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Health Sciences staff profiles

Honorary Professor Nick Chandler

PositionHonorary Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Oral Rehabilitation
QualificationsBDS(Lond) MSc(Manc) PhD(Lond) LDSRCS(Eng) FDSRCPS(Glas) FDSRCS(Edin) FFDRCSI
Research summaryEndodontics

Research

Nick Chandler is an endodontic specialist at the Faculty of Dentistry. His discipline is concerned with diseases of the dental pulp and their treatment, often involving root canal fillings, a central aspect of his research.

The use of root canal posts made of metals, carbon fibres or tooth-coloured materials to rebuild extensively damaged teeth has been an enduring interest. As well, earlier work on pulp infections, root canal sealers and detecting root ends using radiographs and electronics has been widely cited. Experiments using instruments with cutting tips as small as 0.06 mm produced unique publications.

Nick’s current research uses ultrasound for the diagnosis of dental disease. His PhD considered the laser Doppler blood flow method, proving that pulsatile flow could be detected in diseased molar teeth to give a non-invasive and accurate assessment of pulp health. His work on clinical simulation has led to new models and concepts while investigating student perceptions of teaching, learning and confidence.

Publications

Broadbent, J., & Chandler, N. (2021). Guest editorial: A thank you to our reviewers. New Zealand Dental Journal, 117(2), 52-53. [Editorial].

Chandler, N. (2021). Grand opening of redeveloped Dental School. New Zealand Dental Journal, 117(1), 3. [Editorial].

Hamadani, P., & Chandler, N. (2019). A modern look at the Cvek pulpotomy. ENDO, 13(4), 287-293. [Review].

Chandler, N. (2019). Saving pulps and parts of pulps: Slow and steady progress. ENDO, 279-280. [Editorial].

Bogen, G., & Chandler, N. P. (2019). Vital pulp therapy. In I. Rotstein & J. I. Ingle (Eds.), Ingle's endodontics 7: Volume 1. (pp. 885-909). Raleigh, USA: PMPH USA.

Bogen, G., & Chandler, N. P. (2019). Vital pulp therapy. In I. Rotstein & J. I. Ingle (Eds.), Ingle's endodontics 7: Volume 1. (pp. 885-909). Raleigh, USA: PMPH USA.

Chapter in Book - Research

Chandler, N. P., & Chong, B. S. (2017). Diagnosis. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (7th ed.) (pp. 23-39). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bogen, G., Kuttler, S., & Chandler, N. (2016). Vital pulp therapy. In K. M. Hargreaves, L. H. Berman & I. Rotstein (Eds.), Cohen's pathways of the pulp. (11th ed.) (pp. 849-876). Elsevier.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bogen, G., Lawaty, I., & Chandler, N. (2014). MTA root canal obturation. In M. Torabinejad (Ed.), Mineral trioxide aggregate: Properties and clinical applications. (1st ed.) (pp. 208-249). Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bogen, G., Munce, C. J., & Chandler, N. (2013). Repair of perforations in endodontically treated teeth. In N. Z. Baba (Ed.), Contemporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment planning. (pp. 167-180). Hanover Park, IL: Quintessence.

Chapter in Book - Research

Chandler, N. P. (2010). Root canal filling. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (6th ed.) (pp. 131-157). Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bogen, G., & Chandler, N. P. (2008). Vital pulp therapy. In J. I. Ingle, L. K. Bakland & J. C. Baumgartner (Eds.), Ingle's endodontics. (6th ed.) (pp. 1310-1329). Hamilton, Canada: BC Decker.

Chapter in Book - Research

Chandler, N. P. (2017). Root canal filling. In B. S. Chong (Ed.), Harty's endodontics in clinical practice. (7th ed.) (pp. 151-173). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.

Chapter in Book - Other

Chew, D., Bennani, V., Aarts, J. M., Chandler, N., Gray, A., & Lowe, B. (2019). Bonding strengths to porcelain: An in vitro study of ultrasonic and conventional tooth preparation and etching. Journal of Conservative Dentistry, 22(1), 76-81. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_302_18

Journal - Research Article

Chu, J., Bennani, V., Aarts, J. M., Chandler, N., & Lowe, B. (2018). The effect of different geometric shapes and angles on the fracture strength of IPS e.max computer‑aided designed ceramic onlays: An in vitro study. Journal of Conservative Dentistry, 21(2), 210-215. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_242_17

Journal - Research Article

Looi, S., Chua, K. R., Murray, C., & Chandler, N. P. (2018). New Zealand general dental practitioners' preferred methods for the restoration of root-canal-treated teeth. New Zealand Dental Journal, 114(2), 52-59.

Journal - Research Article

Rajeevan, M., Chandler, N. P., Makdissi, J., & Chong, B. S. (2018). A survey of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) use among endodontic practitioners in the UK. ENDO, 12(1), 29-33.

Journal - Research Article

Russell, A. A., Chandler, N. P., & Friedlander, L. T. (2018). Crack formation following root-end preparation in roots with the butterfly effect. European Endodontic Journal, 3(2), 107-112. doi: 10.14744/eej.2018.47965

Journal - Research Article

Russell, A., Friedlander, L., & Chandler, N. (2018). Sealer penetration and adaptation in root canals with the butterfly effect. Australian Endodontic Journal, 44(3), 225-234. doi: 10.1111/aej.12238

Journal - Research Article

Sew Hoy, W., Antoun, J., Lin, W., Chandler, N., Merriman, T., & Farella, M. (2018). Ecological momentary assessment of pain in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment using a smartphone app. Seminars in Orthodontics, 24(2), 209-216. doi: 10.1053/j.sodo.2018.04.002

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Gray, A. R., & Murray, C. M. (2017). Eyesight: A study of the staff of a dental school. BDJ Open, 3, 17008. doi: 10.1038/bdjopen.2017.8

Journal - Research Article

Russell, A. A., Chandler, N. P., & Friedlander, L. T. (2017). Vertical root fractures in root canal-treated teeth. ENDO, 11(3), 173-182.

Journal - Research Article

Aydemir, S., Cimilli, H., Gerni, P. M., Bozkurt, A., Orucoglu, H., Chandler, N., & Kartal, N. (2016). Comparison of the sealing ability of Biodentine, iRoot BP Plus and mineral trioxide aggregate. Cumhuriyet Dental Journal, 19(2), 166-171. doi: 10.7126/cdj.58140.5000144905

Journal - Research Article

Jeganath, J., Wong, A., Chandler, N., & Murray, C. (2016). New Zealand general dentists' usage and views on caries detection methods. New Zealand Dental Journal, 112(3), 81-87.

Journal - Research Article

Murray, C. M., Gray, A. R., & Chandler, N. P. (2016). Eyesight: A study of dental surgery students during their clinical training. Optometry in Practice, 17(3), 113-120.

Journal - Research Article

Murray, C., & Chandler, N. (2016). Final year dental students in New Zealand: Self-reported confidence levels prior to BDS graduation. New Zealand Dental Journal, 112(4), 116-121.

Journal - Research Article

Edwards, C., Bennani, V., Chandler, N., & Lowe, B. (2015). Effectiveness of disposable (single-use) tips for dental air-water syringes. European Journal of Prosthodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 23(4), 187-191. doi: 10.1992/EJPRD_1433Bridi08

Journal - Research Article

Oginni, A. O., Adeleke, A. A., & Chandler, N. P. (2015). Root canal treatment and prevalence of apical periodontitis in a Nigerian adult subpopulation: A radiographic study. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry, 13(1), 85-90. doi: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a31661

Journal - Research Article

Aydemir, S., Cimilli, H., Mumcu, G., Chandler, N., & Kartal, N. (2014). Crack formation on resected root surfaces subjected to conventional, ultrasonic, and laser root-end cavity preparation. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, & Laser Surgery, 32(6), 351-355. doi: 10.1089/pho.2013.3696

Journal - Research Article

Beck, V. J., Farella, M., Chandler, N. P., Kieser, J. A., & Thomson, W. M. (2014). Factors associated with pain induced by orthodontic separators. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 41(4), 282-288. doi: 10.1111/joor.12144

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2014). Laser light passage through restored and carious posterior teeth. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 41(8), 630-634. doi: 10.1111/joor.12173

Journal - Research Article

Cimilli, H., Aydemir, S., Arican, B., Mumcu, G., Chandler, N., & Kartal, N. (2014). Accuracy of the Dentaport ZX apex locator for working length determination when retreating molar root canals. Australian Endodontic Journal, 40(1), 2-5. doi: 10.1111/aej.12010

Journal - Research Article

Lau, A., Bennani, V., Chandler, N., Hanlin, S., & Lowe, B. (2014). Effect of air moisture content on adhesion to dentine: A comparison of dental air/water syringe tips. European Journal of Prosthodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 22(3), 137-141. doi: 10.1922/EJPRD_1337Bennani05

Journal - Research Article

Murray, C. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2014). Undergraduate endodontic teaching in New Zealand: Students’ experience, perceptions and self-confidence levels. Australian Endodontic Journal, 40(3), 116-122. doi: 10.1111/aej.12084

Journal - Research Article

Russell, A. A., He, L. H., & Chandler, N. P. (2014). Investigation of dentin hardness in roots exhibiting the butterfly effect. Journal of Endodontics, 40(6), 842-844. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.11.005

Journal - Research Article

Wong, S., Mundy, L., Chandler, N., Upritchard, J., Purton, D., & Tompkins, G. (2014). Antibacterial properties of root canal lubricants: A comparison with commonly used irrigants. Australian Endodontic Journal, 40, 111-115. doi: 10.1111/aej.12075

Journal - Research Article

Alothmani, O. S., Chandler, N. P., & Friedlander, L. T. (2013). The anatomy of the root apex: A review and clinical considerations in endodontics. Saudi Endodontic Journal, 3(1), 1-9. doi: 10.4103/1658-5984.116273

Journal - Research Article

Alothmani, O. S., Friedlander, L. T., & Chandler, N. P. (2013). Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length. Saudi Endodontic Journal, 3(2), 57-64. doi: 10.4103/1658-5984.118145

Journal - Research Article

Alothmani, O. S., Friedlander, L. T., Monteith, B. D., & Chandler, N. P. (2013). Influence of clinical experience on the radiographic determination of endodontic working length. International Endodontic Journal, 46(3), 211-216. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02109.x

Journal - Research Article

Beck, V. J., Stacknik, S., Chandler, N. P., & Farella, M. (2013). Orthodontic tooth movement of traumatised or root-canal-treated teeth: A clinical review. New Zealand Dental Journal, 109(1), 6-11.

Journal - Research Article

Cimilli, H., Aydemir, S., Kartal, N., & Chandler, N. (2013). Comparing the accuracy of four electronic apex locators for determining the minor diameter: An ex vivo study. Journal of Dental Sciences, 8(1), 27-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jds.2012.09.015

Journal - Research Article

Kim, Y.-J. A., & Chandler, N. P. (2013). Determination of working length for teeth with wide or immature apices: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 46(6), 483-491. doi: 10.1111/iej.12032

Journal - Research Article

O'Shea, R. P., Chandler, N. P., & Roy, R. (2013). Dentists make larger holes in teeth than they need to if the teeth present a visual illusion of size. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e77343. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077343

Journal - Research Article

Russell, A. A., Chandler, N. P., Hauman, C., Siddiqui, A. Y., & Tompkins, G. R. (2013). The butterfly effect: An investigation of sectioned roots. Journal of Endodontics, 39(2), 208-210. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.09.016

Journal - Research Article

Aziz, A., Chandler, N. P., Hauman, C. H. J., Leichter, J. W., McNaughton, A., & Tompkins, G. R. (2012). Infection of apical dentin and root-end cavity disinfection. Journal of Endodontics, 38(10), 1387-1390. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.06.034

Journal - Research Article

Bogen, G., & Chandler, N. P. (2012). Pulp preservation in immature permanent teeth. Endodontic Topics, 23(1), 131-152. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-1546.2012.00286.x

Journal - Research Article

Ellis, R., Bennani, V., Purton, D., Chandler, N., & Lowe, B. (2012). The effect of ultrasonic instruments on the quality of preparation margins and bonding to dentin. Journal of Esthetic & Restorative Dentistry, 24(4), 278-285. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2011.00495.x

Journal - Research Article

Horne, P., Bennani, V., Chandler, N., & Purton, D. (2012). Ultrasonic margin preparation for fixed prosthodontics: A pilot study. Journal of Esthetic & Restorative Dentistry, 24(3), 201-209. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2011.00477.x

Journal - Research Article

Violich, D. R., Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., & Monteith, B. D. (2012). Effect of the smear layer on a pulp proximity-indicating instrument. Odontology, 100, 47-53. doi: 10.1007/s10266-011-0014-5

Journal - Research Article

Al-Ani, A., Bennani, V., Chandler, N. P., Lyons, K. M., & Thomson, W. M. (2010). New Zealand dentists' use of gingival retraction techniques for fixed prosthodontics and implants. New Zealand Dental Journal, 106(3), 92-96.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2010). Effect of restorations on pulpal blood flow in molars measured by laser doppler flowmetry. International Endodontic Journal, 43(1), 41-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01630.x

Journal - Research Article

Violich, D. R., & Chandler, N. P. (2010). The smear layer in endodontics: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 43(1), 2-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01627.x

Journal - Research Article

Desai, S., & Chandler, N. (2009). Calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers: A review. Journal of Endodontics, 35(4), 475-480. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.11.026

Journal - Research Article

Desai, S., & Chandler, N. (2009). The restoration of permanent immature anterior teeth, root filled using MTA: A review. Journal of Dentistry, 37(9), 652-657. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2009.05.026

Journal - Research Article

Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., Monteith, B. D., & Qualtrough, A. J. (2009). A novel instrument to determine pulp proximity. European Journal of Prosthodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 17(1), 30-34. doi: 10.1922/EJPRD_761Purton05

Journal - Research Article

Bennani, V., Schwass, D., & Chandler, N. (2008). Gingival retraction techniques for implants versus teeth: Current status. Journal of the American Dental Association, 139(10), 1354-1363.

Journal - Research Article

Goga, R., Chandler, N. P., & Oginni, A. O. (2008). Pulp stones: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 41(6), 457-468. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01374.x

Journal - Research Article

Lin, J., & Chandler, N. P. (2008). Electric pulp testing: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 41(5), 365-374. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01375.x

Journal - Research Article

Roy, R., Chandler, N. P., & Lin, J. (2008). Peripheral dentin thickness after root-end cavity preparation. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 105(2), 263-266. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.08.010

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N., Leichter, J., Oginni, A., & Jennings, M. (2007). Dens invaginatus: A rare case in a maxillary third molar. ENDO, 1(4), 279-282.

Journal - Research Article

Lin, J., Chandler, N., Purton, D., & Monteith, B. (2007). Appropriate electrode placement site for electric pulp testing first molar teeth. Journal of Endodontics, 33(11), 1296-1298.

Journal - Research Article

Roy, R., & Chandler, N. P. (2007). Contemporary perspectives on root-end management during periapical surgery. ENDO, 1(2), 91-99.

Journal - Research Article

Roy, R., & Chandler, N. P. (2007). Tooth discolouration following dental trauma. ENDO, 1(3), 181-187.

Journal - Research Article

Wong, B. K. J., Leichter, J. W., Chandler, N. P., Cullinan, M. P., & Holborow, D. W. (2007). Radiographic study of ethnic variation in alveolar bone height among New Zealand dental students. Journal of Periodontology, 78(6), 1070-1074. doi: 10.1902/jop.2007.060366

Journal - Research Article

Healey, D. L., Plunkett, D. J., & Chandler, N. P. (2006). Orthodontic movement of two root fractured teeth: A case report. International Endodontic Journal, 39, 324-329.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Ng, B. P., & Monteith, B. D. (2005). Radiographic recognition and distribution of approximal carious lesions in New Zealand undergraduate dental students. New Zealand Dental Journal, 101(3), 106-109.

Journal - Research Article

Gordon, M. P. J., Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2005). An evaluation of .06 tapered gutta-percha cones for filling of .06 taper prepared curved root canals. International Endodontic Journal, 38, 87-96.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2004). Pulp size in molars: Underestimation on radiographs. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31, 764-769.

Journal - Research Article

Goga, R., Chandler, N. P., & Love, R. M. (2004). Clarity and diagnostic quality of digitized conventional intraoral radiographs. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 33, 103-107.

Journal - Research Article

Gordon, M. P. J., & Chandler, N. P. (2004). Electronic apex locators. International Endodontic Journal, 37, 425-437.

Journal - Research Article

Purton, D. G., Ng, B. P., Chandler, N. P., & Monteith, B. D. (2004). The bitewing radiograph as an assessment tool in fixed prosthodontics. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31, 562-567.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Monteith, B. D. (2003). Coronal pulp size in molars: a study of bitewing radiographs. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 757-763.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Qualtrough, A. J. E., & Purton, D. G. (2003). Comparison of two methods for the removal of root canal posts. Quintessence International, 34(7), 534-536.

Journal - Research Article

Hauman, C. H. J., Chandler, N. P., & Purton, D. G. (2003). Factors influencing the removal of posts. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 687-690.

Journal - Research Article

Koshy, S., & Chandler, N. P. (2003). Continuing professional education in endodontics in New Zealand. New Zealand Dental Journal, 99(4), 104-106.

Journal - Research Article

Naoum, H. J., Chandler, N. P., & Love, R. M. (2003). Conventional versus storage phosphor-plate digital images to visualize the root canal system contrasted with a radiopaque medium. Journal of Endodontics, 29(5), 349-352.

Journal - Research Article

Naoum, H. J., Love, R. M., Chandler, N. P., & Herbison, G. P. (2003). Effect of X-ray beam angulation and intraradicular contrast medium on radiographic interpretation of lower first molar root canal anatomy. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 12-19.

Journal - Research Article

Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., & Qualtrough, A. J. E. (2003). Effect of thermocycling on the retention of glass-fiber root canal posts. Quintessence International, 34(5), 366-369.

Journal - Research Article

Qualtrough, A. J. E., Chandler, N. P., & Purton, D. G. (2003). A comparison of the retention of tooth-colored posts. Quintessence International, 34(3), 199-201.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., & Koshy, S. (2002). Radiographic practices of dentists undertaking endontics in New Zealand. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 31, 317-321.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., & Koshy, S. (2002). The changing role of the apicectomy operation in dentistry. Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 47, 660-667.

Journal - Research Article

Drummond, B. K., Chandler, N. P., & Meldrum, A. M. (2002). Comparison of the cariogenicity of some processed cheeses. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 4, 188-194.

Journal - Research Article

Friedlander, L. T., Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). A comparision of phosphor-plate digital images with conventional radiographs for the perceived clarity of fine endodontic files and periapical lesions. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 93, 321-327.

Journal - Research Article

Hauman, C. H. J., Chandler, N. P., & Tong, D. C. (2002). Endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus: A review. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 127-141.

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Koshy, S., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Therapeutic users of lasers in endodontics. Endodontology Today, 2, 49-58.

Journal - Research Article

Koshy, S., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Use of rubber dam and its association with other endodontic procedures in New Zealand. New Zealand Dental Journal, 98, 12-16.

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Martell, B., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Electrical and dye leakage comparision of three root-end restorative materials. Quintessence International, 33, 30-34.

Journal - Research Article

Naoum, H. J., & Chandler, N. P. (2002). Temporization for endodontics. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 964-978.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Pitt Ford, T. R., & Watson, T. F. (2001). Pattern of transmission of laser light through carious molar teeth. International Endodontic Journal, 34, 526-532.

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Purton, D. G., Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (2000). Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts. Operative Dentistry, 25, 223-227.

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., Love, R. M., & Sundqvist, G. (1999). Laser Doppler flowmetry. An aid in differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 87(5), 613-616.

Journal - Research Article

Odor, T. M., Chandler, N. P., Watson, T. F., Pitt Ford, T. R., & McDonald, F. (1999). Laser light transmission in teeth: a study of the patterns in different specieis. International Endodontic Journal, 32, 296-302.

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Heling, I., & Chandler, N. P. (1998). Antimicrobial effect of irrigant combinations within dentinal tubules. International Endodontic Journal, 31, 8-14.

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Purton, D. G., Chandler, N. P., & Love, R. M. (1998). Rigidity and retention of root canal posts. British Dental Journal, 184, 294-296.

Journal - Research Article

Warren, C. J., & Chandler, N. P. (1998). Influence of file handle attachments on tactile discrimination: An evaluation by dental students. International Endodontic Journal, 31, 100-102.

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Chandler, N. P., & Fyfe, D. M. (1997). Root canals of buried teeth: radiographic changes due to crystal growth. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 7(1), 11-17.

Journal - Research Article

Purton, D. G., & Chandler, N. P. (1997). Sclerotic bone lesions: report of three cases. New Zealand Dental Journal, 93, 14-16.

Journal - Research Article

Cathro, P. R., Chandler, N. P., & Hood, J. A. A. (1996). Impact resistance of crowned endodontically treated central incisors with internal composite cores. Endodontics & Dental Traumatology, 12(3), 124-128. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1996.tb00110.x

Journal - Research Article

Chandler, N. P., & Cathro, P. R. (1996). Endondontic sequelae of miniplate bone fixation. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, & Endodontology, 81(4), 467-471. doi: 10.1016/S1079-2104(96)80026-6

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Chandler, N. P., & Gray, A. (1996). Patent nasopalatine ducts: a case report. New Zealand Dental Journal, 92, 80-82.

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Chandler, N. P., Shaw, J. R., & Treble, S. J. (1996). Effect of endodontic instrument handle diameter on operator performance. Journal of Endodontics, 22, 110-111.

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Heling, I., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). The antimicrobial effect within dentinal tubules of four root canal sealers. Journal of Endodontics, 22, 257-259.

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Love, R. M., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). A scanning electron and confocal laser microscope investigation of tetracycline-affected human dentine. International Endodontic Journal, 29(6), 376-381.

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Love, R. M., Chandler, N. P., & Jenkinson, H. F. (1996). Penetration of smeared or non-smeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii. International Endodontic Journal, 29, 2-12.

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Pack, A. R. C., & Chandler, N. P. (1996). A combined endodontic-periodontal lesion of development origin: a case report. New Zealand Dental Journal, 92, 46-48.

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