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Professor Martin Kennedy

Martin KennedyHead of Department of Pathology
Director, Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics
Laboratory Director, Gene Structure and Function Laboratory

BSc(Hons)(Cant), PhD(Auck)

Email martin.kennedy@otago.ac.nz
Tel 64 3 364 0590

Research interests

Professor Martin Kennedy's main research interests are psychiatric genetics, pharmacogenomics, and the genetics of complex disease.

His current research largely focuses on pharmacogenomics, which aims to understand how drugs and genes interact with the goal of improving drug treatments and reducing adverse drug reactions. For example, analysis of genetic variation in genes such as those that encode drug metabolising liver enzymes like CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, is helping to determine genetic factors that impact on response to treatments for various diseases.

For a more comprehensive analysis of genetic factors impacting drug response or risks of adverse drug reactions, they are also applying Next Generation DNA sequencing methods including exome sequencing and other genomic approaches to explore drug response phenotypes.

In order to understand severe adverse drug reactions, his lab has developed a biobank for collecting biological samples of people who have suffered such reactions, called UDRUGS. This biobank is growing, and will enhance efforts to understand genetic factors that contribute to severe adverse drug reactions.

Other research interests include work with the Christchurch Health and Development Study looking at genetic contributions to a range of complex human traits, and a study focusing on the genetics of anorexia nervosa. 

In addition, Martin's laboratory is examining the impact of G-quadruplex DNA structures and their relevance to genomic imprinting and other aspects of genome biology.

Education

Professor Kennedy obtained his BSc(Hons) at University of Canterbury, and his PhD in bacterial genetics at the University of Auckland, and carried out postdoctoral research in leukaemia genetics at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (UK) before returning to University of Otago, Christchurch in 1991.

In the media

Professor Martin Kennedy was interviewed for Radio New Zealand's Our Changing World series in May 2013.

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Publications

Chua, E. W., Maggo, S., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Long fragment polymerase chain reaction. In L. Domingues (Ed.), PCR: Methods in molecular biology (Vol. 1620). (pp. 65-74). New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7060-5_3

Stevens, A. J., Taylor, M. G., Pearce, F. G., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Allelic dropout during polymerase chain reaction due to G-quadruplex structures and DNA methylation is widespread at imprinted human loci. Genes Genomes Genetics, 7(3), 1019-1025. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.038687

Duncan, L., Yilmaz, Z., Gaspar, H., Walters, R., Goldstein, J., Anttila, V., … Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, including Jordan, J., Kennedy, M., … Bulik, C. M. (2017). Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(9), 850-858. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16121402

Adehin, A., Bolaji, O. O., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Polymorphisms in CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes in the Nigerian population. Drug Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics, 32(3), 189-191. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2016.09.001

Bagshaw, A. T. M., Horwood, L. J., Fergusson, D. M., Gemmell, N. J., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Microsatellite polymorphisms associated with human behavioural and psychological phenotypes including a gene-environment interaction. BMC Medical Genetics, 18, 12. doi: 10.1186/s12881-017-0374-y

Chapter in Book - Research

Chua, E. W., Maggo, S., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Long fragment polymerase chain reaction. In L. Domingues (Ed.), PCR: Methods in molecular biology (Vol. 1620). (pp. 65-74). New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7060-5_3

Kennedy, M. A., Rogers, G. R., & Joyce, P. R. (2004). Pharmacogenetics of antidepressants and mood stabilisers. In P. R. Joyce & P. B. Mitchell (Eds.), Mood disorders: Recognition and treatment. (pp. 223-237). Sydney, Australia: The University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Kennedy, M. A. (2000). Mendelian Genetic Disorders. In The Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. London: Nature Publishing Group.

Kennedy, M. A. (1996). Internet resources for human and mouse molecular genetics. In S. R. Swindell, R. Miller & G. S. A. Myers (Eds.), Internet for the Molecular Biologist. (pp. 123-149). Norfolk: Horizon Scientific Press.

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Chapter in Book - Other

Kennedy, M., Joyce, P., & Begg, E. (2013). Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics. In P. Joyce, G. Nicholls, K. Thomas & T. Wilkinson (Eds.), The Christchurch experience: 40 years of research and teaching. (pp. 100-104). Christchurch, New Zealand: University of Otago.

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Journal - Research Article

Stevens, A. J., Taylor, M. G., Pearce, F. G., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Allelic dropout during polymerase chain reaction due to G-quadruplex structures and DNA methylation is widespread at imprinted human loci. Genes Genomes Genetics, 7(3), 1019-1025. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.038687

Bagshaw, A. T. M., Horwood, L. J., Fergusson, D. M., Gemmell, N. J., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Microsatellite polymorphisms associated with human behavioural and psychological phenotypes including a gene-environment interaction. BMC Medical Genetics, 18, 12. doi: 10.1186/s12881-017-0374-y

Adehin, A., Bolaji, O. O., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Polymorphisms in CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes in the Nigerian population. Drug Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics, 32(3), 189-191. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2016.09.001

Duncan, L., Yilmaz, Z., Gaspar, H., Walters, R., Goldstein, J., Anttila, V., … Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, including Jordan, J., Kennedy, M., … Bulik, C. M. (2017). Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(9), 850-858. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16121402

Stevens, A. J., Rucklidge, J. J., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Epigenetics, nutrition and mental health: Is there a relationship? Nutritional Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/1028415x.2017.1331524

Stevens, A. J., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Structural analysis of G-quadruplex formation at the human MEST promoter. PLoS ONE, 12(1), e0169433. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169433

Adehin, A., Bolaji, O. O., Maggo, S., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Relationship between metabolic phenotypes and genotypes of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 in the Nigerian population. Drug Metabolism & Personalized Therapy, 32(1), 39-47. doi: 10.1515/dmpt-2016-0041

Kirk, K. M., Martin, F. C., Mao, A., Parker, R., Maguire, S., Thornton, L. M., … Jordan, J., Kennedy, M. A., … Martin, N. G. (2017). The Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative: Study description and sample characteristics of the Australian and New Zealand arm. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0004867417700731

Shchepetkina, A. A., Hock, B. D., Miller, A., Kennedy, M. A., & Gieseg, S. P. (2017). Effect of 7,8-dihydroneopterin mediated CD36 down regulation and oxidant scavenging on oxidised low-density lipoprotein induced cell death in human macrophages. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2017.03.017

Appleby, S., Pearson, J. F., Aitchison, A., Spittlehouse, J. K., Joyce, P. R., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Mean telomere length is not associated with current health status in a 50-year-old population sample. American Journal of Human Biology, 29(1), e22906. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.22906

Culverhouse, R. C., Saccone, N. L., Horton, A. C., Ma, Y., Anstey, K. J., Banaschewski, T., … Horwood, J., … Fergusson, D. M., … Kennedy, M., … Bierut, L. J. (2017). Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the development of depression. Molecular Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.44

Stevens, A. J., & Kennedy, M. A. (2017). Methylated cytosine maintains G-quadruplex structures during polymerase chain reaction and contributes to allelic dropout. Biochemistry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00480

Cree, S. L., Fredericks, R., Miller, A., Pearce, F. G., Filichev, V., Fee, C., & Kennedy, M. A. (2016). DNA G-quadruplexes show strong interaction with DNA methyl transferases in vitro. FEBS Letters, 590(17), 2870-2883. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.12331

Adehin, A., Bolaji, O. O., Kennedy, M. A., & Adeagbo, B. A. (2016). Allele frequencies of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) variants in the Nigerian population. Polish Annals of Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.poamed.2016.06.007

Chua, E. W., Cree, S. L., Ton, K. N. T., Lehnert, K., Shepherd, P., Helsby, N., & Kennedy, M. A. (2016). Cross-comparison of exome analysis, next-generation sequencing of amplicons, and the iPLEX® ADME PGx Panel for pharmacogenomic profiling. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7, 1. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00001

Osborne, A. J., Negro, S. S., Chilvers, B. L., Robertson, B. C., Kennedy, M. A., & Gemmell, N. J. (2016). Genetic evidence of a population bottleneck and inbreeding in the endangered New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri. Journal of Heredity, 107(5), 392-402. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esw015

Maggo, S. D. S., Savage, R. L., & Kennedy, M. A. (2016). Impact of new genomic technologies on understanding adverse drug reactions. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 55, 419-436. doi: 10.1007/s40262-015-0324-9

Stevens, A. J., Kennedy, H. L., & Kennedy, M. A. (2016). Fluorescence methods for probing G-quadruplex structure in single- and double-stranded DNA. Biochemistry, 55(26), 3714-3725. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00327

Balasubramanain, D., Deng, A. X., Doudney, K., Hampton, M. B., & Kennedy, M. A. (2015). Valproic acid exposure leads to upregulation and increased promoter histone acetylation of sepiapterin reductase in a serotonergic cell line. Neuropharmacology, 99, 79-88. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.06.018

Morris, R. W., Taylor, A. E., Fluharty, M. E., Bjørngaard, J. H., Åsvold, B. O., Gabrielsen, M. E., … Horwood, J., Fergusson, D. M., Kennedy, M. A., … Sattar, N. (2015). Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: Evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: The CARTA consortium. BMJ Open, 5(8), e008808. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008808

Foulds, J. A., Ton, K., Kennedy, M. A., Adamson, S. J., Mulder, R. T., & Sellman, J. D. (2015). OPRM1 genotype and naltrexone response in depressed alcohol-dependent patients. Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, 25(5), 270-273. doi: 10.1097/fpc.0000000000000128

Osborne, A. J., Pearson, J., Negro, S. S., Chilvers, B. L., Kennedy, M. A., & Gemmell, N. J. (2015). Heterozygote advantage at MHC DRB may influence response to infectious disease epizootics. Molecular Ecology, 24, 1419-1432. doi: 10.1111/mec.13128

Jodczyk, S., Pearson, J. F., Aitchison, A., Miller, A. L., Hampton, M. B., & Kennedy, M. A. (2015). Telomere length measurement on the Roche LightCycler 480 platform. Genetic Testing & Molecular Biomarkers, 19(2), 63-68. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2014.0208

Osborne, A. J., Pearson, J., Chilvers, B. L., Kennedy, M. A., & Gemmell, N. J. (2015). Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to disease. PLoS ONE, 10(4), e0122703. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122703

Larsen, P. D., Johnston, L. R., Holley, A., La Flamme, A., Smyth, L., Chua, E. W., Kennedy, M. A., & Harding, S. A. (2015). Prevalence and significance of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 alleles in a New Zealand acute coronary syndrome population. Internal Medicine Journal, 45(5), 537-545. doi: 10.1111/imj.12698

Adkins, D. E., Clark, S. L., Copeland, W. E., Kennedy, M., Conway, K., Angold, A., … Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., … Costello, E. J. (2015). Genome-wide meta-analysis of longitudinal alcohol consumption across youth and early adulthood. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 18(4), 335-347. doi: 10.1017/thg.2015.36

Davis, J. M., Searles, V. B., Anderson, N., Keeney, J., Raznahan, A., Horwood, L. J., Fergusson, D. M., Kennedy, M. A., … Sikela, J. M. (2015). DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores. Human Genetics, 134(1), 67-75. doi: 10.1007/s00439-014-1489-2

Chua, E. W., Cree, S., Barclay, M. L., Doudney, K., Lehnert, K., Aitchison, A., & Kennedy, M. A. (2015). Exome sequencing and array-based comparative genomic hybridisation analysis of preferential 6-methylmercaptopurine producers. Pharmacogenomics Journal, 15, 414-421. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2015.9

Taylor, A. E., Morris, R. W., Fluharty, M. E., Bjorngaard, J. H., Åsvold, B. O., Gabrielsen, M. E., … Horwood, J., Fergusson, D. M., Kennedy, M. A., … Sattar, N. (2014). Stratification by smoking status reveals a direct association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers. PLoS Genetics, 10(12), e1004799. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799

Joyce, P. R., Stephenson, J., Kennedy, M., Mulder, R. T., & McHugh, P. C. (2014). The presence of both serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variants increase the risk of borderline personality disorder. Frontiers in Genetics, 4, 313. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00313

Stevens, A. J., Stuffrein-Roberts, S., Cree, S. L., Gibb, A., Miller, A. L., Doudney, K., Aitchison, A., Eccles, M. R., Joyce, P. R., … Kennedy, M. A. (2014). G-quadruplex structures and CpG methylation cause drop-out of the maternal allele in polymerase chain reaction amplification of the imprinted MEST gene promoter. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e113955. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113955

Cree, S. L., & Kennedy, M. A. (2014). Relevance of G-quadruplex structures to pharmacogenetics. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 5, 160. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00160

Jodczyk, S., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Pearson, J. F., & Kennedy, M. A. (2014). No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e97102. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097102

Taylor, A. E., Fluharty, M. E., Bjømgaard, J. H., Gabrielsen, M. E., Skorpen, F., Marioni, R. E., … Horwood, L. J., … Kennedy, M. A., … Munafò, M. R. (2014). Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: The CARTA consortium. BMJ Open, 4(10), e006141. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006141

Lacey, C., Mulder, R., Bridgman, P., Kimber, B., Zarifeh, J., Kennedy, M., & Cameron, V. (2014). Broken heart syndrome: Is it a psychosomatic disorder? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 77(2), 158-160. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.05.003

Schluter, P. J., Spittlehouse, J. K., Cameron, V. A., Chambers, S., Gearry, R., Jamieson, H. A., Kennedy, M., Lacey, C. J., Murdoch, D. R., Pearson, J., Porter, R. J., Richards, M., Skidmore, P. M. L., Troughton, R., Vierck, E., & Joyce, P. R. (2013). Canterbury Health, Ageing and Life Course (CHALICE) study: Rationale, design and methodology. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1375). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Bagshaw, A. T. M., Horwood, L. J., Liu, Y., Fergusson, D. M., Sullivan, P. F., & Kennedy, M. A. (2013). No effect of genome-wide copy number variation on measures of intelligence in a New Zealand birth cohort. PLoS ONE, 8(1), e55208. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055208

Osborne, A. J., Zavodna, M., Chilvers, B. L., Robertson, B. C., Negro, S. S., Kennedy, M. A., & Gemmell, N. J. (2013). Extensive variation at MHC DRBin the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection. Heredity, 111, 44-56. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2013.18

Costello, E. J., Eaves, L., Sullivan, P., Kennedy, M., Conway, K., Adkins, D. E., … van den Oord, E. (2013). Genes, environments, and developmental research: Methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 16(2), 505-515. doi: 10.1017/thg.2013.6

Chua, E. W., Foulds, J., Miller, A. L., & Kennedy, M. A. (2013). Novel CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 variants identified in a patient with adverse reactions towards venlafaxine monotherapy and dual therapy with nortriptyline and fluoxetine. Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, 23(9), 494-497. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e328363688d

Trent, R. J., Cheong, P. L., Chua, E. W., & Kennedy, M. A. (2013). Progressing the utilisation of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics into clinical care. Pathology, 45(4), 357-370. doi: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e328360b66e

Appell, M. L., Berg, J., Duley, J., Evans, W. E., Kennedy, M. A., Lennard, L., … Coulthard, S. A. (2013). Nomenclature for alleles of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene. Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, 23, 242-248. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e32835f1cc0

Chua, E. W., & Kennedy, M. A. (2012). Current state and future prospects of direct-to-consumer pharmacogenetics. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 3, 152. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00152

Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., Miller, A., & Kennedy, M. A. (2012). Moderating role of the MAOA genotype in antisocial behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 116-123. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.093328

Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., Miller, A. L., & Kennedy, M. A. (2011). MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 198, 457-463. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.086991

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