Professor R. Ewan Fordyce
Phone: +64 3 479 7510
Geol 272/372 (Evolution of the NZ Biota) and Geol 263/363 (Basin Studies); the Geology Museum.
- Research Associate, Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA
- Visiting Researcher, Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, Katsuyama, Japan
- Research Associate, Michigan State University Museum, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
Research Interests (see also fossil research web pages)
- vertebrate paleobiology (see paleontology section of this website), especially New Zealand-Southwest Pacific
- systematics and phylogeny of Cetacea (whales and dolphins)
- Cretaceous-Cenozoic paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleoecology
- paleoceanography and paleoclimates
- public understanding of geology, especially paleontology, linked with the Vanished World Trail and Vanished World Centre of North Otago
These interests led to the award of the 2012 Hutton Medal in geology from the Royal Society of New Zealand, for "contributions in New Zealand vertebrate paleontology, particularly for whales, dolphins and penguins".
Are you interested to volunteer in the fossil preparation laboratory? You don't need a particular interest in fossils, but you must be: manually skilled, meticulous, able to follow instructions, able to work closely with others, and able to work for half a day at a time (normally once a week). Email me, Ewan Fordyce, with an expression of interest, and give a little background about yourself.
Current and recent research
My main research is on the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, and phylogeny of Cetacea - whales and dolphins, fossil and recent. I work with the group of postgraduate students listed below. A major recent study on morphology is: Mead, J.G. and Fordyce, R.E. 2009 - The therian skull: a lexicon with emphasis on the odontocetes. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 627: 1-248. This monograph is an illustrated interpretive technical dictionary of osteological landmarks in the dolphin skull, based on study of modern and fossil species. Dolphins and whales are radically different from terrestrial mammals; their skeletons present many features that, although perplexing in terms of origin and homology, are widely used to interpret relationships, evolution, and lifestyle. We homologise features of dolphin skulls with those of other mammals, and explain the comparisons. The work should be of interest to cetacean systematists, mammalogists and vertebrate paleontologists. Mead and I are now compiling information on baleen whales, to complement the 2009 study
Free pdf download of 'The Therian Skull : A Lexicon with Emphasis on the Odontocetes'
Related activity with living species of cetaceans has included dissections of naturally-stranded juvenile pygmy right whales, Caperea marginata, with Anton van Helden of Museum of New Zealand Te Papa (November 2011 - see photo right). I am working with Felix Marx on a phylogenetic relationships of Caperea, based on morphological cladistics. Most people in the PhD student group have also been involved in work on recently stranded cetaceans, especially Moyna Müller and Carol Loch. In such work, we have strong links with Department of Conservation, Otago Museum, and Department of Marine Sciences at Otago.
Long-term interests involve fossil cetacean studies. For example, I have recently been studying the archaic gulp-feeding balaenopterid whale Mauicetus parki, the putative late-surving archaeocetes encompassing Kekenodon and relatives, shark-toothed dolphins - Squalodontidae, and archaic long-beaked tusked dolphins from Oregon and Baja California Sur, Mexico. These and other projects deal mainly with fossils of Late Oligocene age - from the early explosive radiation of Cetacea. Some material is shown in the adjacent photos of lab activity.
CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE (381KB)PhD student Carolina Loch next to a display case that contains skulls of toothed fossil cetaceans from New Zealand; specimens include a kekenodontid archaeocete, squalodontids, and putative archaic platanistoids.
CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGEPhD student CH Tsai has recently started studies of Mauicetus-like baleen whales from New Zealand Oligocene rocks. Here, some of the PhD students in Fordyce's research programme are in the Geology Museum, looking at one key early Mauicetus specimen from Hakataramea Valley. From left to right: Yoshi Tanaka, Carol Loch, Bobby Boessenecker, Gabriel Aguirre, and CH Tsai. Fossil preparator Sophie White is working at the table behind, with the fossil preparation lab in the background.
I maintain a field programme to recover fossil cetaceans and other fossil vertebrates from southern New Zealand, especially from rocks around the Waitaki Valley. This usually involves postgraduate students - and provides training in field methods using pneumatic tools (chipping hammers, air scribes, grinders, rock drills), masonry and chainsaws, petrol (gas)-powered rock drill, and plaster jacketing.
Pictures show recent field work:
CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE (569KB)Felix Marx (left) and Carol Loch (right) finish cleaning a block of muddy limestone containing baleen whale bones, before starting to encase the block in a plaster jacket (August 2010). The specimen has now been prepared out fully; it is a species of Mauicetus from close to the Oligocene/Miocene boundary.
CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Dan Ksepka (right) and Paul Brinkman (left), excavating a large Late Oligocene penguin from Kokoamu Greensand, Waihao Valley, December 2011. Ksepka and Brinkman (both from North Carolina State University) visited Otago for collaborative work on fossil penguins.
CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Site of an Early Miocene baleen whale, Otaio River, January 2012. From left to right: Philip Howe (S Canterbury Museum), Julie Brown (Ngai Tahu Rock Art Project), Nichole Moerhuis and Felix Marx (Department of Geology, University of Otago); Felix is close to the whale, with a limb element and part of the left mandible visible just below him. The fossil was found by Robert White and family, and is now at University of Otago awaiting preparation.
Evolution and systematics of penguins
Rocks in southern New Zealand have produced important fossil penguins, including many specimens found during field work on fossil cetaceans and now held in the Geology Museum at University of Otago. These have been studied by past postgraduate students: Craig Jones (MSc), Tatsuro Ando (PhD) and Daniel Thomas (PhD). Of note are stem-penguins in the genus Waimanu, and the recently-named Kaiika [literally, food-fish, alluding to penguin diet], studied with former PhD student Daniel Thomas. In 2012, Dan Ksepka, Tatsuro Ando, Craig Jones and I named and described a new genus, Kairuku [diver that returns with food], for 2 of the “giant” Late Oligocene Palaeeudyptes-like penguins in our article “New fossil penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes) from the Oligocene of New Zealand reveal the skeletal plan of stem penguins” which appeared in Journal of vertebrate paleontology 32:235-254. Most recently, Dan Ksepka and I wrote a popular article on penguins in Scientific American for November 2012. See also the separate web pages on penguins.
New Zealand marine vertebrates
Beyond cetaceans and penguins, covered above, New Zealand has an important record of other marine vertebrates. The Geology Museum at University of Otago holds specimens of plesiosaurs, mosasaurs, sea turtles, bony fish, and chondrichthyans. Articles of note in recent years include those of Gottfried et al. (2006 and 2012) on the teleosts Megalampris and Aglyptorhynchus, Gottfried & Fordyce on the extinct white shark Carcharodon angustidens, and Cruickshank & Fordyce on the enigmatic “Shagosaurus” plesiosaur from North Otago – formally known as Kaiwhekea. Other web pages review some of these New Zealand records. For summary accounts of New Zealand’s marine vertebrates, see the articles by Fordyce (1991) and King et al. (2009) – the latter partly updating the earlier Fordyce summary.
Visiting researchers have brought important expertise to help interpret material from the Geology Museum collections. Some recent visitors include: Mike Gottfried (Michigan State University, MI, USA), Tatsuro Ando (Ashoro Museum, Japan), Hiroto Ichishima (Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, Japan), Dan Ksepka and Paul Brinkman (NC State University, NC, USA), Tom Baumiller (U Michigan, MI, USA), Gerardo Gonzalez Barba (Univ. Autonoma Baja California Sur, Mexico), Nick Pyenson (formerly UC Berkeley and now Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution, USA), and Ignacio Moreno (Grupo de Estudos de Mamíferos Aquáticos do Rio Grande do Sul – GEMARS, Brazil).
Postgraduate Student Supervision
Are you an international student interested in postgraduate study with the Otago cetacean systematics/ fossil vertebrates group? If so, check the web information for International Students to see if you are eligible. International students will need a PhD scholarship to fund their study; applications for Otago scholarships, which are competitive awards, close at any time, and are usually applied for at the same time as the application for admission. There are few scholarships for MSc study, and these are highly competitive. If you are eligible to study here, and have first class grades that are likely to win you a scholarship, then please contact me.
Current and recent students
- Gabriel Aguirre - Neogene dolphins from New Zealand - Kentriodontidae (PhD, submitted)
- Robert "Bobby" Boessenecker - New Zealand archaic baleen whales in the family Eomysticetidae (PhD, in progress)
- Simone Hicks - Ecological and sedimentological evolution of the volcanically active Eo/Oligocene continental shelf, east Otago (PhD, in progress)
- Carolina Loch Silva - Comparative study of modern and fossil cetacean dentitions (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Platanistoidea) (PhD, in progress) (Jointly with Department of Oral Sciences, Dentistry)
- Felix Marx - Evolution of structural disparity in the Cetacea (PhD, examined and awaiting graduation)
- Moyna Müller - Evolution in the Southern Ocean dolphin genus Cephalorhynchus (PhD, in progress) (Jointly with Department of Marine Sciences)
- Yoshihiro Tanaka - Morphology and systematics of squalodelphinid and related platanistoid dolphins from New Zealand (PhD, in progress)
- Cheng-Hsiu Tsai (Tsai) - Systematics and functional morphology in early Mauicetus-like baleen whales (PhD, in progress)
- Kristina Arthur - Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, isotopic patterns, and Middle Miocene climate change in the Bryce Burn section (MSc, completed). Kristina is now pursuing PhD studies in The Netherlands.
- Megan Ortega - Systematics and geological setting of fossil whales and dolphins from Gee Greensand and Mount Harris Formation, Awamoa Beach, North Otago (MSc, completed). Megan is now working in the oil industry in Texas.
- Daniel Thomas - Evolution of thermal physiology in penguins: fossils, modern penguins, anatomy, and geochemistry (PhD, completed) (jointly with Department of Chemistry). Daniel recently completed a 2-year postdoctoral fellowship at University of Cape Town, and is now pursuing a postdoctoral fellowship in the Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Outreach - for the public
- Te Ara Online Encyclopedia
- Whale evolution (listener article)
- See the paleontology section of this website
- Radio New Zealand:Our Changing World for Thursday 1 March 2012 - Ewan Fordyce on giant fossil penguins. Podcast available.
- Radio New Zealand:Our Changing World for Thursday 15 November 2012 - Ewan Fordyce and Felix Marx on whale evolution. Podcast available.
- Radio NZ Nine to Noon Thursday 21 February 2013 Ewan Fordyce on how the Southern Ocean was a critical location for the evolution of whales and dolphins. Embedded below.
Selected Recent Publications
most of which are available as pdfs on request
- Marx, F., M. Buono, R. E. Fordyce, and R. W. Boessenecker. 2013. Juvenile morphology: A clue to the origins of the most mysterious of mysticetes? Naturwissenschaften: doi:10.1007/s00114-013-1012-y
- Thomas, D. B., R. E. Fordyce, and K. C. Gordon. 2013. Evidence for a krill-rich diet from non-destructive analyses of penguin bone. Journal of Avian Biology: doi:10.1111/j.1600-048X.2012.00095.x
- Fordyce, R. E., and F. G. Marx. 2013. The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: the last of the cetotheres. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 280: doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2645. [December 19, 2012]
- Loch, C., W. Duncan, P. C. Simões-Lopes, J. A. Kieser, and R. E. Fordyce. 2012. Ultrastructure of enamel and dentine in extant dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea). Zoomorphology 131 doi:10.1007/s00435-012-0180-1
- Fordyce, R. E., and D. T. Ksepka. 2012. The strangest bird. Scientific American 307:56-61 doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1112-56
- Clementz, M. T., R. E. Fordyce, S. L. Peek, and D. L. Fox. 2012. Ancient Marine Isoscapes and Isotopic Evidence of Bulk-feeding by Oligocene Cetaceans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.09.009
- Fukuda, K., D. B. Thomas, R. D. Frew, and R. E. Fordyce. 2012. Antarctic glaciation recorded in Early Miocene New Zealand foraminifera. Marine micropaleontology 92-93:52-60. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2012.05.002
- Loch, C., L. J. Grando, D. Schwass, J. Kieser, R. E. Fordyce, and P. C. Simões-Lopes. 2012. Dental erosion in South Atlantic dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae): a macro and microscopic approach. Marine Mammal Science online: 23 Apr 2012 doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00562.x
- Ksepka, D. T., R. E. Fordyce, T. Ando, and C. M. Jones. 2012. New fossil penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes) from the Oligocene of New Zealand reveal the skeletal plan of stem penguins. Journal of vertebrate paleontology 32:235-254. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.652051
- Gottfried, M. D., R. E. Fordyce, and S. Rust. 2012. A new billfish (Perciformes: Xiphioidei) from the Late Oligocene of New Zealand. Journal of vertebrate paleontology 32:27-34. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.634471
- Thomas, D. B., and R. E. Fordyce. 2011. Biological plasticity in penguin heat retention. The Anatomical Record: doi:10.1002/ar.21538
- Thomas, D.B., McGoverin, C.M., Fordyce, R.E., Frew, R.D., Gordon, K.C., 2011. Raman spectroscopy of fossil bioapatite - a proxy for diagenetic alteration of the oxygen isotope composition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 310:62-70 doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.06.016.
- Thomas, D.B., Ksepka, D.T., Fordyce, R.E., 2011. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth. Biology Letters 7, 461-464. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0993
- Fordyce, R.E., Thomas, D.B., 2011. Kaiika maxwelli, a new Early Eocene archaic penguin (Sphenisciformes, Aves) from Waihao Valley, South Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of geology and geophysics 54, 43-51. doi:10.1080/00288306.2011.536521
- Fordyce, R.E., 2010. Darwin’s legacy and New Zealand fossils, in: Galloway, D. (Ed.), Aspects of Darwin: a New Zealand celebration. Friends of Knox College Library, Dunedin, pp. 65-84.
- Mead, J. G., and R. E. Fordyce. 2009. The therian skull: a lexicon with emphasis on the odontocetes. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 627:1-248.
- Steeman, M. E., M. B. Hebsgaard, R. E. Fordyce, S. Y. W. Ho, D. L. Rabosky, R. Nielsen, C. Rahbek, H. Glenner, M. V. Sorensen, and E. Willerslev. 2009. Radiation of Extant Cetaceans Driven by Restructuring of the Oceans. Systematic Biology 58:573-585 doi:10.1093/sysbio/syp060
- Fordyce, R. E. 2009. Cetacean evolution; pp. 201-207 in W. F. Perrin, J. G. M. Thewissen, and B. Würsig (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Elsevier, San Diego.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2009. Cetacean fossil record; pp. 207-215 in W. F. Perrin, J. G. M. Thewissen, and B. Würsig (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Elsevier, San Diego.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2009. Fossil sites; pp. 459-466 in W. F. Perrin, J. G. M. Thewissen, and B. Würsig (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Elsevier, San Diego.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2009. Neoceti; pp. 758-763 in W. F. Perrin, J. G. M. Thewissen, and B. Würsig (eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Elsevier, San Diego.
Fordyce, R. E., D. E. Lee, and G. S. Wilson. 2009. Field trip 3: Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphy of the Canterbury Basin. Climatic and Biotic Events of the Paleogene Conference Field Trip Guides, 6-21 January 2009, Te Papa, Wellington, New Zealand. GNS Science Miscellaneous Series 17:92-129. pdf
- King, C. M., C. D. Roberts, B. D. Bell, R. E. Fordyce, R. S. Nicoll, T. H. Worthy, C. D. Paulin, R. A. Hitchmough, I. W. Keyes, A. N. Baker, A. L. Stewart, N. Hiller, R. M. McDowall, R. N. Holdaway, R. P. McPhee, W. W. Schwarzhans, A. J. D. Tennyson, S. Rust, and I. Macadie. 2009. Phylum Chordata. Lancelets, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; pp. 433-553 in D. P. Gordon (ed.), The New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity: A Species 2000 Symposium Review. University of Canterbury Press, Christchurch. [includes fossil reptiles, modern and fossil marine mammals]
- Uhen, M. D., R. E. Fordyce, and L. G. Barnes. 2008. Mysticeti; pp. 607-628 in C. M. Janis, G. F. Gunnell, and M. D. Uhen (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America, 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Uhen, M. D., R. E. Fordyce, and L. G. Barnes. 2008. Odontoceti; pp. 566-606 in C. M. Janis, G. R. Gunnell, and M. D. Uhen (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America, 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Marino, L., R. C. Connor, R. E. Fordyce, L. M. Herman, P. R. Hof, L. Lefebvre, D. Lusseau, B. McCowan, E. A. Nimchinsky, A. A. Pack, L. Rendell, J. S. Reidenberg, D. Reiss, M. D. Uhen, E. Van Der Gucht, and H. Whitehead. 2008. A claim in search of evidence: Reply to Manger’s thermogenesis hypothesis of cetacean brain structure. Biological Reviews, Cambridge Philosophical Society 83:417-440.
- Graham, I. J., R. L. Brathwaite, L. Carter, R. M. Carter, J. W. Cole, M. J. Crozier, A. F. Cooper, R. A. Cooper, R. E. Fordyce, M. R. Johnston, M. J. Isaac, P. R. King, N. Mortimer, and D. N. B. Skinner eds. 2008. A continent on the move: New Zealand geoscience into the 21st century. Geological Society of New Zealand, Wellington, NZ ix, 377 pp.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2008. Unveiling the past. Vertebrate fossils; pp. 127-137 in S. Nathan and M. Varnham (eds.), The amazing world of James Hector. Awa Press, Wellington.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2008. Fossil mammals; pp. 415-428 in M. J. Winterbourn, Knox, G.A., Burrows, C.J., Marsden, I. (ed.), Natural history of Canterbury. University of Canterbury Press, Christchurch.
- Thomas, D. B. and Fordyce, R. E. 2007. The heterothermic loophole exploited by penguins. Australian Journal of Zoology 55: 317-321.
- Thomas, D. B., Fordyce, R. E., Frew, R. D., and Gordon, K. C. 2007. A rapid, non-destructive method of detecting diagenetic alteration in fossil bone using Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 38: 1533-1537.
- Ichishima, H. and Fordyce, R. E. 2007. Kujira ga riku o aruite ita koro: kyoryu zetsumetsugo no oja [When the whales roamed on land]. Special Exhibitions Volume. Fukui Kenritsu Kyoryo Hakubutsukan, Katsuyama. 87 p.
- Marino, L., Connor, R. C., Fordyce, R. E., Herman, L. M., Hof, P. R., Lefebvre, L., Lusseau, D., Mccowan, B., Nimchinsky, E. A., Pack, A. A., Rendell, L., Reidenberg, J. S., Reiss, D., Uhen, M. D., Van Der Gucht, E., and Whitehead, H. 2007. Cetaceans have complex brains for complex cognition. PLoS Biology 5 (5): 966-972.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2006. A southern perspective on cetacean evolution and zoogeography. Pages 755-778 in Merrick, J. R. Archer M. Hickey G. and Lee M. S. Y. (eds), Evolution and biogeography of Australasian vertebrates. AusSciPub [Australian Scientific Publishing], Sydney. 942 p.
- Gottfried, M. D., Fordyce, R. E., and Rust, S. 2006. Megalampris keyesi, a giant moonfish (Teleostei, Lampridiformes) from the late Oligocene of New Zealand. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (3): 544-551.
- Slack, K. E., Jones, C. M., Ando, T., Harrison, G. L., Fordyce, R. E., Arnason, U., and Penny, D. 2006. Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (6): 1144-1155. [on new species of Waimanu basal penguins]
- Fordyce, R. E. 2006. New light on New Zealand Mesozoic reptiles. Geological Society of New Zealand newsletter 140:6-15.
- Sasaki, T., Nikaido, M., Hamilton, H., Goto, M., Kato, H., Kanda, N., Pastene, L. A., Cao, Y., Fordyce, R. E., Hasegawa, M., and Okada, N. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales. Systematic biology 54 (1): 77-90.
- Darby, J. T., Fordyce, R. E., Mark, A. F., Probert, P. K., and Townsend, C. (editors). 2003. The natural history of southern New Zealand. University of Otago Press, Dunedin. 387 p.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2003. Fossils and the history of life. Pages 35-64 in Darby, J. T., Fordyce, R. E., Mark, A. F., Probert, P. K., and Townsend, C. (editors), The natural history of southern New Zealand. University of Otago Press, Dunedin. 387 p.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2003. Cetacea evolution and Eocene-Oligocene oceans revisited. Pages 154-170 in Prothero, D. R., Ivany, L. C., and Nesbitt, E. A. From greenhouse to icehouse. The marine Eocene-Oligocene transition. Columbia University Press, New York. 376 p.
- Cruickshank, A. R. I. and Fordyce, R. E. 2002. A new marine reptile (Sauropterygia) from New Zealand: Further evidence for a Late Cretaceous austral radiation of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs. Paleontology 45 (3): 557-575.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2002. Simocetus rayi (Odontoceti:Simocetidae) (new species, new genus, new family), a bizarre archaic Oligocene dolphin from the eastern North Pacific. Smithsonian contributions to paleobiology 93: 185-222.
Pdf (16 Mb)
Simocetus read more...
- Fordyce, R. E., Quilty, P. G., and Daniels, J. 2002. Australodelphis mirus, a bizarre new toothless ziphiid-like fossil dolphin (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the Pliocene of Vestfold Hills, east Antarctica. Antarctic Science 14 (1): 37-54.
- Cruickshank, A. R. I., and R. E. Fordyce. 2002. A new marine reptile (Sauropterygia) from New Zealand: Further evidence for a Late Cretaceous austral radiation of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs. Palaeontology 45:557-575.
- Nikaido, M., Matsuno, F., Hamilton, H., Brownell, R. L., Cao, Y., Ding, W., Zuoyan, Z., Shedlock, A. M., Fordyce, R. E., Hasegawa, M., and Okada, N. 2001. Retroposon analysis of major cetacean lineages: the monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98 (13): 7384-7389.
- Fordyce, R. E. 2001. Brian John Marples, BA MA, MSc, FRSNZ, FAZ, 1907-1997. Yearbook of the Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand 2000: 72-79.
- Gottfried, M. D. and Fordyce, R. E. 2001. An associated specimen of Carcharodon angustidens (Chondrichthyes, Lamnidae) from the Late Oligocene of New Zealand, with comments on lamnid interrelationships. Journal of vertebrate paleontology 21 (4): 730-739.
- Fordyce, R. E. and Muizon, C. de. 2001. Evolutionary history of whales: a review. Pages 169-234 in Mazin, J.-M. and Buffrenil, V. de (editors), Secondary adaptation of tetrapods to life in water. Proceedings of the international meeting, Poitiers, 1996. Verlag Dr Friedriech Pfeil, München. 367p.
Fordyce, R. E. 1994. Waipatia maerewhenua, new genus and new species (Waipatiidae, new family), an archaic Late Oligocene dolphin (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Platanistoidea) from New Zealand; pp. 147-176 in A. Berta and T. Deméré (eds.), Contributions in marine mammal paleontology honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History 29.
Waipatia read more...
- Fordyce, R. E. 1991. A new look at the fossil vertebrate record of New Zealand.; pp. 1191-1316 in P. V. Rich, J. M. Monaghan, R. F. Baird, and T. H. Rich (eds.), Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia. Pioneer Design Studio and Monash University, Melbourne.
Also See Publications
- EAOS 111 Earth and Ocean Science (Semester 1)
- GEOL 112 Dynamic Earth: A New Zealand Perspective (Semester 2)
- Core paper GEOL 252 Field Studies and New Zealand Geology
- GEOL 263 Fossils, strata and hydrocarbon basins
- GEOL 272 Evolution of New Zealand biota