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Associate Professor Ross Kennedy

Clinical Associate ProfessorRoss Kennedy

MB ChB PhD(Otago) FANZCA

Email ross.kennedy@cdhb.health.nz

Research Interests

Include:

  • model volatile anaesthetic uptake and distribution
  • effect-site volatile anaesthetic levels needed for various levels of surgical stimulus
  • nitrous oxide kinetic analysis
  • the effect of depth of anaesthesia on long-term outcomes

Current projects

  • Quantifying the effect and variability of neuromuscular blocking drugs on patients undergoing surgery
    Summer Studentship study, thanks to the Anaesthetists’ Instrument Pool for funding this study.
  • Retrospective audit of use of blood & blood products during cardiac surgery
  • Degree of recovery from muscle relaxation administration at the completion of cardiac surgery & relationship with time to extubation.
  • Epidural-Related Paraesthesia In Labouring Women
  • The BALANCED Study
  • A comparison of model-based predictions of first response after anaesthesia with observed responses and the influence of hypnosedative drugs not included in the models study – (Accuracy of Predictions for Awakening).
  • IRORA – the Nerve Block Study. 
  • The Co-induction Study – Looking at the effect of low dose intravenous premedication (co-induction) on cardiac output and induction of anaesthesia.
  • Peri-operative Analgesic Requirements and Quality of Recovery.
  • The influence of surgery on sevoflurane brain levels and awakening from anaesthesia – The Sevoflurane Wakeup Study. 
  • The Effect of Changes in Cardiac Output on Sevoflurane Delivery in the Aisys Anaesthetic Machine Study (COCAD)
  • METS/CPEX Study – Measurement of Exercise Tolerance for Surgery (METS) Study. 
  • ISOS – International Surgical Outcomes Study. (Multi-national study, sponsored by the Queen Mary University, London)

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Publications

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., Vesto, G., Hanrahan, J., & Page, J. (2019). The effect of fresh gas flow during induction of anaesthesia on sevoflurane usage: A quality improvement study. Anaesthesia. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/anae.14669

van der Griend, B. F. H., Vincent, A. R., & Kennedy, R. R. (2019). Observational audit of sevoflurane consumption during paediatric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0310057X19841008

De Baerdemaeker, A., Poelaert, J., Kennedy, R. R., De Wolf, A. M., & Hendrickx, J. F. A. (2018). The effect of isocapnic hyperventilation on early recovery after remifentanil/sevoflurane anesthesia in O2/air: A randomized trial. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/aas.13293

Kennedy, R. R. (2018). A second look at the second gas effect. Anesthesiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002206

Kennedy, R. (2017). Lessons from drug interaction displays. In A. R. Absalom & K. P. Mason (Eds.), Total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions: A comprehensive global anthology. (pp. 713-723). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47609-4_39

Chapter in Book - Research

Kennedy, R. (2017). Lessons from drug interaction displays. In A. R. Absalom & K. P. Mason (Eds.), Total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions: A comprehensive global anthology. (pp. 713-723). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47609-4_39

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Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., Vesto, G., Hanrahan, J., & Page, J. (2019). The effect of fresh gas flow during induction of anaesthesia on sevoflurane usage: A quality improvement study. Anaesthesia. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/anae.14669

van der Griend, B. F. H., Vincent, A. R., & Kennedy, R. R. (2019). Observational audit of sevoflurane consumption during paediatric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0310057X19841008

De Baerdemaeker, A., Poelaert, J., Kennedy, R. R., De Wolf, A. M., & Hendrickx, J. F. A. (2018). The effect of isocapnic hyperventilation on early recovery after remifentanil/sevoflurane anesthesia in O2/air: A randomized trial. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/aas.13293

Taylor, J., Dixon, L., Pascoe, R., Dobbs, B., Kennedy, R., & Frizelle, F. (2016). Elective surgical outcomes of patients in Christchurch, New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1447), 64-71. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Kennedy, R. R. (2014). New technology in anaesthesia: Friend or foe? Journal of Clinical Monitoring & Computing, 28(2), 113-116. doi: 10.1007/s10877-014-9557-7

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2014). A ten-year audit of fresh gas flows in a New Zealand hospital: The influence of the introduction of automated agent delivery and comparisons with other hospitals. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 42(1), 65-72.

Hartwell, D. A., Grayling, M., & Kennedy, R. R. (2014). Low-cost high-fidelity anaesthetic simulation. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 42(3), 371-377.

Kennedy, R., McKellow, M., French, R., & Sleigh, J. (2013). Sevoflurane end-tidal to effect-site equilibration in women determined by response to laryngeal mask airway insertion. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 117(4), 786-791. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182a46d4e

Drummond, G. B., Fisher, L., Pumphrey, O., & Kennedy, R. R. (2012). Direct measurement of nitrous oxide kinetics. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 109(5), 776-781. doi: 10.1093/bja/aes260

Drummond, G. B., Bleach, L., Thomson, A. J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2012). Kinetics of anesthetic onset measured with a direct index of neural activity. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 115(3), 547-553. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182549490

Moran, E. M. L., French, R. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (2011). A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 39(5), 946-950.

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2011). The development of a system to guide volatile anaesthetic administration. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 39(2), 182-190.

Kennedy, R. R., & Merry, A. F. (2011). The effect of a graphical interpretation of a statistic trend indicator (Trigg's Tracking Variable) on the detection of simulated changes. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 39(5), 881-886.

Kennedy, R. R., McKellow, M. A., & French, R. A. (2010). The effect of predictive display on the control of step changes in effect site sevoflurane levels. Anaesthesia, 65, 826-830. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2010.06410.x

Kennedy, R., Lee, A., & Frizelle, F. A. (2010). Influence of general health and degree of surgical insult on long-term survival. British Journal of Surgery, 97, 782-788. doi: 10.1002/bjs.6960

Kennedy, R. R., Merry, A. F., Warman, G. R., & Webster, C. S. (2009). The influence of various graphical and numeric trend display formats on the detection of simulated changes. Anaesthesia, 64(11), 1186-1191. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.06082.x

Kennedy, R. R., Minto, C., & Seethepalli, A. (2008). Effect-site half-time for burst suppression is longer than for hypnosis during anaesthesia with sevoflurane. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(1), 72-77. doi: 10.1093/bja/aem314

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2008). Changing patterns in anesthetic fresh gas flow rates over 5 years in a teaching hospital. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 106(5), 1487-1490.

Gendall, K. A., Kennedy, R. R., Watson, A. J., & Frizelle, F. A. (2007). The effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative outcome after colorectal surgery. Colorectal Disease, 9(7), 584-598. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2007.01274.x

Gendall, K. A., Raniga, S., Kennedy, R., & Frizelle, F. A. (2007). The impact of obesity on outcome after major colorectal surgery. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 50(12), 2223-2237.

Kennedy, R. R., & Sakowska, M. M. (2006). The relationship between calculated effect-site sevoflurane levels and awakening from anaesthesia. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 34(6), 713-718.

Kennedy, R. (2006). Predictive performance of a model of anaesthetic uptake with desflurane. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 34(2), 197-202.

Kennedy, R. R. (2005). The effect of using different values for the effect-site equilibrium half-time on the prediction of effect-site sevoflurane concentration: A simulation study. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 101, 1023-1028.

Turner, M. J., McCulloch, T. J., Kennedy, R. R., & Baker, A. B. (2004). Pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane uptake into the brain. Anaesthesia, 59, 1201-1206.

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., & Gilles, S. (2004). The effect of a model-based predictive display on the control of end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations during low-flow anesthesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 99, 1159-1163.

Kennedy, R., & French, R. (2003). An audit of anaesthetic fresh-gas flow rates and volatile anaesthetic use in a teaching hospital. New Zealand Medical Journal, 116(1174). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/116-1174/438/content.pdf

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2003). The effect of the interval between blood pressure determinations on the delay in the detection of changes: A computer simulation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 96, 944-948.

Audeau, A., Newell, P., Dobbs, B. R., Frizelle, F. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (2002). Postoperative epidural analgesia following elective major abdominal surgery in high risk patients. New Zealand Medical Journal, 115(1148), 69-72.

Kennedy, R. R., & Baker, A. B. (2001). The effects of cardiac output changes on the end-tidal volatile anaesthetic concentrations. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 29(5), 535-538.

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2001). A breathing circuit disconnection detected by anesthetic agent monitoring. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 48(9), 847-849.

Mitchell, A. M., & Kennedy, R. R. (2001). Preoperative core temperatures in elective surgical patients show an unexpected skewed distribution. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 48(9), 850-853.

Kennedy, R. R., & Baker, A. B. (2001). The effect of cardiac output changes on end-expired volatile anaesthetic concentrations - a theoretical study. Anaesthesia, 56(11), 1034-1040.

French, R. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (1998). Disconnect alarm failure in detection of common gas outlet disconnection. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 26(6), 665-670.

French, R. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (1998). Common gas outlet disconnections with an Ayres T-piece. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 26, 665-670.

Kennedy, R. R. (1996). Linear approximation of Brody's equation to predict oxygen consumption. Journal of Clinical Monitoring & Computing, 12(1), 111-112.

Kennedy, R. R. (1995). A modified Triggs Tracking Variable: as an 'advisory' alarm during anaesthesia. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring & Computing, 12, 197-204.

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Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R. (2018). A second look at the second gas effect. Anesthesiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002206

Kennedy, R. R. (2013). Effect-site estimation of volatile anaesthetic agents: Beyond MAC fractions as a target for anaesthesia delivery. Trends in Anaesthesia & Critical Care, 3(4), 211-215. doi: 10.1016/j.tacc.2013.02.014

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2013). Sustaining a reduction in fresh gas flow rates. Anesthesiology, 119(5), 1228. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a6b3a8

van der Griend, B., & Kennedy, R. (2011). Procedural sedation in the emergency department: Good medicine or flirting with danger? [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1344). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1344/4901/content.pdf

Kennedy, R. R. (2010). Seeing the future of anesthesia drug dosing: Moving the art of anesthesia from impressionism to realism [Editorial]. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 111(2), 252-255. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e62ff1

Kennedy, R. (2010). Individualising target-controlled anaesthesia. Better models or better targets? [Editorial]. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 38(3), 421-423.

Fredrickson, M. J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2010). Regional anaesthesia and pain relief after surgery [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1324). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1324/4384/content.pdf

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Journal - Professional & Other Non-Research Articles

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., & Spence, C. (2002). Predictive accuracy of a model of volatile anaesthetic uptake. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 95(6), 1616-1621.

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Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Abstract

Kennedy, R., French, R., Vesto, G., & Hanrahan, J. (2017). Gas flows during induction have a major effect on overall vapor consumption despite low maintenance flows. Proceedings of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Anesthesiology Annual Meeting. A3039. Retrieved from http://www.asaabstracts.com

Kennedy, R., French, R., Hanrahan, J., & Vesto, G. (2017). Gas flow in the induction period can have significant effect on overall gas and vapour consumption despite low maintenance flows. Proceedings of the International Society for Anaesthetic Pharmacology (ISAP) Annual Meeting. (pp. 25-26). Retrieved from http://www.isaponline.org

Kennedy, R., van der Griend, B., Page, J., Vesto, G., & French, R. (2017). Brief pediatric cases use a similar mass of sevoflurane as adult anesthetics lasting over an hour. Proceedings of the International Society for Anaesthetic Pharmacology (ISAP) Annual Meeting. (pp. 24). Retrieved from http://www.isaponline.org

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., & Hanrahan, J. (2017). The contribution of the induction period to overall gas and vapour consumption. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 124(5, Suppl. 1), (pp. 77-78). doi: 10.1213/01.ane.0000515996.62467.75

Kennedy, R., McKellow, M., & Williman, J. (2017). Comparing end-tidal and calculated effect-site sevoflurane concentrations at awakening from anesthesia. Proceedings of the International Society for Anaesthetic Pharmacology (ISAP) Annual Meeting. (pp. 14-15). Retrieved from http://www.isaponline.org

More publications...