e66866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066866

Baker, E. S., Luckner, S. R., Krause, K. L., Lambden, P. R., Clarke, I. N., & Ward, V. K. (2012). Inherent structural disorder and dimerisation of murine norovirus NS1-2 protein. PLoS ONE, 7(2), e30534. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030534

McKee, S. J., Young, V. L., Clow, F., Hayman, C. M., Baird, M. A., Hermans, I. F., Young, S. L., & Ward, V. K. (2012). Virus-like particles and α-galactosylceramide form a self-adjuvanting composite particle that elicits anti-tumor responses. Journal of Controlled Release, 159(3), 338-345. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.02.015

Win, S. J., McMillan, D. G. G., Errington-Mais, F., Ward, V. K., Young, S. L., Baird, M. A., & Melcher, A. A. (2012). Enhancing the immunogenicity of tumour lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccines by conjugation to virus-like particles. British Journal of Cancer, 106, 92-98. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2011.538

Win, S. J., Ward, V. K., Dunbar, P. R., Young, S. L., & Baird, M. A. (2011). Cross-presentation of epitopes on virus-like particles via the MHC I receptor recycling pathway. Immunology & Cell Biology, 89, 681-688. doi: 10.1038/icb.2010.161

Wong, C. K., Young, V. L., Kleffmann, T., & Ward, V. K. (2011). Genomic and proteomic analysis of invertebrate iridovirus type 9. Journal of Virology, 85(15), 7900-7911. doi: 10.1128/jvi.00645-11

Zeddam, J.-L., Gordon, K. H. J., Lauber, C., Felipe Alves, C. A., Luke, B. T., Hanzlik, T. N., Ward, V. K., & Gorbalenya, A. E. (2010). Euprosterna elaeasa virus genome sequence and evolution of the Tetraviridae family: Emergence of bipartite genomes and conservation of the VPg signal with the dsRNA Birnaviridae family. Virology, 397(1), 145-154. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.10.042

Katpally, U., Voss, N. R., Cavazza, T., Taube, S., Rubin, J. R., Young, V. L., … Ward, V. K., … Smith, T. J. (2010). High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of murine norovirus 1 and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus reveal marked flexibility in the receptor binding domains. Journal of Virology, 84(11), 5836-5841. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00314-10

Markwick, N. P., Glare, T. R., Hauxwell, C., Li, Z., Poulton, J., Ward, J. M., Young, V. L., & Ward, V. K. (2010). The infectivity and host range of Orgyia anartoides nucleopolyhedrovirus. Journal of Applied Entomology, 134(1), 61-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2009.01443.x

Young, V. L., Sneddon, K. M. B., & Ward, V. K. (2010). Establishment of a neonate cell line from Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) that supports replication of E. postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 104, 147-149. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2010.02.004

Gatehouse, H. S., Poulton, J., Markwick, N. P., Gatehouse, L. N., Ward, V. K., Young, V. L., … Christeller, J. T. (2009). Changes in gene expression in the permissive larval host lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, Tortricidae) in response to EppoNPV (Baculoviridae) infection. Insect Molecular Biology, 18(5), 635-648. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2009.00904.x

Coulibaly, F., Chiu, E., Gutmann, S., Rajendran, C., Haebel, P. W., Ikeda, K., … Ward, V. K., … Metcalf, P. (2009). The atomic structure of baculovirus polyhedra reveals the independent emergence of infectious crystals in DNA and RNA viruses. PNAS, 106(52), 22205-22210. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910686106

Gatehouse, L. N., Markwick, N. P., Poulton, J., Young, V. L., Ward, V. K., & Christeller, J. T. (2008). Expression of two heterologous proteins depends on the mode of expression: Comparison of in vivo and in vitro methods. Bioprocess & Biosystems Engineering, 31(5), 469-475. doi: 10.1007/s00449-007-0184-2

Wilson, S., Baird, M., & Ward, V. K. (2008). Delivery of vaccine peptides by rapid conjugation to baculovirus particles. Vaccine, 26, 2451-2456. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.027

Hartschuh, R. D., Wargacki, S. P., Xiong, H., Neiswinger, J., Kisliuk, A., Sihn, S., Ward, V., … Sokolov, A. P. (2008). How rigid are viruses. Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, & Soft Matter Physics, 78(2), 021907. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.021907

Peacey, M., Wilson, S., Perret, R., Ronchese, F., Ward, V. K., Young, V., Young, S. L., & Baird, M. A. (2008). Virus-like particles from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus can induce an anti-tumor response. Vaccine, 26, 5334-5337. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.074

Gatehouse, H. S., Markwick, N. P., Poulton, J., Ward, V. K., Young, V., Wilson, S., Dellow, R., Sneddon, K., … Christeller, J. T. (2007). Effects of EppoNPV infection on gene expression in Epiphyas postvittana larvae. New Zealand Plant Protection, 60, 33-41.

Snell, A. E., Graves, S., Kane, R., Ward, V., Slaney, D., Mercer, A., … Weinstein, P. (2007). Pilot testing a genus wide PCR-based system for arbovirus detection in mosquitoes in New Zealand. Weta, 33, 6-13.

Peacey, M., Wilson, S., Baird, M. A., & Ward, V. K. (2007). Versatile RHDV virus-like particles: Incorporation of antigens by genetic modification and chemical conjugation. Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 98(5), 968-977.

Ward, V. K., McCormick, C. J., Clarke, I. N., Salim, O., Wobus, C. E., Thackray, L. B., … Lambden, P. R. (2007). Recovery of infectious murine norovirus using pol II-driven expression of full-length cDNA. PNAS, 104(26), 11050-11055.

Poulton, J., Markwick, N. P., Ward, V. K., & Young, V. (2007). Host range testing of a nucleopolyhedrovirus of the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana. New Zealand Plant Protection, 60, 26-32.

Barratt, B. I. P., Murney, R., Easingwood, R., & Ward, V. K. (2006). Virus-like particles in the ovaries of Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Comparison of biotypes from Morocco and Europe. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 91, 13-18.

Juhl, S. B., Chan, E. P., Ha, Y.-H., Maldovan, M., Brunton, J., Ward, V., … Kalmakoff, J., … Vaia, R. A. (2006). Assembly of Wiseana iridovirus: Viruses for colloidal photonic crystals. Advanced Functional Materials, 16(8), 1086-1094.

Young, S. L., Wilson, M., Wilson, S., Beagley, K. W., Ward, V., & Baird, M. A. (2006). Transcutaneous vaccination with virus-like particles. Vaccine, 24, 5406-5412. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.052

Radloff, C., Vaia, R. A., Brunton, J., Bouwer, G. T., & Ward, V. K. (2005). Metal nanoshell assembly on a virus bioscaffold. Nano Letters, 5(6), 1187-1191.

Young, V. L., Simpson, R. M., & Ward, V. K. (2005). Characterization of an exochitinase from Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus (family Baculoviridae). Journal of General Virology, 86, 3253-3261.

Young, S. L., Buchan, G. S., Slobbe, L. J., Williman, J. A., Wilson, M., Ward, V. K., … Baird, M. A. (2004). Novel vaccine formulations to enhance type 1 immune responses. Immunology, 555-563.

Humphries, M., Mustard, J. A., Hunter, S. J., Mercer, A. R., Ward, V. K., & Ebert, P. R. (2003). Invertebrate D2 type dopamine receptor exhibits age-based plasticity of expression in the mushroom bodies of the honeybee brain. Journal of Neurobiology, 55, 315-330.

Khan, S., Sneddon, K. M. B., Fielding, B., Ward, V. K., & Davison, S. (2003). Functional characterization of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase gene of Helicoverpa armigera single-enveloped nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated in South Africa. Virus Genes, 27(1), 17-27.

Mustard, J. A., Blenau, W., Hamilton, I. S., Ward, V. K., Ebert, P. R., & Mercer, A. R. (2003). Analysis of two D1-like dopamine receptors from the honey bee Apis mellifera reveals agonist-independent activity. Molecular Brain Research, 113, 67-77.

Markwick, N. P., Graves, S., Fairbairn, F., Docherty, L. C., Poulton, J., & Ward, V. K. (2002). Infectivity of Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus for New Zealand leafrollers. Biological Control, 25, 207-214.

Gorbalenya, A. E., Pringle, F. M., Zeddam, J.-L., Luke, B. T., Cameron, C. E., Kalmakoff, J., … Ward, V. K. (2002). The palm subdomain-based active site is internally permuted in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of an ancient lineage. Journal of Molecular Biology, 324, 47-62.

Hyink, O., Dellow, R., Olsen, M., Caradoc-Davies, K. M. B., Drake, K., Herniou, E. A., … Ward, V. K. (2002). Whole genome analysis of the Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus. Journal of General Virology, 83, 957-971.

Pringle, F. M., Kalmakoff, J., & Ward, V. K. (2001). Analysis of the capsid processing strategy of Thosea asigna virus using baculovirus expression of virus-like particles. Journal of General Virology, 82, 259-266.

Brooks, H. J. L., Mollison, B. D., Bettelheim, K. A., Matejka, K., Paterson, K. A., & Ward, V. K. (2001). Occurrence and virulence factors of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in retail meat in Dunedin, New Zealand. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 32(2), 118-122. doi: 10.1046/j.1472-765x.2001.00868.x

Caradoc-Davies, K. M. B., Graves, S., O'Reilly, D. R., Evans, O. P., & Ward, V. K. (2001). Identificatioon and in vivo characterization of the Epiphyas postvittana Nucleopolyhedrovirus Ecdysteroid UDP-Glucosyltransferase. Virus Genes, 22(3), 255-264.

Van Meer, M. M. M., Bonning, B. C., Ward, V. K., Vlak, J. M., & Hammock, B. D. (2000). Recombinant, catalytically inactive juvenile hormone esterase enhances efficacy of baculovirus insecticides. Biological Control, 19, 191-199.

Sadler, A. J., Glare, T. R., Ward, V. K., & Kalmakoff, J. (2000). Physical and genetic map of the Wiseana nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. Journal of General Virology, 81, 1127-1133.

Maguire, T., Harrison, P., Hyink, O., Kalmakoff, J., & Ward, V. K. (2000). The inhibitors of apoptosis of Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus. Journal of General Virology, 81, 2803-2811.

Pringle, F. M., Kalmakoff, J., & Ward, V. K. (1999). A novel capsid expression strategy for Thosea asigna virus, a member of the Tetraviridae. Journal of General Virology, 80, 1855-1863.

Walsh, P. J., Glare, T. R., Nelson, T., Sadler, A. J., & Ward, V. K. (1999). Virulence of nucleopolyhedroviruses from Orgyia pseudotsugata and Orgyia leucostigma (Lep., Lymantriidae) for early instars of the white-spotted tussock moth, Orgyia thyellina. Journal of Applied Entomology, 123, 375-379.

Sadler, T. J., Ward, V. K., Glare, T. R., & Kalmakoff, J. (1998). Examination of New Zealand's endemic Wiseana nucleopolyhedrovirus by analysis of the viral polyhedrin gene. Archives of Virology, 143, 2273-2288.

Hyink, O., Graves, S., Fairburn, F. M., & Ward, V. K. (1998). Mapping and polyhedrin gene analysis of the Epiphyas postvittana nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. Journal of General Virology, 78, 2853-2862.

Bonning, B. C., Ward, V. K., Van Meer, M. M. M., Booth, T. F., & Hammock, B. D. (1997). Disruption of lysosomal targeting is associated with insecticidal potency of juvenile hormone esterase. PNAS, 94(12), 6007-6012.

Kreissig, S. B., Ward, V. K., Hammock, B. D., & Choudary, P. V. (1995). Nucleotide sequence of the variable region of the heavy and light chains of a monoclonal IgG antibody reactive to herbicides, terbutryn and prometryn. DNA Sequence, 61, 51-54.

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