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CARE Profile

Professor Tim Stokes

PositionHead of Department
DepartmentDepartment of General Practice and Rural Health (DSM)
QualificationsMA MB ChB MPH PhD FRCP FRCGP FRNZCGP
Research summaryHealth care delivery and implementation research
Memberships
  • Editorial Board, Implementation Science
  • Member, Pharmacology and Therapeutics Advisory Committee, PHARMAC
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Group, New Zealand Heart Foundation

Research

Tim Stokes is Elaine Gurr Professor of General Practice in the Department of General Practice and Rural Health (DSM), Co-Director of the Centre for Health Systems and Technology, and a part-time GP in Dunedin.

He was Senior Clinical Lecturer in Primary Care, University of Birmingham 2013–2014; Consultant Clinical Adviser, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), a Visiting Professor at the Universities of Leicester and Leeds 2006–2013, and Lecturer / Senior Lecturer in General Practice, University of Leicester, UK 1997-2006.

Tim conducts Health Care Delivery and Implementation Research—both primary research and evidence synthesis—using a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. He is interested in:

  • new ways of delivering health services for acute and chronic clinical conditions in primary care and across the primary/community—secondary care interface and
  • the adoption of research evidence into routine practice, including the development and use of clinical practice guidelines, standards and performance measures, and how these tools can be used to promote better care within local and national health care systems

A key methodological interest is in understanding and promoting how research findings become embedded in routine health care in clinical, organisational, and policy contexts. Crucial to this work is the need to use theory drawn from the social sciences to better develop quality improvement interventions, optimise their design, identify aspects of context necessary for their success, and enhance learning from such initiatives.

Current national New Zealand funded research projects as Principal Investigator are delivering better care for people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (HRC Research Partnerships for New Zealand Health Delivery), and assessing the fairness of decision making in the New Zealand health sector (Lotteries Health). He is an international collaborator on the ASPIRE (Action to Support Practices Implementing Research Evidence) UK National Institute for Health Research Programme Grant for Applied Research, led by Professor Robbie Foy at the University of Leeds.

Publications

Stokes, T., Tumilty, E., Doolan-Noble, F., & Gauld, R. (2017). Multimorbidity, clinical decision making and health care delivery in New Zealand primary care: A qualitative study. BMC Family Practice, 18, 51. doi: 10.1186/s12875-017-0622-4

Imamura, M., Kanguru, L., Penfold, S., Stokes, T., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Shaw, B., & Hussein, J. (2017). A systematic review of implementation strategies to deliver guidelines on obstetric care practice in low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 136(1), 19-28. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12005

Willis, T. A., West, R., Rushforth, B., Stokes, T., Glidewell, L., Carder, P., … on behalf of the ASPIRE programme team. (2017). Variations in achievement of evidence-based, high-impact quality indicators in general practice: An observational study. PLoS ONE, 12(7), e0177949. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177949

Johnson, R., Ansley, P., Doolan-Noble, F., Turley, E., & Stokes, T. (2017). Breastfeeding peer support in rural New Zealand: The views of peer supporters. Journal of Primary Health Care, 9(2), 173-177. doi: 10.1071/HC16027

Braddick, L., Tuckey, V., Abbas, Z., Lissauer, D., Ismail, K., Manaseki-Holland, S., … Stokes, T. (2016). A mixed-methods study of barriers and facilitators to the implementation of postpartum hemorrhage guidelines in Uganda. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 132(1), 89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.047

Journal - Research Article

Stokes, T., Tumilty, E., Doolan-Noble, F., & Gauld, R. (2017). Multimorbidity, clinical decision making and health care delivery in New Zealand primary care: A qualitative study. BMC Family Practice, 18, 51. doi: 10.1186/s12875-017-0622-4

Johnson, R., Ansley, P., Doolan-Noble, F., Turley, E., & Stokes, T. (2017). Breastfeeding peer support in rural New Zealand: The views of peer supporters. Journal of Primary Health Care, 9(2), 173-177. doi: 10.1071/HC16027

Willis, T. A., West, R., Rushforth, B., Stokes, T., Glidewell, L., Carder, P., … on behalf of the ASPIRE programme team. (2017). Variations in achievement of evidence-based, high-impact quality indicators in general practice: An observational study. PLoS ONE, 12(7), e0177949. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177949

Imamura, M., Kanguru, L., Penfold, S., Stokes, T., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Shaw, B., & Hussein, J. (2017). A systematic review of implementation strategies to deliver guidelines on obstetric care practice in low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 136(1), 19-28. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12005

Braddick, L., Tuckey, V., Abbas, Z., Lissauer, D., Ismail, K., Manaseki-Holland, S., … Stokes, T. (2016). A mixed-methods study of barriers and facilitators to the implementation of postpartum hemorrhage guidelines in Uganda. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 132(1), 89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.047

Stokes, T., Shaw, E. J., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Imamura, M., Kanguru, L., & Hussein, J. (2016). Barriers and enablers to guideline implementation strategies to improve obstetric care practice in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Implementation Science, 11, 144. doi: 10.1186/s13012-016-0508-1

Moore, J., Stokes, T., & Gray, B. (2016). The New Zealand Coroners Amendment Bill's proposed approach to health care-related deaths that are reportable to the coroner. Journal of Law & Medicine, 23, 557-570.

Baker, R., Honeyford, K., Levene, L. S., Mainous, III, A. G., Jones, D. R., Bankart, M. J., & Stokes, T. (2016). Population characteristics, mechanisms of primary care and premature mortality in England: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 6, e009981. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009981

Nothacker, M., Stokes, T., Shaw, B., Lindsay, P., Sipilä, R., Follmann, M., … on behalf of the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) Performance Measures Working Group. (2016). Reporting standards for guideline-based performance measures. Implementation Science, 11, 6. doi: 10.1186/s13012-015-0369-z

Graham, T., Alderson, P., & Stokes, T. (2015). Managing conflicts of interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guidelines Programme: Qualitative study. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0122313. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122313

Irwin, R., Stokes, T., & Marshall, T. (2015). Practice-level quality improvement interventions in primary care: A review of systematic reviews. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 16, 556-577. doi: 10.1017/S1463423615000274

Rushforth, B., Stokes, T., Andrews, E., Willis, T. A., McEachan, R., Faulkner, S., & Foy, R. (2015). Developing 'high impact' guideline-based quality indicators for UK primary care: A multi-stage consensus process. BMC Family Practice, 16, 156. doi: 10.1186/s12875-015-0350-6

Steel, N., Abdelhamid, A., Stokes, T., Edwards, H., Fleetcroft, R., Howe, A., & Qureshi, N. (2014). A review of clinical practice guidelines found that they were often based on evidence of uncertain relevance to primary care patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(11), 1251-1257. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.05.020

Abdelhamid, A., Howe, A., Stokes, T., Qureshi, N., & Steel, N. (2014). Primary care evidence in clinical guidelines: A mixed methods study of practitioners' views. British Journal of General Practice, 64(628), e719-e727. doi: 10.3399/bjgp14X682309

Ziebland, S., Locock, L., Fitzpatrick, R., Stokes, T., Robert, G., O'Flynn, N., … Martin, A. (2014). Informing the development on NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) quality standards through secondary analysis of qualitative narrative interviews on patients' experiences. Health Services & Delivery Research, 2, 45. doi: 10.3310/hsdr02450

Shaw, E. J., Sutcliffe, D., Lacey, T., & Stokes, T. (2013). Assessing depression severity using the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework depression indicators: A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice, 63(610), e309-e317. doi: 10.3399/bjgp13X667169

Tarrant, C., Dixon-Woods, M., Colman, A. M., & Stokes, T. (2010). Continuity and trust in primary care: A qualitative study informed by game theory. Annals of Family Medicine, 8(5), 440-446. doi: 10.1370/afm.1160

Tarrant, C., Colman, A. M., & Stokes, T. (2008). Past experience, 'shadow of the future', and patient trust: A cross-sectional survey. British Journal of General Practice, 58(556), 780-783. doi: 10.3399/bjgp08X342615

Shaw, E. J., Stokes, T., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Baker, R., Baker, G. A., & Jacoby, A. (2007). Self-management education for adults with epilepsy (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD004723. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004723.pub2

Stokes, T., Shaw, E. J., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Baker, R., Baker, G. A., & Jacoby, A. (2007). Self-management education for children with epilepsy (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD004724. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004724.pub2

Redsell, S., Stokes, T., Jackson, C., Hastings, A., & Baker, R. (2007). Patients' accounts of the differences in nurses' and general practitioners' roles in primary care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(2), 172-180. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04085.x

Stokes, T., Dixon-Woods, M., & Williams, S. (2006). Breaking the ceremonial order: Patients' and doctors' accounts of removal from a general practitioner's list. Sociology of Health & Illness, 28(5), 611-636. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2006.00509.x

Juarez-Garcia, A., Stokes, T., Shaw, B., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., & Baker, R. (2006). The costs of epilepsy misdiagnosis in England and Wales. Seizure, 15(8), 598-605. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2006.08.005

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Journal - Research Other

Farquhar, C., Stokes, T., Grey, A., Jeffery, M., & Griffin, P. (2015). Let the sunshine in: Making industry payments to New Zealand doctors transparent. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1411). Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Stokes, T., & Steel, N. (2014). NICE's role in further developing the Quality and Outcomes Framework is in question. BMJ, 348, g2720. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g2720

Stokes, T. (2013). NICE quality standards: Improving healthcare quality in the English NHS? Quality in Primary Care, 21(4), 207-209. [Editorial].

Sutcliffe, D., Lester, H., Hutton, J., & Stokes, T. (2012). NICE and the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) 2009-2011 [Discussion paper]. Quality in Primary Care, 20(1), 47-55.

Pollard, A. J., Thompson, M., & Stokes, T. (2011). Response from NICE [Letter]. British Journal of General Practice, 61(591), 606-607. doi: 10.3399/bjgp11X601262

Stokes, T., Macbeth, F., & Littlejohns, P. (2011). NICE calls for a register [Letter]. BMJ, 342, d633. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d633

Stokes, T., Bent, N., & Sutcliffe, D. (2010). QOF [Letter]. British Journal of General Practice, 60(580), 853. doi: 10.3399/bjgp10X538967

Richey, R., Howdle, P., Shaw, E., & Stokes, T. (2009). Recognition and assessment of coeliac disease in children and adults: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 338, b1684. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b1684

Richey, R., Howdle, P., Shaw, E., & Stokes, T. (2009). Erkennung und Beurteilung der Zöliakie bei Kindern und Erwachsenen: Zusammenfassung der NICE-Leitlinien [Recognition and assessment of coeliac disease in children and adults: Summary of NICE guidance]. Praxis, 98(21), 1233-1235. doi: 10.1024/1661-8157.98.21.1233

Adler, A. I., Shaw, E. J., Stokes, T., & Ruiz, F. (2009). Neuere substanzen zur blutzuckereinstellung bei typ-2-diabetes: Zusammenfassung der NICE-leitlinien [Newer agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes: Summary of NICE guidance]. Praxis, 98(20), 1161-1163. doi: 10.1024/1661-8157.98.20.1161

Adler, A. I., Shaw, E. J., & Stokes, T. (2009). Newer agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 338, b1668. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b1668

Wray, D., Ruiz, F., Richey, R., & Stokes, T. (2008). Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis for dental procedures: Summary of the NICE guideline. British Dental Journal, 204, 555-557. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.404

Richey, R., Wray, D., Stokes, T., on behalf of the Guideline Development Group. (2008). Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 336, 770-771. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39510.423148.AD

Tan, T., Little, P., & Stokes, T. (2008). Antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections in primary care: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 337, a437. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a437

Armitage, M., Eddleston, J., Stokes, T., on behalf of the Guideline Development Group. (2007). Recognising and responding to acute illness in adults in hospital: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 335(7613), 258-259. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39272.679688.47

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