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Health Sciences profile

Associate Professor Louise Signal

PositionAssociate Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Public Health (UOW)
QualificationsBA (Massey) MSocSc (Waik) PhD (Tor)
Research summaryHealth Promotion

Research

Louise is a social scientist with a PhD in Community Health from the University of Toronto. She has worked and done research in the field of health promotion for 25 years in a range of roles, including Senior Advisor (Health Promotion) for the New Zealand Ministry of Health. Her research interests include tackling inequalities in health, healthy public policy, health impact assessment, and healthy eating and healthy action.

Louise is a Director of the Health Promotion and Policy Research unit (HePPRU) and Health, Wellbeing & Equity Impact Assessment Research Unit (HIA). Currently, Louise leads an HRC funded project that asks Is Junk Food Promoted Through Sport. Louise has a number of community service roles including chairing the Academic Committee of the Health Promotion Forum. She teaches undergraduate and postgraduate courses in health promotion.

Publications

Gage, R., Leung, W., Stanley, J., Reeder, A., Barr, M., Chambers, T., Smith, M., & Signal, L. (2017). Clothing protection from UVR: A new method for assessment. Photochemistry & Photobiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/php.12803

Signal, L. N., Smith, M. B., Barr, M., Stanley, J., Chambers, T. J., Zhou, J., … Jenkin, G. L. S., Pearson, A. L., … Hoek, J., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2017). Kids'Cam: An objective methodology to study the world in which children live. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.016

Chambers, T., Signal, L., Carter, M.-A., McConville, S., Wong, R., & Zhu, W. (2017). Alcohol sponsorship of a summer of sport: A frequency analysis of alcohol marketing during major sports events on New Zealand television. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1448), 27-33. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Chambers, T., Pearson, A. L., Stanley, J., Smith, M., Barr, M., Ni Mhurchu, C., & Signal, L. (2017). Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras. Health & Place, 46, 274-280. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.06.003

Signal, L. N., Stanley, J., Smith, M., Barr, M. B., Chambers, T. J., Zhou, J., … McKerchar, C., Pearson, A. L., Hoek, J., Jenkin, G. L. S., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2017). Children's everyday exposure to food marketing: An objective analysis using wearable cameras. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 14, 137. doi: 10.1186/s12966-017-0570-3

Authored Book - Research

Signal, L., Martin, J., Cram, F., & Robson, B. (2008). The Health Equity Assessment Tool: A user's guide. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health, 44p.

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Edited Book - Research

Signal, L., & Ratima, M. (Eds.). (2015). Promoting health in Aotearoa New Zealand. Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press, 312p.

Signal, L., Egan, R., & Cook, L. (Eds.). (2009). Reviews of health promotion practice in Aotearoa New Zealand 2007-2008. Auckland, New Zealand: Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand & Health Promotion and Policy Unit, University of Otago, 138p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

Signal, L., & Ratima, M. (2015). Introduction. In L. Signal & M. Ratima (Eds.), Promoting health in Aotearoa New Zealand. (pp. 7-18). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Signal, L., Ratima, M., & Raeburn, J. (2015). The origins of health promotion. In L. Signal & M. Ratima (Eds.), Promoting health in Aotearoa New Zealand. (pp. 19-41). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Signal, L., Jenkin, G., Fougere, G., & Poata-Smith, E. (2015). The politics of health promotion. In L. Signal & M. Ratima (Eds.), Promoting health in Aotearoa New Zealand. (pp. 162-187). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Signal, L., & Ratima, M. (2015). Critical reflections and future challenges. In L. Signal & M. Ratima (Eds.), Promoting health in Aotearoa New Zealand. (pp. 285-296). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Signal, L., Soeberg, M., & Quigley, R. (2013). Health impact assessment in local government: A New Zealand case study. In M. O'Mullane (Ed.), Integrating health impact assessment with the policy process: Lessons and experiences from around the world. (pp. 109-118). Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/med/9780199639960.003.0010

Walton, M., & Signal, L. (2010). Childhood obesity and the food environment. In J. Pearce & K. Witten (Eds.), Geographies of obesity: Environmental understandings of the obesity epidemic. (pp. 111-127). Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Signal, L., Cook, L., & Egan, R. (2009). Introducing reviews of health promotion practice. In L. Signal, R. Egan & L. Cook (Eds.), Reviews of health promotion practice in Aotearoa New Zealand 2007-2008. (pp. 1-3). Auckland, New Zealand: Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand & Health Promotion and Policy Unit, University of Otago.

Signal, L., & Egan, R. (2009). Reflections on best practice in health promotion in Aotearoa New Zealand. In L. Signal, R. Egan & L. Cook (Eds.), Reviews of health promotion practice in Aotearoa New Zealand 2007-2008. (pp. 129-135). Auckland, New Zealand: Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand & Health Promotion and Policy Unit, University of Otago.

Signal, L. (2008). Tools for health equity. In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand. (pp. 173-184). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Hearn, S., Martin, H., Signal, L., & Wise, M. (2005). Health promotion in Australia and New Zealand: The struggle for equity. In A. Scriven & S. Garman (Eds.), Promoting Health: Global perspectives. (pp. 239-254). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Journal - Research Article

Gage, R., Leung, W., Stanley, J., Reeder, A., Barr, M., Chambers, T., Smith, M., & Signal, L. (2017). Clothing protection from UVR: A new method for assessment. Photochemistry & Photobiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/php.12803

Signal, L. N., Stanley, J., Smith, M., Barr, M. B., Chambers, T. J., Zhou, J., … McKerchar, C., Pearson, A. L., Hoek, J., Jenkin, G. L. S., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2017). Children's everyday exposure to food marketing: An objective analysis using wearable cameras. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 14, 137. doi: 10.1186/s12966-017-0570-3

Chambers, T., Pearson, A. L., Stanley, J., Smith, M., Barr, M., Ni Mhurchu, C., & Signal, L. (2017). Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras. Health & Place, 46, 274-280. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.06.003

Chambers, T., Signal, L., Carter, M.-A., McConville, S., Wong, R., & Zhu, W. (2017). Alcohol sponsorship of a summer of sport: A frequency analysis of alcohol marketing during major sports events on New Zealand television. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1448), 27-33. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Signal, L. N., Smith, M. B., Barr, M., Stanley, J., Chambers, T. J., Zhou, J., … Jenkin, G. L. S., Pearson, A. L., … Hoek, J., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2017). Kids'Cam: An objective methodology to study the world in which children live. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.016

Signal, L. N., Watts, C., Murphy, C., Eyles, H., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2017). Appetite for health-related food taxes: New Zealand stakeholder views. Health Promotion International. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dax019

Signal, L., Semper, K., Stairmand, J., Davies, C., Millar, E., Dowell, T., … Mangin, D., & Sarfati, D. (2017). A walking stick in one hand and a chainsaw in the other: Patients’ perspectives of living with multimorbidity. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1455), 65-76. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Smith, M., Signal, L., Edwards, R., & Hoek, J. (2017). Children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/obr.12558

Wilson, N., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2017). Surveying all public drinking water fountains in a city: Outdoor field observations and Google Street View. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12730

Pearson, A. L., Bottomley, R., Chambers, T., Thornton, L., Stanley, J., Smith, M., Barr, M., & Signal, L. (2017). Measuring blue space visibility and ‘blue recreation’ in the everyday lives of children in a capital city. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 14(6), 563. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060563

Signal, L. N., Bowers, S. G., Edwards, R., Gifford, H., Hudson, S., Jenkin, G. L. S., Lanumata, T. S., Russell, M. L., Thomson, G., & Walton, M. D. (2016). Process, pitfalls and profits: Lessons from interviewing New Zealand policy-makers. Health Promotion International. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daw065

D'Souza, A. J., Russell, M., Wood, B., Signal, L., & Elder, D. (2016). Attitudes to physical punishment of children are changing. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 101(8), 690-693. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-310119

Dew, K., Stubbe, M., Signal, L., Stairmand, J., Dennett, E., Koea, J., Simpson, A., Sarfati, D., … Holdaway, M. (2015). Cancer care decision making in multidisciplinary meetings. Qualitative Health Research, 25(3), 397-407. doi: 10.1177/1049732314553010

Barr, M., Signal, L., Jenkin, G., & Smith, M. (2015). Capturing exposures: Using automated cameras to document environmental determinants of obesity. Health Promotion International, 30(1), 56-63. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dau089

Stairmand, J., Signal, L., Sarfati, D., Jackson, C., Batten, L., Holdaway, M., & Cunningham, C. (2015). Consideration of comorbidity in treatment decision making in multidisciplinary cancer team meetings: A systematic review. Annals of Oncology, 26, 1325-1332. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdv025

McKerchar, C., Bowers, S., Heta, C., Signal, L., & Matoe, L. (2015). Enhancing Māori food security using traditional kai. Global Health Promotion, 22(3), 15-24. doi: 10.1177/1757975914543573

Thornley, L., Ball, J., Signal, L., Lawson-Te Aho, K., & Rawson, E. (2015). Building community resilience: Learning from the Canterbury earthquakes. Kōtuitui, 10(1), 23-35. doi: 10.1080/1177083X.2014.934846

Dew, K., Signal, L., Davies, C., Tavite, H., Hooper, C., Sarfati, D., Stairmand, J., & Cunningham, C. (2015). Dissonant roles: The experience of Māori in cancer care. Social Science & Medicine, 138, 144-151. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.06.008

Jenkin, G., Madhvani, N., Signal, L., & Bowers, S. (2014). A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television. Obesity Reviews, 15(4), 281-293. doi: 10.1111/obr.12141

Duignan, M., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2014). "Good intentions, but inadequate practices": Sun protection in early childhood centres: A qualitative study from New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1389). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Pearson, A. L., de Latour, P., Kemp, G., Findlay, N., Halim, A., Atkinson, N., Chong, M., Cameron, R., Brown, C., Kim, G., Campbell, P., Hills, T., Jayawant, A., Chae, M., Bhagavan, C., French, C., Jenkin, G., Smith, M., & Signal, L. (2014). Understanding differences in access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages in children. Health & Place, 30, 94-97. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.08.013

Collings, S., Jenkin, G., Carter, K., & Signal, L. (2014). Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(5), 811-821. doi: 10.1007/s00127-013-0796-6

Smith, M., Jenkin, G., Signal, L., & McLean, R. (2014). Consuming calories and creating cavities: Beverages NZ children associate with sport. Appetite, 81, 209-217. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.06.015

Signal, L. N., Walton, M. D., Ni Mhurchu, C., Maddison, R., Bowers, S. G., Carter, K. N., … Lanumata, T. S., McKerchar, C. W., O'Dea, D., & Pearce, J. (2013). Tackling 'wicked' health promotion problems: A New Zealand case study. Health Promotion International, 28(1), 84-94. doi: 10.1093/heapro/das006

Carter, M.-A., Signal, L., Edwards, R., Hoek, J., & Maher, A. (2013). Food, fizzy, and football: Promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport: A New Zealand case study. BMC Public Health, 13, 126. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-126

Walton, M., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2013). Public policy to promote healthy nutrition in schools: Views of policymakers. Health Education Journal, 72(3), 283-291. doi: 10.1177/0017896912442950

Signal, L., Lanumata, T., Ni Mhurchu, C., & Gorton, D. (2012). Front-of-pack nutrition labelling in New Zealand: An exploration of stakeholder views about research and implementation. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 23(1), 48-51. doi: 10.1071/HE12048

Mules, T., Taylor, J., Price, R., Walker, L., Singh, B., Newsam, P., Palaniyappan, T., Snook, T., Ruselan, M., Ryan, J., Santhirasegaran, J., Shearman, P., Watson, P., Zino, R., Signal, L., Fougere, G., Moriarty, H., & Jenkin, G. (2012). Addressing patient alcohol use: A view from general practice. Journal of Primary Health Care, 4(3), 217-222. doi: 10.1071/HC12217

White, J., & Signal, L. (2012). Submissions to the Australian and New Zealand Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy support traffic light nutrition labelling. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(5), 446-451. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2012.00913.x

Signal, L., Lanumata, T., & Bowers, S. (2012). Punching loan sharks on the nose: Effective interventions to reduce financial hardship in New Zealand. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 23(2), 108-111.

Jenkin, G., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2012). Nutrition policy in whose interests? A New Zealand case study. Public Health Nutrition, 15(8), 1483-1488. doi: 10.1017/s1368980011003028

Carter, M.-A., Edwards, R., Signal, L., & Hoek, J. (2012). Availability and marketing of food and beverages to children through sports settings: A systematic review. Public Health Nutrition, 18(8), 1373-1379. doi: 10.1017/s136898001100320x

Jenkin, G. L., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2011). Framing obesity: The framing contest between industry and public health at the New Zealand inquiry into obesity. Obesity Reviews, 12(12), 1022-1030. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00918.x

Russell, M., Price, R., Signal, L., Stanley, J., Gerring, Z., & Cumming, J. (2011). What do passengers do during travel time? Structured observations on buses and trains. Journal of Public Transportation, 14(3), 123-146.

Kessaram, T., & Signal, L. (2011). Disaster management through a health promotion lens. Keeping Up to Date, 36, I-VI.

Bierre, S., Howden-Chapman, P., & Signal, L. (2010). ‘Ma and Pa’ landlords and the ‘risky’ tenant: Discourses in the New Zealand private rental sector. Housing Studies, 25(1), 21-38. doi: 10.1080/02673030903362027

Walton, M., Waiti, J., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2010). Identifying barriers to promoting healthy nutrition in New Zealand primary schools. Health Education Journal, 69(1), 84-94. doi: 10.1177/0017896910363152

Thornley, L., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2010). Does industry regulation of food advertising protect child rights? Critical Public Health, 20(1), 25-33. doi: 10.1080/09581590802566461

Smith, M. B., & Signal, L. (2009). Global influences on milk purchasing in New Zealand: Implications for health and inequalities. Globalization & Health, 5. doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-5-1

Walton, M., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2009). Household economic resources as a determinant of childhood nutrition: Policy responses for New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 36, 194-207.

Pollock, S., Signal, L., & Watts, C. (2009). Supermarket discounts: Are they promoting healthy non-alcoholic beverages? Nutrition & Dietetics, 66(2), 101-107. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0080.2009.01336.x

Walker, T., Signal, L., Russell, M., Smiler, K., Tuhiwai-Ruru, R., Otaki Community Health Centre, Te Wakahuia Hauora, Te Aitanga a Hauiti Hauora, & Turanga Health. (2008). The road we travel: Māori experience of cancer. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1279). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1279/3193/content.pdf

Walton, M., & Signal, L. (2008). Environmental influences on obesity and children's nutrition in Aotearoa New Zealand. Keeping Up to Date, (27 & 28), 1-8.

Signal, L., Lanumata, T., Robinson, J.-A., Tavila, A., Wilton, J., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2008). Perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income shoppers. Public Health Nutrition, 11(7), 706-713.

Bierre, S., Howden-Chapman, P., Signal, L., & Cunningham, C. (2007). Institutional challenges in addressing healthy low-cost housing for all: Learning from past policy. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 30, 42-64.

Bauman, A., O'Hara, L., Signal, L., Smith, B., Ritchie, J., Parker, E., & Rissel, C. (2007). A perspective on changes in values in the profession of health promotion. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 18(1), 3-6.

Signal, L., Martin, J., Reid, P., Carroll, C., Howden-Chapman, P., Keefe-Ormsby, V., … Robson, B., & Wall, T. (2007). Tackling health inequalities: Moving theory to action. International Journal for Equity in Health, 6. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-6-12

Signal, L. (2006). The challenge of Hauora: Everyone's right. Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand Newsletter, 72, 1-2.

Maher, A., Wilson, N., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2006). Patterns of sports sponsorship by gambling, alcohol and food companies: An Internet survey. BMC Public Health, 6, 95. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-95

Wilson, N., Signal, L., Nicholls, S., & Thomson, G. (2006). Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television. Preventive Medicine, 42, 96-101.

Signal, L., Langford, B., Quigley, R., & Ward, M. (2006). Strengthening health, wellbeing and equity: Embedding policy-level HIA in New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 29, 17-31.

Maher, A., Wilson, N., & Signal, L. (2005). Advertising and availability of 'obesogenic' foods around New Zealand secondary schools: A pilot study. New Zealand Medical Journal, 118(1218). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/118-1218/1556/content.pdf

Thomson, G., & Signal, L. (2005). Associations between universities and the tobacco industry: What institutional policies limit these associations? Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, (26), 186-204.

Richards, R., Fithian, N., Signal, L., & Craft, M. (2004). Equity focused HIA in New Zealand: What it can do for policy development. NSW Health Impact Assessment Project E-News, (11), 1-2. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hia/news/nswenews/en/

Signal, L., Rochford, T., Martin, J., Dew, K., Grant, M., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2004). Strengthening the capacity of mainstream organisations to tackle inequalities in health for Mäori: A heart health case study. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 15(3), 221-225.

Signal, L. N., & Durham, G. (2000). A case study of health goals in New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(2), 192-197.

Wise, M., & Signal, L. N. (2000). Health promotion development in Australia and New Zealand. Health Promotion International, 15(3), 237-248.

Signal, L. N., & Durham, G. (2000). Health impact assessment in the New Zealand policy context. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 15, 11-26.

Howden-Chapman, P. L., Signal, L. N., & Crane, J. (1999). Housing and Health in Older People: Ageing in Place. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 13, 14-30.

Signal, L. N., Durham, G., & Linton, M. (1998). Action to improve the health of New Zealanders. New Zealand Public Health Report, 5(9), 65-67.

Signal, L. N. (1998). The politics of health promotion: Insights from political theory. Health Promotion International, 13(3), 257-263.

Signal, L. N. (1997). Partnerships for health promotion: Reducing drug-related harm. Promotion & Education, IV(3), 43-45.

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Journal - Research Other

Swinburn, B., Vandevijvere, S., on behalf of submitting health professors, including Hornblow, A., Taylor, B., Drummond, B., Murdoch, D., Mangin, D., Sarfati, D., Sellman, D., Sopoaga, F., Thomson, G., Abel, G., Hoek, J., Connor, J., Krebs, J., Mann, J., McCall, J., Broughton, J., Toop, L., Signal, L., Beckert, L., Farella, M., Baker, M., Keall, M., Skeaff, M., Thomson, M., Wilson, N., Chandler, N., Priest, P., Brunton, P., Crampton, P., Gendall, P., Howden-Chapman, P., Taylor, R., Edwards, R., Gauld, R., McGee, R., Mulder, R., Derrett, S., Hales, S., Pullon, S., & Blakely, T. (2017). Proposed new industry code on unhealthy food marketing to children and young people: Will it make a difference? New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1450), 94-101. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

D'Souza, A. J., Signal, L., & Edwards, R. (2017). Patchy advances in child health hide a systematic failure to prioritise children in public policy. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1450), 12-15. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Smith, J. A., Crawford, G., & Signal, L. (2016). The case of national health promotion policy in Australia: Where to now? Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 27(1), 61-65. doi: 10.1071/HE15055

Wilson, N., Quigley, R., Mansoor, O., Smith, M., & Signal, L. (2015). Mandatory regulation or self-regulation in the age of the Volkswagen saga. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1425). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Signal, L., Firestone, R., Mann, J., Ni Mhurchu, C., Lawrenson, R., Murphy, R., … Skeaff, C. M., Taylor, R., … Walton, M. (2011). New Zealand’s shocking diabetes rates can be reduced — 9 urgently needed actions [Letter]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1340). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1340/4822/content.pdf

White, J., Thomson, G., & Signal, L. (2010). Front-of-pack nutrition labelling: Where to now? [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1324). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1324/4395/content.pdf

Rochford, T., & Signal, L. (2009). Using a framework of Māori models for health to promote the health of Māori. Keeping Up to Date, 29-30, I-VI.

Wilson, N., Thomson, G., Howden-Chapman, P., & Signal, L. (2006). Regulations should ban the sale of cigarette pack covers of health warnings [Letter]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 119(1243). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1243/2251/content.pdf

Wilson, N., Signal, L., Nicholls, S., & Thomson, G. (2006). Hazardous and beneficial nutritional messages in 858 televised food advertisements during children's viewing hours [Letter]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 119(1233). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1233/1967/content.pdf

Signal, L. N. (1997). New players for a new era of health promotion. Public Health Association News, 9(5), 1.

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