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Articles for the keyword(s) "Contract"

"Choice of Law in Equitable Wrongs: A Comparative Analysis"

Laurette Barnard, 1992

This article presents a comprehensive and in-depth comparative analysis of characterisation and choice of law in relation to equitable wrongs in English, Australian, Canadian and New Zealand law. The author proposes a flexible choice of law regime, based on the proper law of the claim, which should be determined with reference to the essential nature of equitable obligations and the policies operating in the field of fiduciary and related duties. Since the gaining of access to the beneficiary’s assets is the origin of the equitable obligation, the law under which access was gained should, subject to exceptions, constitute the proper law.

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"The Formation of Interstate and International Contracts. A Note on the 1980 UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods"

Nicky Richardson, 1989

This short note discusses the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (also known as the Vienna Sales Convention). Particular emphasis is placed on Part II of the Convention that deals with formation of sales contracts. After discussing particular articles of interest, the author concludes that the Convention will go a long way in enhancing legal certainty for international sales contracts. The only cause for regret is that it only applies to certain sales contracts and not to contracts generally.

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"Exclusive Jurisdiction Clauses – A New Zealand Perspective on the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements"

G Shapira and R Lazarovitch, 2008

Exclusive jurisdiction clauses are a frequently used tool in transnational contracts. The parties agree on a forum that would hear any potential dispute. This should ensure certainty and predictability for all parties. However, the complexity of the New Zealand rules and the jurisdictional discretion of the courts lead to often unpredictable results when exclusive jurisdiction clauses are encountered. The 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements aims to address such problems with clear rules that promote certainty in commercial dealings and validate party autonomy. Even though the Convention is not free from criticism, the authors conclude that New Zealand should nonetheless adopt it.

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"Choice of Law Clauses in International Contracts: Overseas Developments"

Nicky Richardson, 1992

The author provides an in-depth discussion and criticism of the Rome Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (1980). The essence of the discussion centres on how the Convention deals with the concept of party autonomy in contractual situations. The author concludes that Article 3 supports party autonomy and clarifies certain related matters, whereas Article 7(1), which relates to mandatory rules, is an ambiguous and uncertain provision. Lastly, it is suggested that the concepts of characteristic performance and mandatory rules should be considered when reforming New Zealand choice of law in contract.

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“Service Abroad without Leave: Taking Seaconsar Seriously’’

Elsabe Schoeman, 2010

The New Zealand High Court Rules in respect of service abroad without leave (r 6.27) now incorporate the “serious issue to be tried on the merits” test. This article examines the important difference between the “good arguable case” and “serious issue to be tried on the merits” tests using Lord Goff’s authoritative statements in Seaconsar Far East Ltd v Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran. The author urges the Courts to embrace Lord Goff’s clarification as an opportunity to provide certainty and accuracy in relation to the interpretation and application of the “serious issue to be tried on the merits” test.

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"Splitting the Proper Law in Private International Law"

Campbell McLachlan, 1990

This article examines the doctrine of a split proper law in international contracts critically. The essence of the doctrine is that two or more aspects of the same contract can be governed by different laws. However, the proper law of the contract is both a unifying and simplifying concept, whose central purpose is to resolve disputes by subjecting the contract to a single legal system. Hence, a split proper law runs counter to this. The author conducts an in-depth analysis of relevant case law and international conventions in this area of the law and suggests ways of constructing a contract that appears to be subject to a split proper law.