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Professor James D L White

Head of Department

James White sideshot smallPhD, University of California-Santa Barbara
MS, University of Missouri-Columbia
BS & BA (Geology & Phil/Hist) Texas Christian University

Volcanology

Office - Geology 1S5
Tel 64 3 479 9009
Email james.white@otago.ac.nz

Teaching

Research Interests

  • Explosive subaqueous and subglacial eruptions

  • Maar-diatreme volcanism

  • Magma-water interaction and fragmentation

  • Experimental Volcanology
  • Primary and secondary volcaniclastic sedimentation

See also the volcanology page

Research-community service

  • Executive Editor, Bulletin of Volcanology
  • Associate Editor, Island Arc
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Volcanology and Geotherma Research

Recent Postdoctoral researcher

Postgraduate Student Supervision

PhD - Current

  • Rosie Cole Ice-contact volcanism at Tongariro National Park
  • Emanuele Giacalone Swinburn Volcano
  • Carolyn Gorny Origin of Pleistocene lava-hyaloclastite sheets, southeast Iceland
  • Michael May The Rotomahana Eruption of 1886: Thermodynamics of a basaltic eruption through an intensely active geothermal system, North Island, New Zealand
  • Arran Murch Investigating the fragmentation processes of explosive submarine volcanic eruptions
  • Giuseppe Re (Peppe) Maar diatreme system in Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, AZ, USA
  • Andrea Verolino Volcanology project on Surtseyan volcanism

MSc -current

  • Sam Maloney Maar-diatreme volcanism in central Otago

Bsc(Hons) -current

  • Jasmine Mawson Paleomagnetic investigations of the Waipiata volcanoes.

PhD - Published/Past

  • Benjamin Moorehouse (2015) Investigating the eruptive processes of shallow-marine volcanoes on the Oligocene continental shelf, east Otago, New Zealand
  • Robin Andrews Investigating the cratering and thermodynamics of the phreatomagmatic 1886 Rotomahana eruption
  • Simone Hicks (RE Fordyce primary supervisor) Ecological and sedimentological evolution of the volcanically active Oligocene continental shelf, east Otago, New Zealand (PhD submitted 2014
  • Nathalie Lefebvre Volcanology of maar-diatreme volcanic vent complexes, Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA (PhD 2013)
  • Andreas Auer Sedimentary Response to Debris Avalanche and Eruption at Mt Ruapehu (PhD  2013)
  • Rachel Murtagh (2011) An investigation into the explosivity of shallow subaqueous basaltic eruption
  • Giulia Airoldi (2010) Magma injection dynamics in the shallow Ferrar LIP (South Victoria Land, Antarctica)
  • C. Ian Schipper (2009) Explosive Submarine Volcanism at Lō`ihi Seamount, Hawai`i
  • Jean-Baptiste Rosseel.  Supervisors JDL White, BF Houghton.  Project: Phreatic and phreatomagmatic processes of the 1886 Rotomahana eruption: destruction of an active hydrothermal system along an eruption fissure. (1998-2008; withdrawn).
  • McClintock, M.K.(2006) Evolution of a large volcaniclastic vent complex preceding emplacement of the Karoo flood basalts, Sterkspruit, Drakensberg Mountains, South Africa.
  • Finnis, K. (2006) Resilience and vulnerability in communities around Mt Taranaki.
  • Ross, P.-S. (2005) Volcanology of the Mawson Formation at Coombs and Allan Hills, Victoria Land, Antarctica. Unpublished PhD dissertation Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin
  • Nemeth, K. (2001) Phreatomagmatism at the Waipiata Volcanic Field, Otago, New Zealand. unpublished PhD dissertation Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin
  • Martin, U. (2000) Eruptions and deposition of volcaniclastic rocks in the Dunedin Volcanic Complex, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. unpublished PhD dissertation Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin
  • Segschneider, B. (2000) Resedimentation of the 1.8 ka Taupo ignimbrite in the Hawke's Bay region, North Island, New Zealand. Unpublished PhD dissertation Thesis, University of Otago, New Zealand, Dunedin
  • Maicher, D. (1999) Hyaloclastite beds of shelf and seamount: roles of exsolution, entrapment and entrainment. unpublished Phd dissertation Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin

MSc - Published/Past

  • Lewis, Bridgette, (2007). Deposition and compositional characteristics of the Potaka Tephra, Wanganui Basin, North Island, New Zealand.
  • Guegan, Emilie, (2006). Magma-supply dynamics of the Ferrar large igneous province, Coombs Hills, Antarctica.
  • Schipper, Christopher Ian (2004) Chemical and mineralogical characterization of pyroclastic deposits from the ca. 1 Ma Kidnappers and Rocky Hill eruptions, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • Marx, Raymond S . (2004) The Rotorua caldera lake: volcanic eruptions and water levels from 220 ka to present. Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.025

  • Hood Hills, Simone B. (2004) Vent structures preserved in the Mawson Formation, a phreatomagmatic volcanic complex in the Allan Hills, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • Lockett, Gillian M. (2003) Landslide and debris flow deposits at the margin of a large vent complex, Mawson Formation, Allan Hills, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Unpublished MSc thesis Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ
  • Newton, Erin H. (2002) Resedimentation of the 1800a Taupo Ignimbrite along the Rangitaiki River Catchment, North Island, New Zealand. MSc Thesis Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 170 pp + 73 pg appendices
  • von Lichtan, Isabella J. (deferred) Flotation and sedimentation of large hot pumice blocks in a refilling caldera lake at the end of the Taupo 1.8 ka eruption
  • McClintock, Murray K.(1999) Phreatomagmatism at Coombs Hills, Antarctica: Magma-water super-volcanism in a wet, failed rift. unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 191 pp.
  • Clarkson, Roger A.(1996) Immediate post-c. 1800a Taupo eruption secondary deposits and shorelines. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 156 pp.

BSc(Hons) - Published/Past

  • Oliver McLeod (2015)- Structure and origin of mingled magma rock and columnar jointed lava at Puketeraki, Otago.
  • Tim Bush-Marcinowski (2014)- Analysis of the petrology of Surtsey basalts.
  • Garland, Marama. (2006) Mawson-Ferrar Dolerite relationships, northern East Ridge, Coombs Hills, Antarctica
  • Hardy, Lyndon (2005) Investigation of the Rotomahana Mud and deposits of the Lake Okaro hydrothermal explosions, North Island, New Zealand.
  • Dreiberg, Bede J. (1995) Post eruption deposition from the 10 June 1886, Mt Tarawera eruption. BSc (Hons) thesis Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ, 1-82 pp.
  • Townend, John (1995) The Rotomahana Eruption 1886: Heterogeneous interaction between basaltic magma and a geothermal system. BSc Honours thesis Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin

Postgraduate Diploma in Science -  Published/Past

  • Laurie, Blair (2004) Volcanic architecture of the Harbour Cone-Dicks Hill area, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand.

Publication profiles

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Publications

Jutzeler, M., Manga, M., White, J. D. L., Talling, P. J., Proussevitch, A. A., Watt, S. F., … Ishizuka, O. (2017). Submarine deposits from pumiceous pyroclastic density currents traveling over water: An outstanding example from offshore Montserrat (IODP 340). Geological Society of America Bulletin, 129(3-4), 392-414. doi: 10.1130/B31448.1

Re, G., Palin, J. M., White, J. D. L., & Parolari, M. (2017). Unravelling the magmatic system beneath a monogenetic volcanic complex (Jagged Rocks complex, Hopi Buttes, AZ, USA). Contributions to Mineralogy & Petrology, 172(11-12), 94. doi: 10.1007/s00410-017-1410-9

Verolino, A., White, J. D. L., & Zimanowski, B. (2017). Particle transport in subaqueous eruptions: An experimental investigation. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.11.013

Stirling, M., Bebbington, M., Brenna, M., Cronin, S., Christophersen, A., Deligne, N., … Wang, T., White, J. D. L., … Wilson, T. (2017). Conceptual development of a National Volcanic Hazard Model for New Zealand. Frontiers in Earth Science, 5, 51. doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00051

Valentine, G. A., White, J. D. L., Ross, P.-S., Graettinger, A. H., & Sonder, I. (2017). Updates to concepts on phreatomagmatic maar-diatremes and their pyroclastic deposits. Frontiers in Earth Science, 5, 68. doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00068

Authored Book - Research

Wilson, C. J. N., Riggs, N. R., Ort, M. H., White, J. D. L., & Houghton, B. F. (1997). An annotated atlas of post-1.8 ka shoreline features at Lake Taupo, New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences science report - 97/19, 35p.

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Edited Book - Research

White, J. D. L., Smellie, J., & Clague, D. A. (Eds.). (2003). Explosive subaqueous volcanism: Geophysical monograph 140. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 379p.

Skilling, I., White, J. D. L., & McPhie, J. (Eds.). (2002). Peperite: processes and products of magma-sediment mingling. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 255p.

White, J. D. L., & Riggs, N. R. (Eds.). (2001). Volcaniclastic sedimentation in lacustrine settings. Oxford: International Association of Sedimentologists, Blackwell Science, 315p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

White, J. D. L., Schipper, C. I., & Kano, K. (2015). Submarine explosive eruptions. In H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. R. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix (Eds.), The encylopedia of volcanoes. (2nd ed.) (pp. 553-569). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00031-6

Houghton, B., White, J. D. L., & Van Eaton, A. R. (2015). Phreatomagmatic and related eruption styles. In H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. R. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix (Eds.), The encylopedia of volcanoes. (2nd ed.) (pp. 537-552). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00030-4

Zimanowski, B., Büttner, R., Dellino, P., White, J. D. L., & Wohletz, K. H. (2015). Magma-water interaction and phreatomagmatic fragmentation. In H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. R. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix (Eds.), The encylopedia of volcanoes. (2nd ed.) (pp. 473-484). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00026-2

White, J. D. L., Bryan, S. E., Ross, P.-S., Self, S., & Thordarson, T. (2009). Physical volcanology of continental large igneous provinces: Update and review. In T. Thordarson, S. Self, G. Larsen, S. K. Rowland & A. Hoskuldsson (Eds.), Studies in volcanology: The legacy of George Walker. (pp. 291-321). London: Geological Society.

Mueller, W. U., Stix, J. B., White, J. D. L., Corcoran, P. L., Lafrance, B., & Daigneault, R. (2008). Characterisation of Archean subaqueous calderas in Canada: Physical volcanology, carbonate-rich hydrothermal alteration and a new exploration model. In J. Gottsmann & J. Martí (Eds.), Caldera volcanism: Analysis, modelling and response (Vol. 10). (pp. 181-232). Amsterdam: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/S1871-644X(07)00005-8

Mueller, W. U., Stix, J., White, J. D. L., & Hudak, G. J. (2004). Archaean calderas. In P. G. Eriksson, W. Altermann, D. R. Nelson, W. U. Mueller & O. Catuneanu (Eds.), The Precambrian Earth: Tempos and events. (pp. 345-356). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

White, J. D. L. (2004). Explosive subaqueous volcanism. In P. G. Eriksson, W. Altermann, D. R. Nelson, W. U. Mueller & O. Catuneanu (Eds.), The Precambrian earth: Tempos and events. (pp. 334-345). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

Mueller, W. U., & White, J. D. L. (2004). Terminology of volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks. In P. G. Eriksson, W. Altermann, D. R. Nelson, W. U. Mueller & O. Catuneanu (Eds.), The Precambrian Earth: Tempos and events. (pp. 273-277). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

White, J. D. L., Smellie, J., & Clague, D. A. (2003). Introduction: A deductive outline and topical overview of subaqueous explosive volcanism. In Explosive subaqueous volcanism: Geophysical monograph 140. (pp. 1-23). Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.

Riggs, N. R., Ort, M. H., White, J. D. L., Wilson, C. J. N., Houghton, B. F., & Clarkson, R. (2001). Post-1.8-ka marginal sedimentation in Lake Taupo, New Zealand: Effects of wave energy and sediment supply in a rapidly rising lake. In J. D. L. White & N. R. Riggs (Eds.), Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings. (pp. 151-177). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

White, J. D. L. (2001). Eruption and reshaping of Pahvant Butte volcano in Pleistocene Lake Bonneville. In J. D. L. White & N. R. Riggs (Eds.), Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings. (pp. 61-80). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

White, J. D. L., Manville, V., Wilson, C. J. N., Houghton, B. F., Riggs, N. R., & Ort, M. H. (2001). Settling and deposition of AD 181 Taupo pumice in lacustrine and associated environments. In J. D. L. White & N. R. Riggs (Eds.), Volcaniclastic sedimentation in lacustrine settings. (pp. 141-150). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

White, J. D. L., & Riggs, N. R. (2001). Introduction: Styles and significance of lacustrine volcaniclastic sedimentation. In J. D. L. White & N. R. Riggs (Eds.), Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings. (pp. 1-6). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Martin, U., & White, J. D. L. (2001). Depositional and eruptive mechanisms of density current deposits from a submarine vent at the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. In W. D. McCaffrey, B. C. Kneller & J. Peakall (Eds.), Particulate gravity currents. (pp. 245-249). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

White, J. D. L., & Houghton, B. F. (2000). Surtseyan and related phreatomagmatic eruptions. In H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix (Eds.), Encylopedia of volcanoes. (pp. 495-509). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Batiza, R., & White, J. D. L. (2000). Submarine lavas and hyaloclastite. In H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix (Eds.), Encylopedia of volcanoes. (pp. 361-381). New York, NY: Academic Press.

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Chapter in Book - Other

White, J. D. L., McPhie, J., & Soule, S. A. (2015). Submarine lavas and hyaloclastite. In H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, S. R. McNutt, H. Rymer & J. Stix (Eds.), The encylopedia of volcanoes. (2nd ed.) (pp. 363-375). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00019-5

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Journal - Research Article

Jutzeler, M., Manga, M., White, J. D. L., Talling, P. J., Proussevitch, A. A., Watt, S. F., … Ishizuka, O. (2017). Submarine deposits from pumiceous pyroclastic density currents traveling over water: An outstanding example from offshore Montserrat (IODP 340). Geological Society of America Bulletin, 129(3-4), 392-414. doi: 10.1130/B31448.1

Stirling, M., Bebbington, M., Brenna, M., Cronin, S., Christophersen, A., Deligne, N., … Wang, T., White, J. D. L., … Wilson, T. (2017). Conceptual development of a National Volcanic Hazard Model for New Zealand. Frontiers in Earth Science, 5, 51. doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00051

Verolino, A., White, J. D. L., & Zimanowski, B. (2017). Particle transport in subaqueous eruptions: An experimental investigation. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.11.013

Re, G., Palin, J. M., White, J. D. L., & Parolari, M. (2017). Unravelling the magmatic system beneath a monogenetic volcanic complex (Jagged Rocks complex, Hopi Buttes, AZ, USA). Contributions to Mineralogy & Petrology, 172(11-12), 94. doi: 10.1007/s00410-017-1410-9

Lefebvre, N. S., White, J. D. L., & Kjarsgaard, B. A. (2016). Arrested diatreme development: Standing Rocks East, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 310, 186-208. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.007

Airoldi, G. M., Muirhead, J. D., Long, S. M., Zanella, E., & White, J. D. L. (2016). Flow dynamics in mid-Jurassic dikes and sills of the Ferrar large igneous province and implications for long-distance magma transport. Tectonophysics, 683, 182-199. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.029

Jutzeler, M., White, J. D. L., Proussevitch, A. A., & Gordee, S. M. (2016). Vesiculation and fragmentation history in a submarine scoria cone-forming eruption, an example from Nishiizu (Izu Peninsula, Japan). Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(2), 7. doi: 10.1007/s00445-016-0999-2

Schipper, C. I., & White, J. D. L. (2016). Magma-slurry interaction in Surtseyan eruptions. Geology, 44(3), 195-198. doi: 10.1130/G37480.1

Andrews, R. G., White, J. D. L., Dürig, T., & Zimanowski, B. (2016). Simulating maar–diatreme volcanic systems in bench-scale experiments. Journal of the Geological Society, 173(2), 265-281. doi: 10.1144/jgs2015-073

Schipper, C. I., Le Voyer, M., Moussallam, Y., White, J. D. L., Thordarson, T., Kimura, J.-I., & Chang, Q. (2016). Degassing and magma mixing during the eruption of Surtsey Volcano (Iceland, 1963–1967): The signatures of a dynamic and discrete rift propagation event. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(4), 33. doi: 10.1007/s00445-016-1025-4

Muirhead, J. D., Van Eaton, A. R., Re, G., White, J. D. L., & Ort, M. H. (2016). Monogenetic volcanoes fed by interconnected dikes and sills in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, USA. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(2), 11. doi: 10.1007/s00445-016-1005-8

White, J. D. L., & Valentine, G. A. (2016). Magmatic versus phreatomagmatic fragmentation: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Geosphere, 12(5), 1478-1488. doi: 10.1130/GES01337.1

Macorps, É., Graettinger, A. H., Valentine, G. A., Ross, P.-S., White, J. D. L., & Sonder, I. (2016). The effects of the host-substrate properties on maar-diatreme volcanoes: Experimental evidence. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(4), 26. doi: 10.1007/s00445-016-1013-8

von Lichtan, I., White, J. D. L., Manville, V., & Ohneiser, C. (2016). Giant rafted pumice blocks from the most recent eruption of Taupo volcano, New Zealand: Insights from palaeomagnetic and textural data. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 318, 73-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.04.003

Auer, A., White, J. D. L., & Tobin, M. J. (2016). Variable H2O content in magmas from the Tongariro Volcanic Centre and its relation to crustal storage and magma ascent. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 325, 203-210. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.06.021

Moorhouse, B. L., & White, J. D. L. (2016). Interpreting ambiguous bedforms to distinguish subaerial base surge from subaqueous density current deposits. Depositional Record, 2(2), 173-195. doi: 10.1002/dep2.20

Re, G., White, J. D. L., & Ort, M. H. (2015). Dikes, sills, and stress-regime evolution during emplacement of the Jagged Rocks Complex, Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Navajo Nation, USA. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 295, 65-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.01.009

Moorhouse, B. L., White, J. D. L., & Scott, J. M. (2015). Cape Wanbrow: A stack of Surtseyan-style volcanoes built over millions of years in the Waiareka-Deborah volcanic field, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 298, 27-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.03.019

Xiang, Z., Yan, Q., White, J. D. L., Song, B., & Wang, Z. (2015). Geochemical constraints on the provenance and depositional setting of Neoproterozoic volcaniclastic rocks on the northern margin of the Yangtze Block, China: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. Precambrian Research, 264, 140-155. doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2015.04.012

Graettinger, A. H., Valentine, G. A., Sonder, I., Ross, P.-S., & White, J. D. L. (2015). Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions. Bulletin of Volcanology, 77(8), 66. doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0951-x

Schipper, C. I., Jakobsson, S. P., White, J. D. L., Palin, J. M., & Bush-Marcinowski, T. (2015). The Surtsey Magma Series. Scientific Reports, 5, 11498. doi: 10.1038/srep11498

Valentine, G. A., Graettinger, A. H., Macorps, É., Ross, P.-S., White, J. D. L., Döhring, E., & Sonder, I. (2015). Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes. Bulletin of Volcanology, 77(3), 15. doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0901-7

Auer, A., Martin, C. E., Palin, J. M., White, J. D. L., Nakagawa, M., & Stirling, C. (2015). The evolution of hydrous magmas in the Tongariro Volcanic Centre: The 10 ka Pahoka-Mangamate eruptions. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 58(4), 364-384. doi: 10.1080/00288306.2015.1089913

Andrews, R. G., White, J. D. L., Dürig, T., & Zimanowski, B. (2014). Discrete blasts in granular material yield two-stage process of cavitation and granular fountaining. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(2), 422-428. doi: 10.1002/2013GL058526

Pardo, N., Cronin, S. J., Németh, K., Brenna, M., Schipper, C. I., Breard, E., White, J. D. L., … Auer, A., … Wallace, C. (2014). Perils in distinguishing phreatic from phreatomagmatic ash: Insights into the eruption mechanisms of the 6 August 2012 Mt. Tongariro eruption, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 286, 397-414. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.05.001

Jutzeler, M., Marsh, R., Carey, R. J., White, J. D. L., Talling, P. J., & Karlstrom, L. (2014). On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre submarine eruption. Nature Communications, 5, 3660. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4660

Jutzeler, M., White, J. D. L., Talling, P. J., McCanta, M., Morgan, S., Le Friant, A., & Ishizuka, O. (2014). Coring disturbances in IODP piston cores with implications for offshore record of volcanic events and the Missoula megafloods. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15(9), 3572-3590. doi: 10.1002/2014GC005447

Muirhead, J. D., Airoldi, G., White, J. D. L., & Rowland, J. V. (2014). Cracking the lid: Sill-fed dikes are the likely feeders of flood basalt eruptions. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 406(0), 187-197. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.08.036

Graettinger, A. H., Valentine, G. A., Sonder, I., Ross, P.-S., White, J. D. L., & Taddeucci, J. (2014). Maar-diatreme geometry and deposits: Subsurface blast experiments with variable explosion depth. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15(3), 740-764. doi: 10.1002/2013GC005198

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