Research into biomaterials involves the precise engineering of novel materials including molecularly engineered biomaterials (i.e. engineered therapeutics), fabrication of biomaterials into medical devices and technology for biomedical applications (human and animal). In addition to having specific physical, mechanical and biological properties, biomaterials must be biocompatible with healing and tissue regeneration abilities. Research therefore encompasses elements of medicine, materials science and tissue engineering.
Innovative materials can drive the creation of new products (e.g. medical devices and technology) in many life-science sectors. This makes it a crucial pillar for engineered therapeutics. Thus the biomaterials and bioengineering team have sound expertise and experiences in multifaceted applied and pure research and commercial sector partnership. Located within the Centre for Bioengineering and Nanomedicine (Dunedin hub), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, this research focuses on materials/biomaterials (including dental biomaterials) and their relationships with humans.
Skin and dermal tissue regeneration
The main goal of tissue engineering is to create a biocompatible and mechanically suitable architecture that allows cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis for new tissue formation.
Electrospinning and emerging 3D Melt Electrowriting technology allows the fabrication of porous scaffolds that are in the nanoscale and mimic the natural extracellular matrix of dermal tissue (3D construct skin substitute). The successful creation of a skin tissue scaffold involves the careful selection of polymers in ideal combinations to obtain desired properties. The functionality of the scaffold can then be enhanced by incorporating bio-active cells that provide the correct stimulus for healthy neo-tissue formation.
Bone substitutes and bone ceramics
The aim of the bone graft and bone substitute research activities are to develop a biocompatible, biodegradable bone-graft substitute from reconstituted keratin and bioceramics including newly developed nano-structure hydroxyapatite (nHA) from mussel shells. This material will overcome the disadvantages associated with currently used bone substitutes constructed from typical polymers (e.g. polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid), bioceramics (tri-calcium phosphate, TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), etc.
Dental biomaterials and bone grafts
Dental pathologies such as caries is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Current therapies are merely cosmetic following removal of the disease and are not designed to produce cellular regeneration. Dental pulp contains stem cells capable of regenerating the dentine in the tooth; consequently, healthy dental pulp is essential for long term tooth survival. The aim of developing novel dental biomaterials and bone graft namely ‘No fill No drill” program is to incorporate reconstituted new keratin IFP (rKP) for excellent tissue healing and strength, reconstituted structural collagen (SCP) to provide cell support, and chitosan as an antibacterial substance into a triphasic hybrid biomaterial (3HB) consisting of dental fillers (e.g. DP or MTA). This newly derived 3HB together provide regenerative properties for the pulp-dentin tissues.
Intervertebral Disc (IVD) replacement
The main goal of the intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering is to create a biocompatible and biodegradable functional construct that resolves issues associated with current IVD degeneration treatment. Through this project, we aim to develop a tissue-engineered IVD scaffold that structurally and functionally mimics the native IVD with enhanced cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation.
Heart valve leaflet
Valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious health burden affecting morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of VHD is expected to grow along with the global rise in population. VHD is characterized by the stiffening of the valve leaflets, resulting in stenosis, or regurgitation, and the backflow of the blood. Despite the advances in treatments for VHDs, current treatments are limited by the lack of durability and growth capability of prosthetic valves. Therefore, an alternative approach addressing these issues is required. Tissue engineering is gaining momentum due to its ability to design and fabricate tissue substitutes in vitro for replacement. For heart valve leaflet tissue engineering, either biopolymeric or/and synthetic polymeric biomaterials can be processed via various fabrication techniques such as electrospinning.
A chitosan/dextran(CD)-based, post-surgical gel, Chitogel, has proved itself to be a real winner; and stops bleeding, infection, and dramatically reduces adhesions following ear, nose, and throat surgeries. The two pot mixture sets within a minute to form a firm gel that is slowly degraded in the body. This biocompatible CD gel has been further optimized as an adult stem cell delivery vehicle and bioink for regenerative, wound healing applications.
Drug-eluting medical sutures
The aim of the drug-eluting suture research is to develop a system that incorporates suture materials with active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to achieve target drug release, which can effectively reduce surgical site infection.
Melt extrusion technique allows APIs to be homogeneously dispersed into the cross-section of the sutures. Not only can it potentially enhance solubility of poor water-soluble drug, but also the prolonged drug release can be achieved.
Neural tissue regeneration
The regeneration and repair of both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system remain crucial challenges in tissue engineering. The underlying reason is that both CNS and PNS have limited capacity for self-regeneration in mammals, and lasting functional deficits are common after disease and injury. Biomaterials, both natural and synthetic in origin, have been continuously identified as having the potential for neural tissue engineering applications including neurite outgrowth, differentiation of human neural stem cells, and nerve gap bridging due to their unique biocompatible and non-immunogenic properties along with substantial regenerative potential and capacity. The aim of this project is to develop an injectable scaffold for CNS using biomaterials and anisotropically conductive material such as carbon nanotubes.
- Wound care medical products containing wool keratin, US patent No. 7732574 and European patent No. EP1694370
- Biocomposite biomaterials containing biopolymer wool keratin, US patent No. 7767756
- Bone void fillers and methods of making the same, US Patent 8142807
- Porous keratin construct and method of making the same, US Patent 8124735 and European patent: EP2099437 A2
- Porous Keratin constructs, wound healing assembles and method using the same, US patent US/2008 0317826 A1
- Nanocomposite negative photoresists for next-generation Lithography, US Patent No. 7049044 B2
Other research projects activities
- 3D bioprinted regenerative, vascularized constructs for wound healing applications (A/Prof Azam Ali, Dr. Jaydee, A/Prof. Michelle McConnel, ….)
- Antimicrobial polymers for dental and medical implants (A/Prof. Azam Ali, Dr. Maree Gould, Prof Karl Lyons)
- Biocomposite scaffolds for bone-tissue engineering (A/Prof. Azam Ali, Dr. Amin Shavandi, Prof. George Dias, Dr. Maree Gould, Dr. Jaydee Cabral)
- Biomaterials for treatment of intervertebral discs and spinal bone-tissue regeneration (A/Prof Azam Ali, Dr. Jaydee Cabral, A/Prof. Michelle McConnel)
- New Biomaterials from Dairy, Animal and Plant co-products (A/Prof Azam Ali, A/prof Alan Carne, Dr. Kate Ryder, A/Prof Michelle McConnell)
- Biometric scaffolds (A/Prof. Azam Ali and Dr. Maree Gould)
- Dental biomaterials and implants (A/Prof Azam Ali, Prof Mauro Farella, Prof. Karl Lyons, Dr, Peter Lee, Dr. Joe Anthon)
- Drug delivery devices for treating bone infection and inflammation (A/Prof Azam Ali, A/Prof. Michelle McConnell)
- Drug delivery devices for dermal and typical wound care medical devices (A/Prof Azam Ali, Dr. Maree Gould)
- Biopolymeric biomaterials, bioformulations for the treatment of sheep footrot (A/Prof Azam Ali, A/Prof. Aladdin Bekhit, A/Prof. Michelle McConnel)
- Wearable sensors as medical devices (A/Prof Azam Ali, Prof Raechel Laing)
- Therapeutic Biomaterials for medical devices
- Biometric scaffolds
- Restorative dental materials
- 3D biofabrication/printing technology,
- Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, personalized teeth
- Implantable medical devices
- Microencapsulation, medical implant coatings
- Performance testing (including in vitro/in vivo evaluation) of medical devices
- Regulatory affairs and documentations (e.g. ISO13485, 510K, FDA, TUV, TGA, etc.)
Biomaterials research leader
Associate Professor Azam Ali, biomaterials science and engineering
- Dr Jaydee Cabral, medical hydrogels, regenerative medicine, 3D bioprinting
- Professor Karl Lyons, restorative dental biomaterials
- A/Professor Rajesh Katare, therapeutic biomaterials including miRNA, Wound care, Cardiac ECM
- Dr Andrew Clarkson, Neural tissue regeneration and soft tissues regeneration
- Dr Michelle McConnell, Antimicrobial biomaterials and in vitro / in vivo evaluation
- Dr Volker Nock, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Collaboration on Biofabrication of free-standing protein patterning devices for bioengineering applications.
- Professor Maan Alkaisi (School of Electrical Engineering, University of Canterbury) Collaboration “Soft lithography towards Bionanotechnology for biomedical applications”.
- Associate Professor Mark Staiger (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury), collaboration on biocomposite scaffolds consisting of proteins-Mg for bone-tissue engineering applications.
- Associate Professor Frederique Vanholsbeeck (Department of Physics, University of Auckland).
- Dr Paul Rose, Team leader, Callaghan Innovation (ex IRL).
- Dr Stewart Collie, Team Leader, AgResearch, Lincoln, Christchurch.
- Dr Elspeth MacRae, Science Leader, Biopolymer & Chemical Technologies, Scion,
- Professor Robert Love, Dean & Head of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. students since 2014, scoping joint funding application including HRC/MHARC).
- Professor Yusuke Yamauchi, Group Leader, AIBN, Queensland University, Australia.
- Professor Amar K Mohanty, Premier's Research Chair in Biomaterials
Professor, Department of Plant Agriculture & School of Engineering, Director, Bioproducts Discovery & Development Centre (BDDC), University of Guelph; ON, Canada.
- Professor Xungai Wang, Director, Institute of Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
- Professor Monique Lacroix, Director, Research Laboratories in Sciences, Canadian Irradiation Centre, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval Québec Canada.
- Professor Dr Saion K Sinha, University Research Scholar University of New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
- Professor Hai Qiang Wang, Director, Spinal Unit, Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710032, China.
- Professor Ahmed El-Ghannam, Director of Orthopedic Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Lab., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNCC), Charlotte, NC 28223.
Islam, M. T., Laing, R. M., Wilson, C. A., McConnell, M., & Ali, M. A. (2022). Fabrication and characterization of 3-dimensional electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol)/keratin/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold. Carbohydrate Polymers, 275, 118682. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118682
Giteru, S. G., Ali, A., & Oey, I. (2021). Recent progress in understanding fundamental interactions and applications of zein. Food Hydrocolloids. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.106948
Deng, X., Qasim, M., & Ali, A. (2021). Engineering and polymeric composition of drug-eluting suture: A review. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.37194
Ali, M. A., & Bhuiyan, M. H. (2021). Types of biomaterials useful in brain repair. Neurochemistry International, 105034. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105034
Tabassum, N., Ahmed, S., & Ali, M. A. (2021). Chitooligosaccharides and their structural-functional effect on hydrogels: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117882