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Articles for the category "Non-Contractual Obligations "

"New Zealand Accident Compensation and the Foreign Plaintiff: Some Conflict of Laws Problems"

Giora Shapira, 1980

The author looks at the implications of the New Zealand Accident Compensation Scheme for foreign plaintiffs, and the inadequacy of recovery, within the context of the double actionability rule for tort. The challenge for tort choice of law is to secure a proper remedy for the foreign plaintiff, while protecting local defendants against tort liability. Since the double actionability rule cannot achieve this, the author explores the “proper law of the tort” doctrine as applied in US case law concerning workmen’s compensation statutes.

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"Choice of Law in Equitable Wrongs: A Comparative Analysis"

Laurette Barnard, 1992

This article presents a comprehensive and in-depth comparative analysis of characterisation and choice of law in relation to equitable wrongs in English, Australian, Canadian and New Zealand law. The author proposes a flexible choice of law regime, based on the proper law of the claim, which should be determined with reference to the essential nature of equitable obligations and the policies operating in the field of fiduciary and related duties. Since the gaining of access to the beneficiary’s assets is the origin of the equitable obligation, the law under which access was gained should, subject to exceptions, constitute the proper law.

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"Jurisdiction in Cyberspace: The When and Where of On-line Contracts"

Justin Hogan-Doran, 2003

This article examines when and where on-line contracts are made in an attempt to define the place of contracting as one of the bases of jurisdiction in a number of Common Law systems, including New Zealand. Within this context the author considers the continued application of the postal acceptance rule to on-line contracts with reference to allocation of risk. The author argues for a conflict of laws meaning to be given to where a contract is made. In regard to jurisdictional bases, forum conveniens should be adopted as a basis of jurisdiction, instead of merely controlling the exercise of jurisdiction.

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"A Holiday in New Zealand: The Implications of New Zealand’s Accident Compensation Scheme"

Elsabe Schoeman and Rosemary Tobin, 2005

This note illustrates the application of the Injury, Prevention, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2001 to a personal injury claim in the hypothetical case of a foreign (German) student who was injured in New Zealand and institutes proceedings in a German court. The focus is on the statutory bar in respect of compensatory damages and the characterisation of the bar as either substantive or procedural.

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"A Traffic Accident Abroad"

EH Flitton and PRH Webb, 1968

The authors note that, at the time, there had not been a single conflict of laws torts case in any of the higher courts in New Zealand. Against this background, they analyse the House of Lords decision in Boys v Chaplin [1968] 1 All ER 283, pointing to the diversity of thinking that makes this case difficult to apply. The focus is on the general rule of double actionability and the proper law exception, as interpreted in relevant cases leading up to Boys v Chaplin.

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"Horse and Buggy on the Electronic Highway: Transnational Internet Defamation in the High Court of Australia"

Paul Myburgh and Rosemary Tobin, 2003

This article presents a critical analysis of the decision in Dow Jones & Co Inc v Gutnick (2002) 194 ALR 433, [2002] HCA 56. The authors focus on the implications of the common law multiple publication rule and problems in locating the place of the tort for purposes of jurisdiction and choice of law in transnational internet defamation. Disappointment is expressed at the unwillingness of the majority to engage with and reformulate traditional defamation law principles in recognition of the revolutionary nature of internet communications.

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"Double Actionability and the Choice of Law"

Nicky Richardson, 2002

The double actionability rule is the New Zealand tort choice of law rule. This article explains what the “double actionability” requirements are, and how they have been applied by the House of Lords and the Privy Council. The author spends considerable time discussing the House of Lords decision in Kuwait Airways Corporation v Iraqi Airways Company, pointing out that this case raises more problems than it solves. The author concludes that the double actionability rule did not produce any unjust results prior to the Kuwait case and should therefore be retained as the New Zealand conflict rule.

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"Renvoi: Throwing (and Catching) the Boomerang – Neilson v Overseas Projects Corporation of Victoria Ltd"

Elsabe Schoeman, 2006

The author examines the decision in Neilson v Overseas Projects Corporation of Victoria Ltd [2005] HCA 54 with specific reference to the application of renvoi in transnational tort litigation and the application of a (foreign) flexible exception to the lex loci delicti. In regard to both of these matters, the case presented unique problems as a result of inadequate proof of the foreign (Chinese) law concerned. The author submits that renvoi and (foreign) exceptions are not appropriate ways of dealing with a rigid forum choice of law rule for tort.

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“The Situs of Insurance Debts”

Jack Wass, 2014

This case note argues that the Court of Appeal decision in Bridgecorp Ltd v Certain Lloyd’s Underwriters was wrong. The Court of Appeal applied the binding Supreme Court decision of Ludgater Holdings Ltd v Gerling Australia Insurance and held that s 9 of the Law Reform Act does not have extraterritorial effect and is therefore not available in relation to a debt that is situate overseas. The author specifically criticises the Court’s reliance on the debtor’s country of residence as the exclusive determining factor of where the debt was situate. The author argues that other factors, such as where the debt is to be paid, allow for implementation of s 9 of the Law Reform Act that is more in keeping with the purpose and rationale of the provision.

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"Tort Choice of Law in New Zealand: Recommendations for Reform"

Elsabe Schoeman, 2004

This article provides a detailed analysis of the double actionability rule and its flexible exception as applied to transnational tort issues in New Zealand. The author explores the value and significance of jurisdiction- and rule-selecting approaches and, against the background of reforms in other Anglo-Common Law jurisdictions, recommends the adoption of the lex loci delicti with a “proper law” exception for New Zealand.

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"Tortious Liability and Conflicts"

Nicky Richardson, 2003

This case note on Kuwait Airways Corp v Iraqi Airways Co [2002] 3 All ER 209 (HL) highlights the complexities and uncertainty of the double actionability rule for tort. The application of the public policy exclusion to an expropriatory resolution (which was in breach of public international law rules) presented a unique challenge. The author suggests reform similar to the English Private International Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1995.

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"Copyright Infringement in New Zealand Law"

Graeme W Austin, 2000

This article addresses the territoriality of copyright laws in the context of jurisdiction and choice of law. The traditional obstacles to the justiciability of foreign copyright claims in New Zealand, namely the local action jurisdiction rule in regard to foreign immovables and the double actionability tort choice of law rule, are considered in the light of recent developments in the USA, Canada, Australia and the UK. The author concludes that flexibility introduced by Peace v Ove Arup [1999] 1 All ER 769 (CA) may pave the way for New Zealand courts to assume jurisdiction in foreign copyright infringement disputes.

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"Harding v Wealands: Substance v Procedure in the English Courts"

Elsabe Schoeman, 2007

This comment on Harding v Wealands [2006] UKHL 32 addresses two issues in transnational tort litigation: (1) the application of an exception to a general tort choice of law rule, and (2) the role of the substance-procedure dichotomy. The author submits that the substance-procedure distinction is being manipulated to achieve the desired result, while the focus should be on the identification of the appropriate lex causae.

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“Loss Distribution Issues in Multinational Tort Claims: Giving Substance to Substance”

Anthony Gray, 2008

The distinction between substance and procedure is fundamental to private international law. However, in recent years, most Commonwealth courts have made their own statements regarding this dichotomy, and there seems to be no agreement on the demarcation between substance and procedure. Based on a survey of decisions in Australia, England, Canada and South Africa, as well as an analysis of the underlying rationale for the distinction, the author argues in favour of the adoption of a narrow view of procedure in regard to the assessment of damages.

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“Conflict of Laws International Torts Cases: The Need for Reform on Both Sides of the Tasman”

Anthony Gray, 2006

The author argues that the double actionability rule, which has survived in New Zealand, is no longer best suited for choice of law in tort. Instead, the lex loci delicti should be the preferred rule supplemented by a flexible exception. The author undertakes an in-depth analysis of the North American jurisprudence in this area, focusing on the value of the distinction between conduct regulation and loss distribution. He concludes that Australia and New Zealand should adopt similar choice of law rules for torts.

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“Third (Anglo-Common Law) Countries and Rome II: Dilemma or Deliverance”

Elsabe Schoeman, 2011

The Rome II Regulation deals with choice of law in tort. The article examines the value of this Regulation vis-à-vis third (non-EU Anglo-Common law) countries, analysing the unique EU environment and the continuous movement towards uniformity and certainty. The author discusses the general choice of law regime laid down in Article 4 of the Regulation and applies it to two famous Anglo-Common law cases: Neilson v Overseas Projects Corporation of Victoria Ltd and Harding v Wealands, concluding that these cases would probably have been decided differently under Rome II. The article concludes that Rome II may indeed have comparative value for these third countries and that its importance should not be underestimated.

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"Reform of Choice of Law Rules for Tort"

Jack Wass and Maria Hook, 2017

The authors comment upon various aspects of the Private International Law (Choice of Law in Tort) Bill. The Bill abolishes the long-standing double actionability rule governing the choice of law in tort claims in New Zealand. The approach mandated by the Bill is that the New Zealand courts apply the lex loci delicti, with a flexible exception where the case is substantially more closely connected with another country. The authors explain the Bill’s approach and argue that it is sufficiently versatile to cover claims such as defamation and breach of intellectual property rights. The authors suggest that the Bill should exclude the doctrine of renvoi, given that the function of choice of law rules is to identify which country’s law New Zealand courts, not foreign courts, should apply to a particular claim. Finally, the authors recommend that the Bill allow for future common law developments in cases where parties agree as to the law that should apply to tort claims arising within their relationship.

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Private International Law – Litigating in the Trans-Tasman Context and Beyond

David Goddard and Campbell McLachlan, 2012

This New Zealand Law Society booklet provides a practical guide to private international law in New Zealand.

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A Casebook on the Conflict of Laws of New Zealand

PRH Webb and JLR Davis, 1970

Cases and materials on the New Zealand conflict of laws

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Conflict of Laws

BD Inglis, 1959

This textbook covers the main areas of conflict of laws.

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Conflict of Laws: The International Element in Commerce and Litigation

David Goddard, 1991

This New Zealand Law Society booklet provides a practical guide to private international law in New Zealand.

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Private International Law in New Zealand

David Goddard and Helen McQueen, 2001

This New Zealand Law Society booklet provides a practical guide to private international law in New Zealand.

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"New Zealand's Choice of Law Rules Relating to Tort"

Maria Hook, 2018

This article examines the changes brought about by the Private International Law (Choice of Law in Tort) Act 2017 and identifies areas for future development.