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Health Sciences profile

Associate Professor Alan Carne

PositionAssociate Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Biochemistry
QualificationsBSc(Hons) PhD(Massey)
Research summaryProtein purification and characterisation

Research


Coomassie blue stained 1D-PAGE of protein fractions.

My laboratory is involved with various protein-based research projects.

  1. Utilisation of natural product protein-containing materials that are by-products or waste products of processing, such as milk cheese whey, meat and blood waste, oilseed cake residue
  2. Production of bioactive peptides from protein-containing by-product/waste product materials, using proteases of non-gut origin
  3. Characterisation of milk protein fractions from different species
  4. Meat tenderising
  5. Characterisation of carotenoid and polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments from sea urchin and their binding interactions with proteins
  6. Encapsulation of health-promoting molecules
  7. Several other protein-based collaborative research projects


Silver stained large format 2D-PAGE protein extract display.

We use a variety of protein purification and analysis methods, including 1D- and 2D-electrophoresis (both mini-gel and large format), OFFGEL isoelectric focussing, western blotting, FPLC and HPLC of proteins, peptides and pigments, use of mass spectrometry workflows for proteomic analysis, and various biophysical analysis methods in collaboration with other researchers. Protease assays, bioactive peptide in vitro bioassays and more specialised cell-based assays.

Scientific image.
Ion exchange chromatogram of fractionated proteins.

Awards

Daniel Garama

2012, Te Amorangi National Māori Excellence Award for doctoral studies

Publications

Chia, J., Burrow, K., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Samuelsson, L., Day, L., … Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Minerals in sheep milk. In R. R. Watson, R. J. Collier & V. R. Preedy (Eds.), Nutrients in dairy and their implications for health and disease. (pp. 345-362). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809762-5.00027-9

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Ahmed, I. A. M., Al-Juhaimi, F. Y., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Effect of low and high pulsed electric field processing on macro and micro minerals in beef and chicken. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 45, 273-279. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.11.012

Tirgar, M., Silcock, P., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2017). Effect of extraction method on functional properties of flaxseed protein concentrates. Food Chemistry, 215, 417-424. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.002

Mros, S., Carne, A., Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Young, W., & McConnell, M. (2017). Comparison of the bioactivity of whole and skimmed digested sheep milk with that of digested goat and cow milk in functional cell culture assays. Small Ruminant Research, 149, 202-208. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2017.02.018

Shavandi, A., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). An improved method for solubilisation of wool keratin using peracetic acid. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2017.03.043

Chapter in Book - Research

Chia, J., Burrow, K., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Samuelsson, L., Day, L., … Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Minerals in sheep milk. In R. R. Watson, R. J. Collier & V. R. Preedy (Eds.), Nutrients in dairy and their implications for health and disease. (pp. 345-362). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809762-5.00027-9

Bekhit, A. E., Hopkins, D. L., Farouk, M. M., & Carne, A. (2013). Interventions to improve the tenderness of fresh meat: A future prospect for camel meat research. In I. T. Kadim, O. Mahgoub, B. Faye & M. Farouk (Eds.), Camel meat and meat products. (pp. 153-185). Oxford, UK: CABI.

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Journal - Research Article

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Ahmed, I. A. M., Al-Juhaimi, F. Y., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Effect of low and high pulsed electric field processing on macro and micro minerals in beef and chicken. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 45, 273-279. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.11.012

Shavandi, A., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). An improved method for solubilisation of wool keratin using peracetic acid. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2017.03.043

Mros, S., Carne, A., Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Young, W., & McConnell, M. (2017). Comparison of the bioactivity of whole and skimmed digested sheep milk with that of digested goat and cow milk in functional cell culture assays. Small Ruminant Research, 149, 202-208. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2017.02.018

Tirgar, M., Silcock, P., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2017). Effect of extraction method on functional properties of flaxseed protein concentrates. Food Chemistry, 215, 417-424. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.002

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Mohamed Ahmed, I. A., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Quality and nutritional minerals in chicken breast muscle treated with low and high pulsed electric fields. Food & Bioprocess Technology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11947-017-1997-x

Shavandi, A., Hu, Z., Teh, S., Zhao, J., Carne, A., Bekhit, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from squid pen chitosan extraction effluent. Food Chemistry, 227, 194-201. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.099

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Carne, A., & Silcock, P. (2017). Effects of pH, temperature and pulsed electric fields on the turbidity and protein aggregation of ovomucin-depleted egg white. Food Research International, 91, 161-170. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.12.005

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Ahmed, I. A. M., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Effect of low and high pulsed electric field on the quality and nutritional minerals in cold boned beef M. longissimus et lumborum. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 41, 135-143. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.03.002

Ryder, K., Ali, M. A., Carne, A., & Billakanti, J. (2017). The potential use of dairy by-products for the production of non-food biomaterials. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/10643389.2017.1322875

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Silcock, P., & Carne, A. (2017). In vitro peptic digestion of ovomucin-depleted egg white affected by pH, temperature and pulsed electric fields. Food Chemistry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.136

Shavandi, A., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. (2017). Evaluation of keratin extraction from wool by chemical methods for bio-polymer application. Journal of Bioactive & Compatible Polymers, 32(2), 163-177. doi: 10.1177/0883911516662069

Haddadian, Z., Eyres, G. T., Carne, A., Everett, D. W., & Bremer, P. (2017). Impact of different milk fat globule membrane preparations on protein composition, xanthine oxidase activity, and redox potential. International Dairy Journal, 64, 14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.09.006

Welsh, G., Ryder, K., Brewster, J., Walker, C., Mros, S., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., McConnell, M., & Carne, A. (2017). Comparison of bioactive peptides prepared from sheep cheese whey using a food-grade bacterial and a fungal protease preparation. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.13392

Ryder, K., Ali, M. A., Billakanti, J., & Carne, A. (2017). Fundamental characterisation of caseins harvested by dissolved air flotation from dairy wastewater and comparison with skim milk powder. International Dairy Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2017.11.007

Haddadian, Z., Bremer, P., Eyres, G. T., Carne, A., & Everett, D. W. (2016). The impact of cream churning conditions on xanthine oxidase activity and oxidation-reduction potential in model emulsion systems. International Dairy Journal, 60, 55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.01.017

Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. A. (2016). Composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red deer, sheep, pig and cattle. Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 96(1), 79-89. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7062

Teh, S.-S., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, J. (2016). Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain. Food Chemistry, 203, 199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.057

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., & Hopkins, D. L. (2016). Effect of repeated pulsed electric field treatment on the quality of hot boned beef loins and topsides. Meat Science, 111, 139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.09.001

Ryder, K., Bekhit, A. E.-D., McConnell, M., & Carne, A. (2016). Towards generation of bioactive peptides from meat industry waste proteins: Generation of peptides using commercial microbial proteases. Food Chemistry, 208, 42-50. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.121

Pilbrow, J., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Carne, A. (2016). Fractionation of sheep cheese whey by a scalable method to sequentially isolate bioactive proteins. Food Chemistry, 203, 165-174. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.065

Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., McConnell, M. A., & Carne, A. (2016). Generation of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from cattle plasma using plant and fungal proteases. Food Chemistry, 213, 98-107. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.065

Hou, Y., Shavandi, A., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. A., Ng, T. B., Cheung, R. C. F., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2016). Marine shells: Potential opportunities for extraction of functional and health-promoting materials. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology, 46(11-12), 1047-1116. doi: 10.1080/10643389.2016.1202669

Bah, C. S. F., Carne, A., McConnell, M. A., Mros, S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2016). Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 202, 458-466. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.020

Walker, G. V., Heng, N. C. K., Carne, A., Tagg, J. R., & Wescombe, P. A. (2016). Salivaricin E and abundant dextranase activity may contribute to the anti-cariogenic potential of the probiotic candidate Streptococcus salivarius JH. Microbiology, 162(3), 476-486. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000237

Ha, M., Sabherwal, M., Duncan, E., Stevens, S., Stockwell, P., McConnell, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., & Carne, A. (2015). In-depth characterization of sheep (Ovis aries) milk whey proteome and comparison with cow (Bos taurus). PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139774

Teh, S.-S., Niven, B. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2015). Microwave and pulsed electric field assisted extractions of polyphenols from defatted canola seed cake. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50, 1109-1115. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.12749

Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of repeated pulsed electric field treatment on the quality of cold-boned beef loins and topsides. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 8(6), 1218-1228. doi: 10.1007/s11947-015-1485-0

Teh, S.-S., Niven, B. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, J. (2015). Optimization of polyphenol extraction and antioxidant activities of extracts from defatted flax seed cake (Linum usitatissimum L.) using microwave-assisted and pulsed electric field (PEF) technologies with response surface methodology. Food Science & Biotechnology, 24(5), 1649-1659. doi: 10.1007/s10068-015-0214-9

Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on the eating and keeping qualities of cold-boned beef loins: Impact of initial pH and fibre orientation. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 8(6), 1355-1365. doi: 10.1007/s11947-015-1498-8

Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness. Meat Science, 105, 25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.02.009

Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. A. (2015). Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 176, 54-63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.025

Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of pulsed electric field on the proteolysis of cold boned beef M. Longissimus lumborum and M. Semimembranosus. Meat Science, 100, 222-226. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.10.011

Ryder, K., Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., & Carne, A. (2015). Characterisation of novel fungal and bacterial protease preparations and evaluation of their ability to hydrolyse meat myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins. Food Chemistry, 172, 197-206. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.061

Teh, S.-S., Niven, B. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2014). The use of microwave and pulsed electric field as a pretreatment step in ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from defatted hemp seed cake (Cannabis sativa) using response surface methodology. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 7(11), 3064-3076. doi: 10.1007/s11947-014-1313-y

Gebhard, S., Fang, C., Shaaly, A., Leslie, D. J., Weimar, M. R., Kalamorz, F., Carne, A., & Cook, G. M. (2014). Identification and characterization of a bacitracin resistance network in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 58(3), 1425-1433. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02111-13

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., Ha, M., & Franks, P. (2014). Physical interventions to manipulate texture and tenderness of fresh meat: A review. International Journal of Food Properties, 17(2), 433-453. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2011.642442

Johnson, S. L., Villarroel, M., Rosengrave, P., Carne, A., Kleffmann, T., Lokman, P. M., & Gemmell, N. J. (2014). Proteomic analysis of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid. PLoS ONE, 9(8), e104155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104155

Teh, S.-S., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Birch, J. (2014). Effect of the defatting process, acid and alkali extraction on the physicochemical and functional properties of hemp, flax and canola seed cake protein isolates. Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization, 8(2), 92-104. doi: 10.1007/s11694-013-9168-x

Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., & Carne, A. (2014). Effects of L- and iso-ascorbic acid on meat protein hydrolyzing activity of four commercial plant and three microbial protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 149, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.082

Pilbrow, J., Sabherwal, M., Garama, D., & Carne, A. (2014). A novel fatty acid-binding protein-like carotenoid-binding protein from the gonad of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e106465. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106465

Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., McConnell, M., Mason, S., & Carne, A. (2014). Fractionation of whey proteins from red deer (Cervus elaphus) milk and comparison with whey proteins from cow, sheep and goat milks. Small Ruminant Research, 120(1), 125-134. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.04.012

Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2013). Characterization of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins. Food Chemistry, 136(2), 989-998. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.034

Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. A. (2013). Slaughterhouse blood: An emerging source of bioactive compounds. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science & Food Safety, 12(3), 314-331. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12013

Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2013). Comparison of the proteolytic activities of new commercially available bacterial and fungal proteases toward meat proteins. Journal of Food Science, 78(2), C170-C177. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12027

Rodger, E. J., Suetani, R. J., Jones, G. T., Kleffmann, T., Carne, A., Legge, M., & McCormick, S. P. A. (2012). Proteomic analysis of aortae from human lipoprotein(a) transgenic mice shows an early metabolic response independent of atherosclerosis. PLoS ONE, 7(1), e30383. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030383

Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2012). Characterisation of commercial papain, bromelain, actinidin and zingibain protease preparations and their activities toward meat proteins. Food Chemistry, 134(1), 95-105. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.071

Garama, D., Bremer, P., & Carne, A. (2012). Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 59(1), 83-85.

Pilbrow, J., Garama, D., & Carne, A. (2012). Carotenoid-binding proteins: Accessories to carotenoid function. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 59(1), 163-165.

Turner, P. R., Bourne, K., Garama, D., Carne, A., Abraham, W. C., & Tate, W. P. (2007). Production, purification and functional validation of human secreted amyloid precursor proteins for use as neuropharmacological reagents. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 164, 68-74.

Swe, P. M., Heng, N. C. K., Ting, Y.-T., Baird, H. J., Carne, A., Tauch, A., Tagg, J. R., & Jack, R. W. (2007). ef1097 and ypkK encode enterococcin V583 and corynicin JK, members of a new family of antimicrobial proteins (bacteriocins) with modular structure from Gram-positive bacteria. Microbiology, 153, 3218-3227.

Sadighi, M., Reichman, N., Wilson, K., Carne, A., & Thompson, M. P. (2006). A nitrogen balance experiment using simulated urine samples. Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Education, 34(4), 289-293.

Balakrishnan, M., Simmonds, R. S., Carne, A., & Tagg, J. R. (2000). Streptococcus mutans strain N produces a novel low molecular mass non-lantibiotic bacteriocin. FEMS Letters, 183, 165-169.

Molteno, A. C. B., Dempster, A. G., & Carne, A. (1999). Molteno implants: the principles of bleb management. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 27, 350-353.

Brown, M. A., Carne, A., & Chambers, G. K. (1997). Purification, partial characterization and peptide sequences of vitellogenin from a reptile, the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B, 117(2), 159-168.

Monk, P. D., Carne, A., Liu, S.-H., Ford, J. W., Keen, J. N., & Findlay, J. B. C. (1996). Isolation, cloning and characterisation of a trp homologue from squid (Loligo forbesi) photoreceptor membranes. Journal of Neurochemistry, 67(6), 2227-2235.

Brown, M. A., Carne, A., & Chambers, G. K. (1996). Indentification and partial characterisation of a2-macroglobulin from the Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B, 113, 731-736.

Carne, A., Mc Gregor, R. A., Bhatia, J., Sivaprasadarao, A., Keen, J. N., Davies, A. F., & Findlay, J. B. C. (1995). A ¯-subclass phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from squid (Loligo forbesi) photoreceptors exhibiting a truncated C-terminus. FEBS Letters, 372, 243-248.

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Journal - Research Other

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Carne, A., & Silcock, P. (2017). Bioactive peptides derived from egg proteins: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1329704

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