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SANS111 Introductory Sanskrit 1

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A reading-based beginners’ paper covering the basic elements of Classical Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary, designed to develop reading skills in Classical Sanskrit.

Sanskrit has been used in India for many religious purposes, by both Hindus and Buddhists, for more than 2,500 years. This paper is a reading-based beginner's course covering the basic elements of classical Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary. It is designed to develop reading skills in classical Sanskrit.

Paper title Introductory Sanskrit 1
Paper code SANS111
Subject Sanskrit
EFTS 0.15
Points 18 points
Teaching period Not offered in 2021, expected to be offered in 2024 (Distance learning)
Domestic Tuition Fees (NZD) $913.95
International Tuition Fees (NZD) $4,073.40

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SANX 111
Schedule C
Arts and Music, Theology

Teaching staff

To be advised when paper next offered

Paper Structure

This paper is divided into fifteen lessons:

  • Lesson 1: How a verb is formed, the singular ending for verbs
  • Lesson 2: Verbs in the dual
  • Lesson 3: The plural, the grammatical terms to describe a verb
  • Lesson 4: The nominative and accusative cases
  • Lesson 5: The instrumental and dative cases
  • Lesson 6: The ablative and the genitive, the use of 'iti'
  • Lesson 7: The locative and the vocative
  • Lesson 8: The sandhi rules for combining vowels, Neuter nouns in short 'a'
  • Lesson 9: The sandhi rules for final 'ḥ', The middle voice and 'have'
  • Lesson 10: The remaining sandhi rules, Pronouns and adjectives, the verb '√as'
  • Lesson 11: Internal sandhi rules, Feminine nouns in 'ā', the third person pronouns
  • Lesson 12: Numerals; cardinal and ordinal numbers, Nouns in 'i' and the gerund
  • Lesson 13: The sandhi rules for combining vowels, Feminine nouns in 'i', Relative-correlative clauses
  • Lesson 14: The sandhi rules for final 'ḥ', Verb prefixes and the imperfect active
  • Lesson 15: The sandhi rules for final 'm', more verb prefixes, the imperfect middle


  • Assignment 1 10%
  • Assignment 2 15%
  • Assignment 3 15%
  • Final exam 60%
Teaching Arrangements
Two classes (two hours each) per week in which forms are introduced and practised and then revised in a subsequent class.

Classes for distance students are conducted using Zoom videoconferences.
Egenes, Thomas; Introduction to Sanskrit Part I. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2013.
Graduate Attributes Emphasised
Communication, Ethics, Self-motivation.
View more information about Otago's graduate attributes.
Learning Outcomes


  • The basic elements of classical Sanskrit grammar
  • The basic vocabulary of classical Sanskrit


  • The ability to translate the beginning of Sanskrit grammar
  • The ability to read and write in Devanāgarī script

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Not offered in 2021, expected to be offered in 2024

Teaching method
This paper is taught through Distance Learning
Learning management system