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Health Sciences profile

Professor Nick Chandler

PositionHead of Discipline of Endodontics
DepartmentDepartment of Oral Rehabilitation
QualificationsBDS(Lond) MSc(Manc) PhD(Lond) LDSRCS(Eng) FDSRCPS(Glas) FDSRCS(Edin) FFDRCSI
Research summaryEndodontics

Research

Nick Chandler is an endodontic specialist at the Faculty of Dentistry. His discipline is concerned with diseases of the dental pulp and their treatment, often involving root canal fillings, a central aspect of his research.

The use of root canal posts made of metals, carbon fibres or tooth-coloured materials to rebuild extensively damaged teeth has been an enduring interest. As well, earlier work on pulp infections, root canal sealers and detecting root ends using radiographs and electronics has been widely cited. Experiments using instruments with cutting tips as small as 0.06 mm produced unique publications.

Nick’s current research uses ultrasound for the diagnosis of dental disease. His PhD considered the laser Doppler blood flow method, proving that pulsatile flow could be detected in diseased molar teeth to give a non-invasive and accurate assessment of pulp health. His work on clinical simulation has led to new models and concepts while investigating student perceptions of teaching, learning and confidence.

Publications

Chandler, N. P., & Chong, B. S. (2017). Diagnosis. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (7th ed.) (pp. 23-39). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.

Chandler, N. P. (2017). Root canal filling. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (7th ed.) (pp. 151-173). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.

Russell, A., Friedlander, L., & Chandler, N. (2017). Sealer penetration and adaptation in root canals with the butterfly effect. Australian Endodontic Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/aej.12238

Chandler, N. P., Gray, A. R., & Murray, C. M. (2017). Eyesight: A study of the staff of a dental school. BDJ Open, 3, 17008. doi: 10.1038/bdjopen.2017.8

Russell, A. A., Chandler, N. P., & Friedlander, L. T. (2017). Vertical root fractures in root canal-treated teeth. ENDO, 11(3), 173-182.

Chapter in Book - Research

Chandler, N. P., & Chong, B. S. (2017). Diagnosis. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (7th ed.) (pp. 23-39). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.

Bogen, G., Kuttler, S., & Chandler, N. (2016). Vital pulp therapy. In K. M. Hargreaves, L. H. Berman & I. Rotstein (Eds.), Cohen's pathways of the pulp. (11th ed.) (pp. 849-876). Elsevier.

Bogen, G., Lawaty, I., & Chandler, N. (2014). MTA root canal obturation. In M. Torabinejad (Ed.), Mineral trioxide aggregate: Properties and clinical applications. (1st ed.) (pp. 208-249). Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell.

Bogen, G., Munce, C. J., & Chandler, N. (2013). Repair of perforations in endodontically treated teeth. In N. Z. Baba (Ed.), Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning. (pp. 167-180). Hanover Park, IL: Quintessence.

Chandler, N. P. (2010). Root canal filling. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (6th ed.) (pp. 131-157). Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

Bogen, G., & Chandler, N. P. (2008). Vital pulp therapy. In J. I. Ingle, L. K. Bakland & J. C. Baumgartner (Eds.), Ingle's endodontics. (6th ed.) (pp. 1310-1329). Hamilton, Canada: BC Decker.

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Chapter in Book - Other

Chandler, N. P. (2017). Root canal filling. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (7th ed.) (pp. 151-173). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.

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Journal - Research Article

Russell, A., Friedlander, L., & Chandler, N. (2017). Sealer penetration and adaptation in root canals with the butterfly effect. Australian Endodontic Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/aej.12238

Russell, A. A., Chandler, N. P., & Friedlander, L. T. (2017). Vertical root fractures in root canal-treated teeth. ENDO, 11(3), 173-182.

Chandler, N. P., Gray, A. R., & Murray, C. M. (2017). Eyesight: A study of the staff of a dental school. BDJ Open, 3, 17008. doi: 10.1038/bdjopen.2017.8

Aydemir, S., Cimilli, H., Gerni, P. M., Bozkurt, A., Orucoglu, H., Chandler, N., & Kartal, N. (2016). Comparison of the sealing ability of Biodentine, iRoot BP Plus and mineral trioxide aggregate. Cumhuriyet Dental Journal, 19(2), 166-171. doi: 10.7126/cdj.58140.5000144905

Murray, C. M., Gray, A. R., & Chandler, N. P. (2016). Eyesight: A study of dental surgery students during their clinical training. Optometry in Practice, 17(3), 113-120.

Jeganath, J., Wong, A., Chandler, N., & Murray, C. (2016). New Zealand general dentists' usage and views on caries detection methods. New Zealand Dental Journal, 112(3), 81-87.

Murray, C., & Chandler, N. (2016). Final year dental students in New Zealand: Self-reported confidence levels prior to BDS graduation. New Zealand Dental Journal, 112(4), 116-121.

Oginni, A. O., Adeleke, A. A., & Chandler, N. P. (2015). Root canal treatment and prevalence of apical periodontitis in a Nigerian adult subpopulation: A radiographic study. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry, 13(1), 85-90. doi: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a31661

Edwards, C., Bennani, V., Chandler, N., & Lowe, B. (2015). Effectiveness of disposable (single-use) tips for dental air-water syringes. European Journal of Prosthodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 23(4), 187-191. doi: 10.1992/EJPRD_1433Bridi08

Beck, V. J., Farella, M., Chandler, N. P., Kieser, J. A., & Thomson, W. M. (2014). Factors associated with pain induced by orthodontic separators. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 41(4), 282-288. doi: 10.1111/joor.12144

Cimilli, H., Aydemir, S., Arican, B., Mumcu, G., Chandler, N., & Kartal, N. (2014). Accuracy of the Dentaport ZX apex locator for working length determination when retreating molar root canals. Australian Endodontic Journal, 40(1), 2-5. doi: 10.1111/aej.12010

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2014). Laser light passage through restored and carious posterior teeth. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 41(8), 630-634. doi: 10.1111/joor.12173

Russell, A. A., He, L. H., & Chandler, N. P. (2014). Investigation of dentin hardness in roots exhibiting the butterfly effect. Journal of Endodontics, 40(6), 842-844. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.11.005

Lau, A., Bennani, V., Chandler, N., Hanlin, S., & Lowe, B. (2014). Effect of air moisture content on adhesion to dentine: A comparison of dental air/water syringe tips. European Journal of Prosthodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 22(3), 137-141. doi: 10.1922/EJPRD_1337Bennani05

Murray, C. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2014). Undergraduate endodontic teaching in New Zealand: Students’ experience, perceptions and self-confidence levels. Australian Endodontic Journal, 40(3), 116-122. doi: 10.1111/aej.12084

Aydemir, S., Cimilli, H., Mumcu, G., Chandler, N., & Kartal, N. (2014). Crack formation on resected root surfaces subjected to conventional, ultrasonic, and laser root-end cavity preparation. Photomedicine & Laser Surgery, 32(6), 351-355. doi: 10.1089/pho.2013.3696

Wong, S., Mundy, L., Chandler, N., Upritchard, J., Purton, D., & Tompkins, G. (2014). Antibacterial properties of root canal lubricants: A comparison with commonly used irrigants. Australian Endodontic Journal, 40, 111-115. doi: 10.1111/aej.12075

Kim, Y.-J. A., & Chandler, N. P. (2013). Determination of working length for teeth with wide or immature apices: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 46(6), 483-491. doi: 10.1111/iej.12032

Alothmani, O. S., Chandler, N. P., & Friedlander, L. T. (2013). The anatomy of the root apex: A review and clinical considerations in endodontics. Saudi Endodontic Journal, 3(1), 1-9. doi: 10.4103/1658-5984.116273

Beck, V. J., Stacknik, S., Chandler, N. P., & Farella, M. (2013). Orthodontic tooth movement of traumatised or root-canal-treated teeth: A clinical review. New Zealand Dental Journal, 109(1), 6-11.

Alothmani, O. S., Friedlander, L. T., Monteith, B. D., & Chandler, N. P. (2013). Influence of clinical experience on the radiographic determination of endodontic working length. International Endodontic Journal, 46(3), 211-216. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02109.x

Russell, A. A., Chandler, N. P., Hauman, C., Siddiqui, A. Y., & Tompkins, G. R. (2013). The butterfly effect: An investigation of sectioned roots. Journal of Endodontics, 39(2), 208-210. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.09.016

Cimilli, H., Aydemir, S., Kartal, N., & Chandler, N. (2013). Comparing the accuracy of four electronic apex locators for determining the minor diameter: An ex vivo study. Journal of Dental Sciences, 8(1), 27-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jds.2012.09.015

Alothmani, O. S., Friedlander, L. T., & Chandler, N. P. (2013). Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length. Saudi Endodontic Journal, 3(2), 57-64. doi: 10.4103/1658-5984.118145

O'Shea, R. P., Chandler, N. P., & Roy, R. (2013). Dentists make larger holes in teeth than they need to if the teeth present a visual illusion of size. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e77343. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077343

Violich, D. R., Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., & Monteith, B. D. (2012). Effect of the smear layer on a pulp proximity-indicating instrument. Odontology, 100, 47-53. doi: 10.1007/s10266-011-0014-5

Aziz, A., Chandler, N. P., Hauman, C. H. J., Leichter, J. W., McNaughton, A., & Tompkins, G. R. (2012). Infection of apical dentin and root-end cavity disinfection. Journal of Endodontics, 38(10), 1387-1390. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.06.034

Bogen, G., & Chandler, N. P. (2012). Pulp preservation in immature permanent teeth. Endodontic Topics, 23(1), 131-152. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-1546.2012.00286.x

Ellis, R., Bennani, V., Purton, D., Chandler, N., & Lowe, B. (2012). The effect of ultrasonic instruments on the quality of preparation margins and bonding to dentin. Journal of Esthetic & Restorative Dentistry, 24(4), 278-285. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2011.00495.x

Horne, P., Bennani, V., Chandler, N., & Purton, D. (2012). Ultrasonic margin preparation for fixed prosthodontics: A pilot study. Journal of Esthetic & Restorative Dentistry, 24(3), 201-209. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2011.00477.x

Al-Ani, A., Bennani, V., Chandler, N. P., Lyons, K. M., & Thomson, W. M. (2010). New Zealand dentists' use of gingival retraction techniques for fixed prosthodontics and implants. New Zealand Dental Journal, 106(3), 92-96.

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2010). Effect of restorations on pulpal blood flow in molars measured by laser doppler flowmetry. International Endodontic Journal, 43(1), 41-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01630.x

Violich, D. R., & Chandler, N. P. (2010). The smear layer in endodontics: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 43(1), 2-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01627.x

Desai, S., & Chandler, N. (2009). Calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers: A review. Journal of Endodontics, 35(4), 475-480. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.11.026

Desai, S., & Chandler, N. (2009). The restoration of permanent immature anterior teeth, root filled using MTA: A review. Journal of Dentistry, 37(9), 652-657. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2009.05.026

Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., Monteith, B. D., & Qualtrough, A. J. (2009). A novel instrument to determine pulp proximity. European Journal of Prosthodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 17(1), 30-34. doi: 10.1922/EJPRD_761Purton05

Roy, R., Chandler, N. P., & Lin, J. (2008). Peripheral dentin thickness after root-end cavity preparation. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 105(2), 263-266. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.08.010

Bennani, V., Schwass, D., & Chandler, N. (2008). Gingival retraction techniques for implants versus teeth: Current status. Journal of the American Dental Association, 139(10), 1354-1363.

Lin, J., & Chandler, N. P. (2008). Electric pulp testing: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 41(5), 365-374. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01375.x

Goga, R., Chandler, N. P., & Oginni, A. O. (2008). Pulp stones: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 41(6), 457-468. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01374.x

Roy, R., & Chandler, N. P. (2007). Tooth discolouration following dental trauma. ENDO, 1(3), 181-187.

Lin, J., Chandler, N., Purton, D., & Monteith, B. (2007). Appropriate electrode placement site for electric pulp testing first molar teeth. Journal of Endodontics, 33(11), 1296-1298.

Chandler, N., Leichter, J., Oginni, A., & Jennings, M. (2007). Dens invaginatus: A rare case in a maxillary third molar. ENDO, 1(4), 279-282.

Roy, R., & Chandler, N. P. (2007). Contemporary perspectives on root-end management during periapical surgery. ENDO, 1(2), 91-99.

Wong, B. K. J., Leichter, J. W., Chandler, N. P., Cullinan, M. P., & Holborow, D. W. (2007). Radiographic study of ethnic variation in alveolar bone height among New Zealand dental students. Journal of Periodontology, 78(6), 1070-1074. doi: 10.1902/jop.2007.060366

Healey, D. L., Plunkett, D. J., & Chandler, N. P. (2006). Orthodontic movement of two root fractured teeth: A case report. International Endodontic Journal, 39, 324-329.

Chandler, N. P., Ng, B. P., & Monteith, B. D. (2005). Radiographic recognition and distribution of approximal carious lesions in New Zealand undergraduate dental students. New Zealand Dental Journal, 101(3), 106-109.

Gordon, M. P. J., Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2005). An evaluation of .06 tapered gutta-percha cones for filling of .06 taper prepared curved root canals. International Endodontic Journal, 38, 87-96.

Goga, R., Chandler, N. P., & Love, R. M. (2004). Clarity and diagnostic quality of digitized conventional intraoral radiographs. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 33, 103-107.

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2004). Pulp size in molars: Underestimation on radiographs. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31, 764-769.

Purton, D. G., Ng, B. P., Chandler, N. P., & Monteith, B. D. (2004). The bitewing radiograph as an assessment tool in fixed prosthodontics. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31, 562-567.

Gordon, M. P. J., & Chandler, N. P. (2004). Electronic apex locators. International Endodontic Journal, 37, 425-437.

Koshy, S., & Chandler, N. P. (2003). Continuing professional education in endodontics in New Zealand. New Zealand Dental Journal, 99(4), 104-106.

Naoum, H. J., Chandler, N. P., & Love, R. M. (2003). Conventional versus storage phosphor-plate digital images to visualize the root canal system contrasted with a radiopaque medium. Journal of Endodontics, 29(5), 349-352.

Qualtrough, A. J. E., Chandler, N. P., & Purton, D. G. (2003). A comparison of the retention of tooth-colored posts. Quintessence International, 34(3), 199-201.

Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., & Qualtrough, A. J. E. (2003). Effect of thermocycling on the retention of glass-fiber root canal posts. Quintessence International, 34(5), 366-369.

Naoum, H. J., Love, R. M., Chandler, N. P., & Herbison, G. P. (2003). Effect of X-ray beam angulation and intraradicular contrast medium on radiographic interpretation of lower first molar root canal anatomy. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 12-19.

Chandler, N. P., Qualtrough, A. J. E., & Purton, D. G. (2003). Comparison of two methods for the removal of root canal posts. Quintessence International, 34(7), 534-536.

Hauman, C. H. J., Chandler, N. P., & Purton, D. G. (2003). Factors influencing the removal of posts. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 687-690.

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2003). Coronal pulp size in molars: a study of bitewing radiographs. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 757-763.

Chandler, N. P., & Koshy, S. (2002). The changing role of the apicectomy operation in dentistry. Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 47, 660-667.

Koshy, S., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Therapeutic users of lasers in endodontics. Endodontology Today, 2, 49-58.

Naoum, H. J., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Temporization for endodontics. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 964-978.

Martell, B., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Electrical and dye leakage comparision of three root-end restorative materials. Quintessence International, 33, 30-34.

Chandler, N. P., & Koshy, S. (2002). Radiographic practices of dentists undertaking endontics in New Zealand. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 31, 317-321.

Hauman, C. H. J., Chandler, N. P., & Tong, D. C. (2002). Endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 127-141.

Friedlander, L. T., Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). A comparision of phosphor-plate digital images with conventional radiographs for the perceived clarity of fine endodontic files and periapical lesions. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 93, 321-327.

Koshy, S., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Use of rubber dam and its association with other endodontic procedures in New Zealand. New Zealand Dental Journal, 98, 12-16.

Drummond, B. K., Chandler, N. P., & Meldrum, A. M. (2002). Comparison of the cariogenicity of some processed cheeses. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 4, 188-194.

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Watson, T. F. (2001). Pattern of transmission of laser light through carious molar teeth. International Endodontic Journal, 34, 526-532.

Purton, D. G., Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2000). Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts. Operative Dentistry, 25, 223-227.

Chandler, N. P., Love, R. M., & Sundqvist, G. (1999). Laser Doppler flowmetry. An aid in differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 87(5), 613-616.

Odor, T. M., Chandler, N. P., Watson, T. F., Pitt Ford, T. R., & McDonald, F. (1999). Laser light transmission in teeth: a study of the patterns in different specieis. International Endodontic Journal, 32, 296-302.

Heling, I., & Chandler, N. P. (1998). Antimicrobial effect of irrigant combinations within dentinal tubules. International Endodontic Journal, 31, 8-14.

Warren, C. J., & Chandler, N. P. (1998). Influence of file handle attachments on tactile discrimination: An evaluation by dental students. International Endodontic Journal, 31, 100-102.

Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., & Love, R. M. (1998). Rigidity and retention of root canal posts. British Dental Journal, 184, 294-296.

Chandler, N. P., & Fyfe, D. M. (1997). Root canals of buried teeth: radiographic changes due to crystal growth. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 7(1), 11-17.

Purton, D. G., & Chandler, N. P. (1997). Sclerotic bone lesions: report of three cases. New Zealand Dental Journal, 93, 14-16.

Pack, A. R. C., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). A combined endodontic-periodontal lesion of development origin: a case report. New Zealand Dental Journal, 92, 46-48.

Love, R. M., Chandler, N. P., & Jenkinson, H. F. (1996). Penetration of smeared or non-smeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii. International Endodontic Journal, 29, 2-12.

Thomson, M. E., Thomson, C. W., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). In vitro and intra-oral investigations into the cariogenic potential of human milk. Caries Research, 30(6), 434-438.

Cathro, P. R., Chandler, N. P., & Hood, J. A. A. (1996). Impact resistance of crowned endodontically treated central incisors with internal composite cores. Endodontics & Dental Traumatology, 12(3), 124-128. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1996.tb00110.x

Chandler, N. P., Shaw, J. R., & Treble, S. J. (1996). Effect of endodontic instrument handle diameter on operator performance. Journal of Endodontics, 22, 110-111.

Heling, I., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). The antimicrobial effect within dentinal tubules of four root canal sealers. Journal of Endodontics, 22, 257-259.

Chandler, N. P., & Cathro, P. R. (1996). Endondontic sequelae of miniplate bone fixation. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 81(4), 467-471. doi: 10.1016/S1079-2104(96)80026-6

Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). A scanning electron and confocal laser microscope investigation of tetracycline-affected human dentine. International Endodontic Journal, 29(6), 376-381.

Chandler, N. P., & Gray, A. (1996). Patent nasopalatine ducts: a case report. New Zealand Dental Journal, 92, 80-82.

Osborne, G. E., & Chandler, N. P. (1995). Simulated resorptive defects and open apices using bovine and human teeth as teaching models. International Endodontic Journal, 28(2), 111-113. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.1995.tb00170.x

Chandler, N. P., & Heling, I. (1995). Efficacy of three cavity liners in eliminating bacteria from infected dentinal tubules. Quintessence International, 26, 655-659.

Chandler, N. P., Thomson, M. E., & Thomson, C. W. (1995). The effect of fluoridated milk on bovine dental enamel. Advances in Dental Research, 9, 116-117.

Heling, I., Gottlieb-Danon, I., & Chandler, N. P. (1995). Mandibular canine with two roots and three canals. Endodontics & Dental Traumatology, 11, 301-302.

Drummond, B. K., Holborow, D. W., & Chandler, N. P. (1995). Guided tissue regeneration in managing an incisor with a labially fused supernumerary: case report. Pediatric Dentistry, 17, 368-371.

Treasure, P., Chandler, N. P., & Wilson, C. G. (1994). Image shift of intracoronal pins viewed on bite-wing and panoramic radiographs. Oral Surgery, Oral medicine, Oral Pathology, 77(1), 80-85.

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