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Department of Biochemistry profile

Associate Professor Alan Carne

PositionAssociate Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Biochemistry
QualificationsBSc(Hons) PhD(Massey)
Research summaryProtein purification and characterisation

Research


Coomassie blue stained 1D-PAGE of protein fractions.

My laboratory is involved with various protein-based research projects.

  1. Utilisation of natural product protein-containing materials that are by-products or waste products of processing, such as milk cheese whey, meat and blood waste, oilseed cake residue
  2. Production of bioactive peptides from protein-containing by-product/waste product materials, using proteases of non-gut origin
  3. Characterisation of milk protein fractions from different species
  4. Meat tenderising
  5. Characterisation of carotenoid and polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments from sea urchin and their binding interactions with proteins
  6. Encapsulation of health-promoting molecules
  7. Several other protein-based collaborative research projects


Silver stained large format 2D-PAGE protein extract display.

We use a variety of protein purification and analysis methods, including 1D- and 2D-electrophoresis (both mini-gel and large format), OFFGEL isoelectric focussing, western blotting, FPLC and HPLC of proteins, peptides and pigments, use of mass spectrometry workflows for proteomic analysis, and various biophysical analysis methods in collaboration with other researchers. Protease assays, bioactive peptide in vitro bioassays and more specialised cell-based assays.

Scientific image.
Ion exchange chromatogram of fractionated proteins.

Awards

Daniel Garama

2012, Te Amorangi National Māori Excellence Award for doctoral studies

Publications

Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Use of fungal and bacterial protease preparations to enhance extraction of lipid from fish roe: Effect on lipidomic profile of extracted oil. Food Chemistry: X, 16, 100499. doi: 10.1016/j.fochx.2022.100499

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Ahmmed, M. K., Sicuro, B., Ghelichi, S., & Carne, A. (2022). Fish roe products: European perspective. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 311-341). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00012-6

Amin, H. F., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Fish roe products: Middle East perspective. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 283-310). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00010-2

Verachia, W., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. A. (2022). Fish roe from sea urchin: Composition, processing, and quality aspects. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 143-181). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00002-3

Ahmmed, M. K., Ahmmed, F., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Fish roe phospholipids and health: Composition, extraction, storage and brain health application. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 93-142). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00005-9

Ahmed, I. A. M., Al-Juhaimi, F. Y., Bhat, Z. F., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2022). Non-traditional meat sources, production, nutritional and health aspects, consideration of safety aspects and religious views. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit, W. W. Riley & M. A. Hussain (Eds.), Alternative proteins: Safety and food security considerations. (pp. 215-270). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9780429299834-8

Chapter in Book - Research

Ahmmed, M. K., Ahmmed, F., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Fish roe phospholipids and health: Composition, extraction, storage and brain health application. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 93-142). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00005-9

Chapter in Book - Research

Amin, H. F., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Fish roe products: Middle East perspective. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 283-310). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00010-2

Chapter in Book - Research

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Ahmmed, M. K., Sicuro, B., Ghelichi, S., & Carne, A. (2022). Fish roe products: European perspective. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 311-341). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00012-6

Chapter in Book - Research

Bunga, S., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Composition and nutrition of fish roes. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 41-92). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00011-4

Chapter in Book - Research

Irvani, N., Carne, A., Agyei, D., & Oey, I. (2022). Algae as an alternative source of protein. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit, W. W. Riley & M. A. Hussain (Eds.), Alternative proteins: Safety and food security considerations. (pp. 65-84). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9780429299834-4

Chapter in Book - Research

Tantamacharik, T., Carne, A., Shavandi, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Keratin as an alternative protein in food and nutrition. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit, W. W. Riley & M. A. Hussain (Eds.), Alternative proteins: Safety and food security considerations. (pp. 173-214). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9780429299834-7

Chapter in Book - Research

Verachia, W., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. A. (2022). Fish roe from sea urchin: Composition, processing, and quality aspects. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Fish roe: Biochemistry, products, and safety. (pp. 143-181). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-819893-3.00002-3

Chapter in Book - Research

Shavandi, A., Hou, Y., Carne, A., McConnell, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2019). Marine waste utilization as a source of functional and health compounds. In F. Toldrá (Ed.), Advances in food and nutrition research (Vol. 87). (pp. 187-254). Cambridge, MA: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2018.08.001

Chapter in Book - Research

Burrow, K., Young, W., Carne, A., McConnell, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2018). Interactions of milk proteins with minerals. In G. W. Smithers (Ed.), Reference module in food science. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.22489-X

Chapter in Book - Research

Mungure, T. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., Roohinejad, S., Mallikarjunan, K., & Birch, J. (2018). Application of HPLC in characterisation of triacylglycerols and detection of adulteration in cold pressed seed oils. In G. W. Smithers (Ed.), Reference module in food science. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.22526-2

Chapter in Book - Research

Tantamacharik, T., Carne, A., Agyei, D., Birch, J., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2018). Use of plant proteolytic enzymes for meat processing. In M. G. Guevara & G. R. Daleo (Eds.), Biotechnological applications of plant proteolytic enzymes. (pp. 43-67). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-97132-2_3

Chapter in Book - Research

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., Ryder, K., Ha, M., & Kong, L. (2017). Manipulation of meat structure: Use of exogenous proteases. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Advances in meat processing technology. (pp. 65-120). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9781315371955

Chapter in Book - Research

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Suwandy, V., Carne, A., Mohamed Ahmed, I. A., & Wang, Z. (2017). Manipulation of meat quality: Electrical stimulation and pulsed electric field. In A. E.-D. A. Bekhit (Ed.), Advances in meat processing technology. (pp. 121-168). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9781315371955

Chapter in Book - Research

Chia, J., Burrow, K., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Samuelsson, L., Day, L., … Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Minerals in sheep milk. In R. R. Watson, R. J. Collier & V. R. Preedy (Eds.), Nutrients in dairy and their implications for health and disease. (pp. 345-362). London, UK: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809762-5.00027-9

Chapter in Book - Research

Bekhit, A. E., Hopkins, D. L., Farouk, M. M., & Carne, A. (2013). Interventions to improve the tenderness of fresh meat: A future prospect for camel meat research. In I. T. Kadim, O. Mahgoub, B. Faye & M. Farouk (Eds.), Camel meat and meat products. (pp. 153-185). Oxford, UK: CABI.

Chapter in Book - Research

Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). The effect of pulsed electric fields on the extracted total lipid yield and the lipidomic profile of hoki roe. Food Chemistry, 384, 132476. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132476

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Use of fungal and bacterial protease preparations to enhance extraction of lipid from fish roe: Effect on lipidomic profile of extracted oil. Food Chemistry: X, 16, 100499. doi: 10.1016/j.fochx.2022.100499

Journal - Research Article

Bunga, S. J., Ahmmed, M. K., Lawley, B., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Physicochemical, biochemical and microbiological changes of jeotgal-like fermented Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) roe. Food Chemistry, 133880. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133880

Journal - Research Article

Burnett, A., Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., Ahmed, I. A. M., Al-Juhaimi, F. Y., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2022). Effect of pulsed electric fields on the lipidomic profile of lipid extracted from hoki fish male gonad. Foods, 11(4), 610. doi: 10.3390/foods11040610

Journal - Research Article

Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., McConnell, M., & Carne, A. (2022). A simple method for enrichment of β-lactoglobulin from bovine milk whey involving selective hydrolysis by two fungal protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 368, 130820. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130820

Journal - Research Article

Kavle, R. R., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Kebede, B., & Agyei, D. (2022). Macronutrients and mineral composition of wild harvested Prionoplus reticularis edible insect at various development stages: Nutritional and mineral safety implications. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 57, 6270-6278. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.15545

Journal - Research Article

Kavle, R. R., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Kebede, B., & Agyei, D. (2022). Proximate composition and lipid nutritional indices of larvae and pupae of the edible Huhu beetle (Prionoplus reticularis) endemic to New Zealand. Journal of Food Composition & Analysis, 104578. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2022.104578

Journal - Research Article

Kavle, R. R., Pritchard, E. T. M., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Agyei, D. (2022). Edible insects: A bibliometric analysis and current trends of published studies (1953-2021). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s42690-022-00814-6

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Ahmmed, F., Stewart, I., Carne, A., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2021). Omega-3 phospholipids in Pacific blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) processing by-products. Food Chemistry, 353, 129451. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129451

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Ahmmed, F., Stewart, I., Tian, H., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2021). Positional distribution of fatty acids and phospholipid composition in King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) head, roe and skin using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 363, 130302. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130302

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Bunga, S., Tian, H. S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2021). Lipidomic signature of Pacific lean fish species head and skin using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 365, 130637. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130637

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., Stewart, I., Tian, H., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2021). Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) for quantitative measurements of phospholipids derived from natural products: Effect of analysis conditions. LWT, 142, 110991. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2021.110991

Journal - Research Article

Bunga, S., Ahmmed, M. K., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2021). Effect of salted-drying on bioactive compounds and microbiological changes during the processing of karasumi-like Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) roe product. Food Chemistry, 357, 129780. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129780

Journal - Research Article

Daniloski, D., Petkoska, A. T., Lee, N. A., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Vaskoska, R. (2021). Active edible packaging based on milk proteins: A route to carry and deliver nutraceuticals. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 111, 688-705. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2021.03.024

Journal - Research Article

Sunde, H., Ryder, K., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Carne, A. (2021). Analysis of peptides in a sheep beta lactoglobulin hydrolysate as a model to evaluate the effect of peptide amino acid sequence on bioactivity. Food Chemistry, 365, 130346. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130346

Journal - Research Article

Wang, Y., Morton, J. D., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Mason, S. L. (2021). Amino acid sequences of lactoferrin from red deer (Cervus elaphus) milk and antimicrobial activity of its derived peptides lactoferricin and lactoferrampin. Foods, 10(6), 1305. doi: 10.3390/foods10061305

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Ahmmed, F., Tian, H., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2020). Marine omega-3 (n-3) phospholipids: A comprehensive review of their properties, sources, bioavailability, and relation to brain health. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science & Food Safety, 19(1), 64-123. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12510

Journal - Research Article

Ahmmed, M. K., Bunga, S., Stewart, I., Tian, H., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2020). Simple and efficient one-pot extraction method for phospholipidomic profiling of total oil and lecithin by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 61, 14286-14296. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05803

Journal - Research Article

Burrow, K., Young, W., Hammer, N., Safavi, S., Scholze, M., McConnell, M., Carne, A., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2020). The effect of the supplementation of a diet low in calcium and phosphorus with either sheep milk or cow milk on the physical and mechanical characteristics of bone using a rat model. Foods, 9(8), 1070. doi: 10.3390/foods9081070

Journal - Research Article

Burrow, K., Young, W., McConnell, M., Carne, A., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2020). The effect of sheep and cow milk supplementation of a low calcium diet on the distribution of macro and trace minerals in the organs of weanling rats. Nutrients, 12(3), 594. doi: 10.3390/nu12030594

Journal - Research Article

Hou, Y., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Bekhit, A. A., Mros, S., Amagase, K., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2020). In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of crude and fractionated PHNQs from sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus). Food Chemistry, 316, 126339. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126339

Journal - Research Article

Hou, Y., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Mros, S., Bekhit, A. A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2020). Macroporous resin extraction of PHNQs from Evechinus chloroticus sea urchin and their in vitro antioxidant, anti-bacterial and in silico anti-inflammatory activities. LWT, 131, 109817. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109817

Journal - Research Article

Hou, Y., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Mros, S., Vasileva, E. A., Mishchenko, N. P., Burrow, K., Wang, K., … Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2020). PHNQ for Evechinus chloroticus sea urchin supplemented with calcium promotes mineralization in Saos-2 human bone cell line. Marine Drugs, 18(7), 373. doi: 10.3390/md18070373

Journal - Research Article

Mungure, T. E., Farouk, M. M., Birch, E. J., Carne, A., Staincliffe, M., Stewart, I., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2020). Effect of PEF treatment on meat quality attributes, ultrastructure and metabolite profiles of wet and dry aged venison Longissimus dorsi muscle. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 65, 102457. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2020.102457

Journal - Research Article

Ryder, K., Ali, M. A., Billakanti, J., & Carne, A. (2020). Evaluation of dairy co-product containing composite solutions for the formation of bioplastic films. Journal of Polymers & the Environment, 28, 725-736. doi: 10.1007/s10924-019-01635-4

Journal - Research Article

Burrow, K., Young, W., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Hammer, N., Scholze, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2019). Consumption of sheep milk compared to cow milk can affect trabecular bone ultrastructure in a rat model. Food & Function, 10, 163-171. doi: 10.1039/c8fo01598h

Journal - Research Article

Hou, Y., Vasileva, E. A., Mishchenko, N. P., Carne, A., McConnell, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2019). Extraction, structural characterization and stability of polyhydroxylated naphthoquinones from shell and spine of New Zealand sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus). Food Chemistry, 272, 379-387. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.046

Journal - Research Article

Huang, W., Feng, Z., Aila, R., Hou, Y., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2019). Effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on physico-chemical properties, β-carotene and antioxidant activity of air-dried apricots. Food Chemistry, 291, 253-262. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.021

Journal - Research Article

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Silcock, P., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. (2019). Pulsed electric fields treatment at different pH enhances the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of ovomucin-depleted egg white. Food Chemistry, 276, 164-173. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.009

Journal - Research Article

Brewster, J., Garama, D., Lamare, M., & Carne, A. (2018). Carotenoid composition of a New Zealand (Evechinus chloroticus) and an Australian (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) sea urchin in relation to gonad colour. Aquaculture Research, 49(8), 2751-2762. doi: 10.1111/are.13736

Journal - Research Article

Burrow, K., Young, W., McConnell, M., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2018). Do dairy minerals have a positive effect on bone health? Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science & Food Safety, 17(4), 989-1005. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12364

Journal - Research Article

Burrow, K., Young, W., McConnell, M., Carne, A., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. (2018). The distribution of essential, trace, and nonessential minerals in weanling male rats fed sheep or cow milk. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 62, 1800482. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201800482

Journal - Research Article

Hou, Y., Vasileva, E. A., Carne, A., McConnell, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Mishchenko, N. P. (2018). Naphthoquinones of the spinochrome class: Occurrence, isolation, biosynthesis and biomedical applications [Review]. RSC Advances, 8(57), 32637-32650. doi: 10.1039/c8ra04777d

Journal - Research Article

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Ahmed, I. A. M., Al-Juhaimi, F. Y., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2018). Effect of low and high pulsed electric field processing on macro and micro minerals in beef and chicken. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 45, 273-279. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.11.012

Journal - Research Article

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Mohamed Ahmed, I. A., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2018). Quality and nutritional minerals in chicken breast muscle treated with low and high pulsed electric fields. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 11(1), 122-131. doi: 10.1007/s11947-017-1997-x

Journal - Research Article

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Carne, A., & Silcock, P. (2018). Bioactive peptides derived from egg proteins: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 58(15), 2508-2530. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1329704

Journal - Research Article

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Silcock, P., & Carne, A. (2018). Proteolytic pattern, protein breakdown and peptide production of ovomucin-depleted egg white processed with heat or pulsed electric fields at different pH. Food Research International, 108, 465-474. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.03.075

Journal - Research Article

Ryder, K., Ali, M. A., Billakanti, J., & Carne, A. (2018). Fundamental characterisation of caseins harvested by dissolved air flotation from dairy wastewater and comparison with skim milk powder. International Dairy Journal, 78, 112-121. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2017.11.007

Journal - Research Article

Haddadian, Z., Eyres, G. T., Carne, A., Everett, D. W., & Bremer, P. (2017). Impact of different milk fat globule membrane preparations on protein composition, xanthine oxidase activity, and redox potential. International Dairy Journal, 64, 14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.09.006

Journal - Research Article

Khan, A. A., Randhawa, M. A., Carne, A., Ahmed, I. A. M., Barr, D., Reid, M., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Effect of low and high pulsed electric field on the quality and nutritional minerals in cold boned beef M. longissimus et lumborum. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 41, 135-143. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.03.002

Journal - Research Article

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Carne, A., & Silcock, P. (2017). Effects of pH, temperature and pulsed electric fields on the turbidity and protein aggregation of ovomucin-depleted egg white. Food Research International, 91, 161-170. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.12.005

Journal - Research Article

Liu, Y.-F., Oey, I., Bremer, P., Silcock, P., & Carne, A. (2017). In vitro peptic digestion of ovomucin-depleted egg white affected by pH, temperature and pulsed electric fields. Food Chemistry, 231, 165-174. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.136

Journal - Research Article

Mros, S., Carne, A., Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Young, W., & McConnell, M. (2017). Comparison of the bioactivity of whole and skimmed digested sheep milk with that of digested goat and cow milk in functional cell culture assays. Small Ruminant Research, 149, 202-208. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2017.02.018

Journal - Research Article

Ryder, K., Ali, M. A., Carne, A., & Billakanti, J. (2017). The potential use of dairy by-products for the production of non-food biomaterials. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology, 47(8), 621-642. doi: 10.1080/10643389.2017.1322875

Journal - Research Article

Shavandi, A., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. (2017). Evaluation of keratin extraction from wool by chemical methods for bio-polymer application. Journal of Bioactive & Compatible Polymers, 32(2), 163-177. doi: 10.1177/0883911516662069

Journal - Research Article

Shavandi, A., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). An improved method for solubilisation of wool keratin using peracetic acid. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(2), 1977-1984. doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2017.03.043

Journal - Research Article

Shavandi, A., Hu, Z., Teh, S., Zhao, J., Carne, A., Bekhit, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2017). Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from squid pen chitosan extraction effluent. Food Chemistry, 227, 194-201. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.099

Journal - Research Article

Tirgar, M., Silcock, P., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2017). Effect of extraction method on functional properties of flaxseed protein concentrates. Food Chemistry, 215, 417-424. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.002

Journal - Research Article

Welsh, G., Ryder, K., Brewster, J., Walker, C., Mros, S., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., McConnell, M., & Carne, A. (2017). Comparison of bioactive peptides prepared from sheep cheese whey using a food-grade bacterial and a fungal protease preparation. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 52(5), 1252-1259. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.13392

Journal - Research Article

Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. A. (2016). Composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red deer, sheep, pig and cattle. Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 96(1), 79-89. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7062

Journal - Research Article

Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., McConnell, M. A., & Carne, A. (2016). Generation of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from cattle plasma using plant and fungal proteases. Food Chemistry, 213, 98-107. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.065

Journal - Research Article

Bah, C. S. F., Carne, A., McConnell, M. A., Mros, S., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2016). Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 202, 458-466. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.020

Journal - Research Article

Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., & Hopkins, D. L. (2016). Effect of repeated pulsed electric field treatment on the quality of hot boned beef loins and topsides. Meat Science, 111, 139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.09.001

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Haddadian, Z., Bremer, P., Eyres, G. T., Carne, A., & Everett, D. W. (2016). The impact of cream churning conditions on xanthine oxidase activity and oxidation-reduction potential in model emulsion systems. International Dairy Journal, 60, 55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.01.017

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Hou, Y., Shavandi, A., Carne, A., Bekhit, A. A., Ng, T. B., Cheung, R. C. F., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2016). Marine shells: Potential opportunities for extraction of functional and health-promoting materials. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology, 46(11-12), 1047-1116. doi: 10.1080/10643389.2016.1202669

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Pilbrow, J., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Carne, A. (2016). Fractionation of sheep cheese whey by a scalable method to sequentially isolate bioactive proteins. Food Chemistry, 203, 165-174. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.065

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Ryder, K., Bekhit, A. E.-D., McConnell, M., & Carne, A. (2016). Towards generation of bioactive peptides from meat industry waste proteins: Generation of peptides using commercial microbial proteases. Food Chemistry, 208, 42-50. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.121

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Teh, S.-S., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, J. (2016). Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain. Food Chemistry, 203, 199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.057

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Walker, G. V., Heng, N. C. K., Carne, A., Tagg, J. R., & Wescombe, P. A. (2016). Salivaricin E and abundant dextranase activity may contribute to the anti-cariogenic potential of the probiotic candidate Streptococcus salivarius JH. Microbiology, 162(3), 476-486. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000237

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Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. A. (2015). Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 176, 54-63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.025

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Ha, M., Sabherwal, M., Duncan, E., Stevens, S., Stockwell, P., McConnell, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., & Carne, A. (2015). In-depth characterization of sheep (Ovis aries) milk whey proteome and comparison with cow (Bos taurus). PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139774

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Ryder, K., Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., & Carne, A. (2015). Characterisation of novel fungal and bacterial protease preparations and evaluation of their ability to hydrolyse meat myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins. Food Chemistry, 172, 197-206. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.061

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Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of pulsed electric field on the proteolysis of cold boned beef M. Longissimus lumborum and M. Semimembranosus. Meat Science, 100, 222-226. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.10.011

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Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on the eating and keeping qualities of cold-boned beef loins: Impact of initial pH and fibre orientation. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 8(6), 1355-1365. doi: 10.1007/s11947-015-1498-8

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Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness. Meat Science, 105, 25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.02.009

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Suwandy, V., Carne, A., van de Ven, R., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2015). Effect of repeated pulsed electric field treatment on the quality of cold-boned beef loins and topsides. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 8(6), 1218-1228. doi: 10.1007/s11947-015-1485-0

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Teh, S.-S., Niven, B. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2015). Microwave and pulsed electric field assisted extractions of polyphenols from defatted canola seed cake. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50, 1109-1115. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.12749

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Teh, S.-S., Niven, B. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, J. (2015). Optimization of polyphenol extraction and antioxidant activities of extracts from defatted flax seed cake (Linum usitatissimum L.) using microwave-assisted and pulsed electric field (PEF) technologies with response surface methodology. Food Science & Biotechnology, 24(5), 1649-1659. doi: 10.1007/s10068-015-0214-9

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Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., Ha, M., & Franks, P. (2014). Physical interventions to manipulate texture and tenderness of fresh meat: A review. International Journal of Food Properties, 17(2), 433-453. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2011.642442

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Gebhard, S., Fang, C., Shaaly, A., Leslie, D. J., Weimar, M. R., Kalamorz, F., Carne, A., & Cook, G. M. (2014). Identification and characterization of a bacitracin resistance network in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 58(3), 1425-1433. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02111-13

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Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., & Carne, A. (2014). Effects of L- and iso-ascorbic acid on meat protein hydrolyzing activity of four commercial plant and three microbial protease preparations. Food Chemistry, 149, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.082

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Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., McConnell, M., Mason, S., & Carne, A. (2014). Fractionation of whey proteins from red deer (Cervus elaphus) milk and comparison with whey proteins from cow, sheep and goat milks. Small Ruminant Research, 120(1), 125-134. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.04.012

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Johnson, S. L., Villarroel, M., Rosengrave, P., Carne, A., Kleffmann, T., Lokman, P. M., & Gemmell, N. J. (2014). Proteomic analysis of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid. PLoS ONE, 9(8), e104155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104155

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Pilbrow, J., Sabherwal, M., Garama, D., & Carne, A. (2014). A novel fatty acid-binding protein-like carotenoid-binding protein from the gonad of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e106465. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106465

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Teh, S.-S., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Birch, J. (2014). Effect of the defatting process, acid and alkali extraction on the physicochemical and functional properties of hemp, flax and canola seed cake protein isolates. Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization, 8(2), 92-104. doi: 10.1007/s11694-013-9168-x

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Teh, S.-S., Niven, B. E., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Birch, E. J. (2014). The use of microwave and pulsed electric field as a pretreatment step in ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from defatted hemp seed cake (Cannabis sativa) using response surface methodology. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 7(11), 3064-3076. doi: 10.1007/s11947-014-1313-y

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Bah, C. S. F., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & McConnell, M. A. (2013). Slaughterhouse blood: An emerging source of bioactive compounds. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science & Food Safety, 12(3), 314-331. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12013

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Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2013). Characterization of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins. Food Chemistry, 136(2), 989-998. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.034

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Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D., Carne, A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2013). Comparison of the proteolytic activities of new commercially available bacterial and fungal proteases toward meat proteins. Journal of Food Science, 78(2), C170-C177. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12027

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Garama, D., Bremer, P., & Carne, A. (2012). Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 59(1), 83-85.

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Ha, M., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., Carne, A., & Hopkins, D. L. (2012). Characterisation of commercial papain, bromelain, actinidin and zingibain protease preparations and their activities toward meat proteins. Food Chemistry, 134(1), 95-105. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.071

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Pilbrow, J., Garama, D., & Carne, A. (2012). Carotenoid-binding proteins: Accessories to carotenoid function. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 59(1), 163-165.

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Rodger, E. J., Suetani, R. J., Jones, G. T., Kleffmann, T., Carne, A., Legge, M., & McCormick, S. P. A. (2012). Proteomic analysis of aortae from human lipoprotein(a) transgenic mice shows an early metabolic response independent of atherosclerosis. PLoS ONE, 7(1), e30383. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030383

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Swe, P. M., Heng, N. C. K., Ting, Y.-T., Baird, H. J., Carne, A., Tauch, A., Tagg, J. R., & Jack, R. W. (2007). ef1097 and ypkK encode enterococcin V583 and corynicin JK, members of a new family of antimicrobial proteins (bacteriocins) with modular structure from Gram-positive bacteria. Microbiology, 153, 3218-3227.

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