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Associate Professor Phil Sheard

Phil SheardAssociate Professor Phil Sheard is interested in sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength that has profound implications for the elderly.

He is specifically interested in the role of the motor nerve terminal because progressive withdrawal of the motor nerve from the muscle fibre seems to be a conspicuous feature of elderly muscle. He is currently examining age-related changes to the neuromuscular junction with a view to using this information to establish whether motor nerve withdrawal is a cause of muscle fibre death, or a consequence of it.

Associate Professor Sheard uses electrophysiology, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, fluorescence and transmitted light microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and anterograde and retrograde cell tracing techniques.

Find out more about Associate Professor Phil Sheard’s work.

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Publications

Gillon, A., Nielsen, K., Steel, C., Cornwall, J., & Sheard, P. (2018). Exercise attenuates age-associated changes in motoneuron number, nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins and neuromuscular health. GeoScience. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11357-018-0020-4

Nielsen, K. B., Lal, N. N., & Sheard, P. W. (2018). Age-related remodelling of the myotendinous junction in the mouse soleus muscle. Experimental Gerontology, 104, 52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.01.021

Tan, C. L., Sheard, P. W., & Jasoni, C. L. (2018). Developing neurites from mouse basal forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons use Sonic hedgehog to modulate their growth. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.05.005

Hennebry, A., Oldham, J., Shavlakadze, T., Grounds, M. D., Sheard, P., Fiorotto, M. L., … McMahon, C. D. (2017). IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice. Journal of Endocrinology, 234(2), 187-200. doi: 10.1530/joe-17-0032

Cornwall, J., Lal, N., Slatter, T., Rowlands, D., & Sheard, P. (2017). Autophagic dysfunction has a key role in age-related myofibre death. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 36(Suppl. 1), (pp. 20). doi: 10.1111/ajag.12395

Chapter in Book - Research

Sayer, R. J., Bray, J. J., Mills, R. G., & Sheard, P. W. (1999). Introduction to the Nervous System. In J. J. Bray, P. A. Cragg, A. D. C. Macknight & R. G. Mills (Eds.), Lecture Notes on Human Physiology. (pp. 39-64). London: Blackwell Science.

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Journal - Research Article

Gillon, A., Nielsen, K., Steel, C., Cornwall, J., & Sheard, P. (2018). Exercise attenuates age-associated changes in motoneuron number, nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins and neuromuscular health. GeoScience. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11357-018-0020-4

Tan, C. L., Sheard, P. W., & Jasoni, C. L. (2018). Developing neurites from mouse basal forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons use Sonic hedgehog to modulate their growth. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.05.005

Nielsen, K. B., Lal, N. N., & Sheard, P. W. (2018). Age-related remodelling of the myotendinous junction in the mouse soleus muscle. Experimental Gerontology, 104, 52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.01.021

Hennebry, A., Oldham, J., Shavlakadze, T., Grounds, M. D., Sheard, P., Fiorotto, M. L., … McMahon, C. D. (2017). IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice. Journal of Endocrinology, 234(2), 187-200. doi: 10.1530/joe-17-0032

Cornwall, J., Farrell, S. F., & Sheard, P. W. (2016). Fibre types of human suboccipital muscles. European Journal of Anatomy, 20(1), 31-36.

White, Z., Terrill, J., White, R. B., McMahon, C., Sheard, P., Grounds, M. D., & Shavlakadze, T. (2016). Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice. Skeletal Muscle, 6(1), 45. doi: 10.1186/s13395-016-0117-3

Thaung, H. P. A., Baldi, J. C., Wang, H.-Y., Hughes, G., Cook, R. F., Bussey, C. T., Sheard, P. W., Bahn, A., Jones, P. P., Schwenke, D. O., & Lamberts, R. R. (2015). Increased efferent cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and defective intrinsic heart rate regulation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 64(8), 2944-2956. doi: 10.2337/db14-0955

Gillon, A., & Sheard, P. (2015). Elderly mouse skeletal muscle fibres have a diminished capacity to upregulate NCAM production in response to denervation. Biogerontology, 16(6), 811-823. doi: 10.1007/s10522-015-9608-6

Lal, N., & Sheard, P. (2015). Dying myofibers in elderly mouse skeletal muscles are characterized by the appearance of dystrophin-encircled vacuoles. Biogerontology, 16, 443-459. doi: 10.1007/s10522-015-9565-0

Hellyer, S. D., Selwood, A. I., van Ginkel, R., Munday, R., Sheard, P., Miles, C. O., … Kerr, D. S. (2014). In vitro labelling of muscle type nicotinic receptors using a fluorophore-conjugated pinnatoxin F derivative. Toxicon, 87, 17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.05.013

Rowlands, D. S., Page, R. A., Sukala, W. R., Giri, M., Ghimbovschi, S. D., Hayat, I., … Leikis, M., Sheard, P. W., Wakefield, St. J., … Krebs, J., … Hoffman, E. P. (2014). Multi-omic integrated networks connect DNA methylation and miRNA with skeletal muscle plasticity to chronic exercise in Type 2 diabetic obesity. Physiological Genomics, 46(20), 747-765. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00024.2014

McMahon, C. D., Chai, R., Radley-Crabb, H. G., Watson, T., Matthews, K. G., Sheard, P. W., … Shavlakadze, T. (2014). Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(6), e423-e435. doi: 10.1111/sms.12200

Davies, T. M., Cornwall, J., & Sheard, P. W. (2013). Modelling dichotomously marked muscle fibre configurations. Statistics in Medicine, 32(24), 4240-4258. doi: 10.1002/sim.5806

Sheard, P. W., & Anderson, R. D. (2012). Age-related loss of muscle fibres is highly variable amongst mouse skeletal muscles. Biogerontology, 13(2), 157-167. doi: 10.1007/s10522-011-9365-0

Sheard, P. W., Bewick, G. S., Woolley, A. G., Shaw, J., Fisher, L., Fong, S. W., & Duxson, M. J. (2010). Investigation of neuromuscular abnormalities in neurotrophin-3-deficient mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 31(1), 29-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.07032.x

Woolley, A. G., Tait, K. J., Hurren, B. J., Fisher, L., Sheard, P. W., & Duxson, M. J. (2008). Developmental loss of NT-3 in vivo results in reduced levels of myelin-specific proteins, a reduced extent of myelination and increased apoptosis of Schwann cells. GLIA, 56(3), 306-317. doi: 10.1002/glia.20614

Li, C., Stanton, J.-A. L., Robertson, T. M., Suttie, J. M., Sheard, P. W., Harris, A. J., & Clark, D. E. (2007). Nerve growth factor mRNA expression in the regenerating antler tip of red deer (Cervus elaphus). PLoS ONE, 2(1), e148. Retrieved from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000148

Woolley, A. G., Sheard, P. W., & Duxson, M. J. (2005). Neurotrophin-3 null mutant mice display a postnatal motor neuropathy. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 2100-2110.

Sun, C.-K., Zhang, X.-Y., Sheard, P. W., Mabuchi, A., & Wheatley, A. M. (2005). Change in mitochondrial membrane potential is the key mechanism in early warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Microvascular Research, 70, 102-110.

Homer, C., Knight, D. A., Hananeia, L., Sheard, P., Risk, J., Lasham, A., Royds, J. A., & Braithwaite, A. W. (2005). Y-box factor YB1 controls p53 apoptotic function. Oncogene, 24, 8314-8325. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v24/n56/abs/1208998a.html

Mabuchi, A., Mullaney, I., Sheard, P. W., Hessian, P. A., Mallard, B. L., Tawadrous, M. N., … Wheatley, A. M. (2004). Role of hepatic stellate cell/hepatocyte interaction and activation of hepatic stellate cells in the early phase of liver regeneration in the rat. Journal of Hepatology, 40, 910-916.

Mabuchi, A., Mullaney, I., Sheard, P., Hessian, P., Zimmermann, A., Senoo, H., & Wheatley, A. M. (2004). Role of hepatic stellate cells in the early phase of liver regeneration in rat: Formation of tight adhesion to parenchymal cells. Comparative Hepatology, 3(Suppl. 1), S29.

Paul, A. C., Sheard, P. W., & Duxson, M. J. (2004). Development of a mammalian series-fibered muscle. Anatomical Record Part A, 278A, 571-578.

Maclennan, K. M., Zheng, Y., Sheard, P. W., Williams, S. M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2003). Adrenalectomy-induced cell death in the dentate gyrus: Further characterisation using TUNEL and effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761 and ginkgolide B. Hippocampus, 13, 212-225.

Zhang, Y.-F., Homer, C., Edwards, S. J., Hananeia, L., Lasham, A., Royds, J., Sheard, P., & Braithwaite, A. W. (2003). Nuclear localization of Y-box factor YB1 requires wild-type p53. Oncogene, 22, 2782-2794. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1206357

Sheard, P. W., Paul, A., & Duxson, M. J. (2002). Intramuscular force transmission. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology, 508, 495-499.

Sheard, P. W., Musaad, K., & Duxson, M. J. (2002). Distribution of neurotrophin receptors in the mouse neuromuscular system. International Journal of Developmental Biology, 46, 569-575.

Paul, A. C., Sheard, P. W., Kaufman, S. J., & Duxson, M. J. (2002). Localization of α7 integrins and dystrophin suggests potential for both lateral and longitudinal transmission of tension in large mammalian muscles. Cell & Tissue Research, 308, 255-265.

Sheard, P. W. (2000). Tension delivery from short fibers in long muscles. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 28(2), 51-56.

Scarlett, J. L., Sheard, P. W., Hughes, G., Ledgerwood, E. C., Ku, H.-H., & Murphy, M. P. (2000). Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential during staurosporine-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. FEBS Letters, 475, 267-272.

Young, M., Paul, A., Rodda, J., Duxson, M. J., & Sheard, P. W. (2000). Examination of intrafascicular muscle fiber terminations: Implications for tension delivery in series-fibered muscles. Journal of Morphology, 245, 130-145.

James, A. M., Sheard, P. W., Wei, Y.-H., & Murphy, M. P. (1999). Decreased ATP synthesis is phenotypically expressed during increased energy demand in fibroblasts containing mitochondrial tRNA mutations: Implications for neurodegenerative and mitochondrial DNA diseases. European Journal of Biochemistry, 259, 462-469.

Woolley, A., Sheard, P. W., Dodds, K. G., & Duxson, M. J. (1999). Alpha motoneurons are present in normal numbers but with reduced soma size in neurotrophin-3 knockout mice. Neuroscience Letters, 272, 107-110.

Sheard, P. W., McHannigan, P., & Duxson, M. J. (1999). Single and paired motor unit performance in skeletal muscles: Comparison between simple and series-fibred muscles from the rat and the guinea pig. Basic & Applied Myology, 9(2), 79-87.

Porteous, W. K., James, A. M., Sheard, P. W., Porteous, C., Packer, M., Hyslop, S. J., Melton, J. V., … Murphy, M. P. (1998). Bioenergetic consequences of accumulating the common 4977-bp mitochondrial DNA deletion. European Journal of Biochemistry, 257, 192-201.

Beazley, L. D., Sheard, P. W., Tennant, M., Starac, D., & Dunlop, S. A. (1997). Optic nerve regenerates but does not restore topographic projections in the lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 377(1), 105-120.

Sheard, P. W., & Duxson, M. J. (1997). The transient existence of "en passant" nerve terminals in normal embryonic rat skeletal muscle. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research, 98(2), 259-264.

Sheard, P. W., Oettli, H. E., Johnson, A. J., & Duxson, M. J. (1997). Variations in oxidative enzyme type profiles among prenatal rat lumbar motoneurons. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research, 103(1), 67-75.

Sheard, P. W., & Duxson, M. J. (1996). Composition of newly forming motor units in prenatal rat intercostal muscle. Developmental Dynamics, 205, 196-212.

Duxson, M. J., & Sheard, P. W. (1995). Formation of new myotubes occurs exclusively at the multiple innervation zones of an embryonic large muscle. Developmental Dynamics, 204, 391-405.

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Journal - Professional & Other Non-Research Articles

Davies, T. M., Sheard, P. W., & Cornwall, J. (2016). Comment on Makino et al. and observations on spatial modeling. Anatomical Science International, 91(4), 423-424. doi: 10.1007/s12565-016-0347-9

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Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Abstract

Cornwall, J., Lal, N., Slatter, T., Rowlands, D., & Sheard, P. (2017). Autophagic dysfunction has a key role in age-related myofibre death. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 36(Suppl. 1), (pp. 20). doi: 10.1111/ajag.12395

Nielsen, K., & Sheard, P. (2017). The protective role of endurance exercise in age-related loss of muscle mass. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 36(Suppl. 1), (pp. 21). doi: 10.1111/ajag.12395

Sheard, P., Brady, J., Nielsen, K., & Cornwall, J. (2017). Age and exercise-related changes in Neurotrophin-r and Neuregulin amongst mouse lumbar motoneurons. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 36(Suppl. 1), (pp. 20). doi: 10.1111/ajag.12395

Brady, J., & Sheard, P. (2015). Implementation of internal intensity controls for semi-quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Proceedings of the 27th National Conference on Microscopy. Retrieved from http://microscopy2015.otago.ac.nz/index.html

Brady, J., Gillon, A., Lal, N., & Sheard, P. (2015). Age-related declines in synaptic proteins, agrin and rapsyn, and their relevance to sarcopenia. Clinical Anatomy, 28(7), (pp. 940). doi: 10.1002/ca.22520

Lal, N., Cornwall, J., & Sheard, P. (2015). Elderly dying myofibers are characterized by Dystrophin Encircle Vacuoles and invaginations with Intracellular Localization (DEVILs). Clinical Anatomy, 28(7), (pp. 945-946). doi: 10.1002/ca.22520

Brady, J., Lal, N., & Sheard, P. (2015). Introducing an algorithm with user-defined parameters for improving consistency of immunofluorescence analysis. Proceedings of the 27th National Conference on Microscopy. Retrieved from http://microscopy2015.otago.ac.nz/index.html

Lal, N., Sheard, P., & Cornwall, J. (2014). Age-related myofibre death in human skeletal muscle may be evident by the appearance of vacuolated myofibres. Annals of Anatomy, 196(Suppl.), (pp. 106). doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2014.05.035

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