Book of Nurture, The

Rhodes, Hugh

STC 20953
Ringler 20953 and TP 118 [1st line: 'Al ye that would learn and then would be called wise'] (See also TP 576, 581, 585, 587, 868.5.) Surviving copy (Bodleian) lacks A2 and A3. Other eds.: STC 20954 (A. Veale, [1560?]; STC 20955 T. Colwell [1560?], collated here and supplying text of A2 and A3, lost from STC 20953; STC 20956 (T. East, 1568); STC 20957 ([London, c. 1570]). Ptd. from revised and enlarged version STC 20958 (1577) by F. J. Furnivall, EETS os 32 (1868), pp. 61-113. UMI microfilm reel 142

The boke of nurture for men, seruantes and chyldren, with Stans puer ad mensam, newly corrected.
London: Thomas Petyt,1545?.

Variant source 1: T. Colwell, 1560? (STC 20955)

Composition Date: ante 1545?.

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¶The boke of nurture for men, seruauntes and chyldren, with Stans puer ad mensam newly corrected, very vtyle and necessary vnto all youth.
THere is fewe thynges to be vnderstande more necessary then to teache and gouerne chyldren in lernyng and good maner. For it is a hye seruyce to god / it encreaseth fauor, it multiplieth goodes, and encreaseth thy good name, it encreaseth prayer / and by prayer grace, and to vse chyldren in vertue and good lernynge. The cause of the worlde beynge so euyll in lyuyng as it is for lacke of vertue in youth. Whiche youthe sheweth the dysposycyon of theyr parents or maysters vnder whom they haue be gouerned. For youth is dysposed to take suche as they are accustomed in / good or euyll. For yf the conuersacyon of the gouernour be euyll: nedes muste the chylde be euyll. And thus by the chylde ye shall perceyue the dysposycyon of the gouernour. For of euyll examples manye daungers and abhomynable synnes foloweth. For the whiche bothe the discyple and the mayster shall suffer and dothe dayly. It is also necessary for a gouernour to vse them to fayre speche, and to sette well theyr wordes with a good aduisement without stamerynge. And yf ye put them to scole awaye frome you, se ye put them to a dyscrete mayster that can punysshe sharpely with pacyence
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and not with rygore, for it doth oftymes cause them to rebel and runne away: wherof chaunseth oftymes moche harme. Also theyr parentes oftymes muste instructe them of god / and of his lawes / and in vertuous instruccyons of the worde of god, and of other good example with suche other lyke. And thus by lytell and lytell they shall come to knowledge of reason, fayth, and good chrysten lyuynge. For as saynt Paule sayth to Timothe. He that dothe not regarde the cure and charge of them that are vnder the charge of theyr gouernaunce, he renyeth the fayth and is worse then a pagan. And take good hede of any newe seruauntes that ye take in-to your house and howe ye put them in any auctorite amonge your chyldren: and what ye gyue them take hede howe they spende it. Also to appose your seruauntes yf they can theyr byleue: also yf they brynge anye-thynge home that is mysse_taken, or tell tales, or newes of detraccyon, ye shall then sharplye reproue them / yf they wyll not lerne, auoyde them out of your house. For it is great quyetnes to haue people of good fassyon in your house. Nor apparell not your chyldren or seruauntes that are of lefull dyscrecyon in sumptuous apparell, for it encreaseth pryde and obstinacy and many other euylles oftymes. Nor let your chyldren go whyther they wyll, but knowe where they go / in what company and what they haue done good or euyll. Take hede they speake no wordes of vilany, for it causeth moche corruptyon to engender in them: nor shewe them to moche carnall loue. And se that they vse honest sportes and games. Marke well what vice they are specially enclined vnto (breake it by tyme: and somtyme vse them to heare the worde of god preached: and then enquyre of them what they herde preached, and vse them not to rede fayned fables, or vayne fantases, or of folysshe loue: it is tyme loste. For yf thou lerne pure and cleane doctryne in youthe, thou shalte powre out plenty of good and pure waters in thyne age: and yf any stryfe or debate be a_Sigs. A2 and A3 wanting in Bodleian copy; missing text added from 1560
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mong them at night, charitably cal them to_gether, and with wordes or stripes make them al to agre in one. Take heede if thy seruaunt or childe murmure or
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grudge against thee, breake it be_time. And when thou hearest them sweare or curse, lie or fight: thou shalt reproue them sharply. And ye that are frendes or kin, shal laboure how to make them to loue and drede you, as wel for loue as for feare.

The maner of seruing a knight, squier, or gentleman.

FYrst ye must be diligent to know your maisters pleasure, and to know the order and custome of his house. For diuers maisters are of sundrie condicions and apetites. And if thou be admytted in any office, as buttrie or pantrie, in some places thei are both one: take an inuitory inuitory: corrupt form of inventory; see OED s.v. invitorybread] brrad 1560 of suche thynges as ye take charge of, howe it is spent. For it pleaseth a maister muche to haue a trew rekenyng: then in your office of the pantry, se that your br[e]ad bread] brrad 1560 be chipped and squared, and note how much ye spend in one day. And se your napry cleane, and sort euery-thynge by it-selfe, the cleane from the foule, kepe euery house of office clene, and all that belongeth to it: when your maister will go to his meate, take a towell about your necke, then take a cupborde-cloth, a basen, ewer, and a towel, to araye your cupbord, couer your table, set on bread, salt, and trenchers, the salt before the bred, and trenchers before the salt: set your napkins and spones on the cupbord readie, and lay euery man a trencher, a napkin, and a spone: and yf ye haue mo meases then one at your maisters table, considre what degre thei be of, and therafter ye may serue them: and then set downe euerythyng at that mease as before, except your keruing-kniues: yf there be many gentlemen or yomen, then set on bread, salt, trenchers, spones after they be set, or els after the custom of the house. And some do vse to set before euery man a lofe of bread and his cup, and some vse the contrary thus must you haue respect to the order of the house, and in some places it is vsed to set dryncke, and a lofe or two.
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In some places the keruer doth vse to shew and set down and goth before the course and beareth no dish, and in some place, he beareth the first dish, and maketh obeysaunce to his maister, and setteth it downe couered before the degre of a knyght, or els not vsed, and take the couers and set them by. Also the karuer hath aucthoritie to karue to all at hys maysters mease, and also vnto other that syt ioyninge by them if he liste, see ye haue voyders readye for to auoyde the morsels that they doe leaue on theyr trenchers. Then with your trenchour-knife take of suche fragmentes, and put it in your voyder, and set them cleane a_gaine. Al your soueraignes trenchours, or breade, voyde theym once or twise, speciallye when they are wet, or geue theim cleane. And as ye se men leaue eatyng of the fyrst and second dishe so auoyde them from the table. And than if that so bee ye haue any more courses than one or two, ye maye make the more hast in voyding, and euer let one dishe or two stande til the next course, and than take vp al, and set downe fresh and cleane voyders withal, and let them not bee to ful or ye emptie them, and then set cleane agayn, and loke what sause is ordayned for anye meate, voyde the sause therof when ye take away the meate. And at the degre of a knyght ye may set down your cup couered, and lifte of the couer, and set it on a_gayne, and when he lysteth to drinke and taketh of the couer, take the couer in thy hand and set it on againe, when he hath dronken loke the cup of wyne or ale be not emptie, but oft renewed. Also the karuer shall break his dishe before his maister, or at a side cupbourde, with cleane kniues, and se there lacke not bread nor drinke, and when men haue wel eaten, and do begin to waxe wery of eating, or if ye perceyue by the countenaunce of your maister when ye shal take vp the meat, and voyde the table, begin at the lowest mease, take away your spones, if there be anye how-be-it ye may auoid them, after brothes and baked meates
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are past. Then take away your voiders and your dyshes of meate as they were set downe, so take them vp in order. Then set down chese or fruites, and that ended void your chese and fruites and couer your cup, ale or wyne, first voide the ale, and then the wine, then set on a brode voyder, and put therin the small peces of breade and small cromes, with trenchers and napkyns, and with your trencher-knife or napkin make clene the table, then set awaye your bread hole, and also your voyder, then take vp the salte and make obeysaunce, marke if your maister vse to wash at the table or standyng, if he be at the table, cast a cleane towell on your table-cloth, and set downe your basyn and ewer before your soueraigne, and take the ewer in your hande, and geue them water. Then voide your basin and ewer, and folde the borde-cloth togyther with your towell therin, and so take them of the bord. And when your soueraigne shal wasshe set your towel on the left hand of him, and the water before your soueraigne at dinner or supper, if it be to bedwarde, set vp your basin and your towel on the cupbord agayne. And yf your mayster wyll haue any conceytes after dynner, as apples nuttes, or creame, then lay forth a towel on the bord and set theron a lofe or two, see ye haue trenchers and spones in redynes if nede require, then serue forth your mayster wel, and so take it vp agayne with a voyder.

¶Howe to ordre your maisters chamber, at night to bedwarde.
ARay your cupbord with a cupborde-cloth with your basin, ewer, candell-light, and towell, yf ye haue helpe, set one to beare a torche or some other lyghte before, and another folowe to beare a towell and bread for your table as thou seest nede. And if you haue banket-disshes what-soeuer it be, as fruites put in sundrie disshes and all other confections and conceytes of spicerye, also when the
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dishes are emptie auoide them from the table: if your soueraigne be a knight or squier, set downe your dishes couered and your cup also. And if your soueraigne be not set at the table let your dishes stand couered til he be set, and when he is set, then take the voyders. When your maister entendeth to bedward, se that ye haue fire and candle sufficient, ye must haue cleane water at nyght and in the mornyng, if your maister ly in fresh shetes, dry of the moistenes at the fyre, if he ly in a strange place se his shetes be cleane, then folde down his bed, and warme his night-kercher, and se his house of office be cleane, helpe of his clothinge, and drawe the cortins, make sure the fire and candle, auoyd the dogges, shut the dores. And at night or in the morning, your master being alone, if ye haue anything to say, it is good knowyng his pleasure: in the mornynge yf it be colde make a fyre and haue in cleane water, and bringe him his peticoat warme with his doublet and al his aparel cleane brusht, and his showes made clene, add help to aray hym, trusse his poyntes strike vp his hosen, and see al-thynge clenly about him, gyue him good attendaunce and especially among straungers, for attendaunce dothe please masters very wel. Thus doynge with dillygence god wil preferre you to honour and good fortune.

Here foloweth the booke of nurture of good maners for man and childe.

AL ye that wolde learne, and wolde be called wise
Obedience learne in youth, in age it wil avoid vice
I am blind in Poetes art, therof I can no skyl
Al eloquence I put a_part, folowe mine owne wyl
5 Corrupt in speche my breues and longes to know
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Borne and bred in Deuenshyre / my termes wyl wel showe Deuenshyre] Deuenshhyre 1545
Take the best and leue the worst / for of trueth I mene none yll
Yf the matter be not curyous / the entent is good marke it wel
Pardon I aske / yf I offende / thus boldly for to wryte.
10 To mayster or seruaunt / yonge and olde / I do my-selfe submyt
I wolde refourme both youth and age / yf any-thynge be amys
To you wyl I shewe my mynde / refourme ye where nede is
All that hath yonge people / good maners let them to lerne
To theyr elders with gentyl condicions / let do nor say no harme
15 Yf youth do yll / wyse men may reporte theyr parentes sone
How shuld they tech other good / by_lyke themselfes can none
A good father maketh good chyldren / yf wysdom be them within
Such of custome vsed in youth / in age they wyll it begyn
He that lacketh good maners / is lytell set by
20 Wtout vertue or good condicyons / a man is not worth a fly
Reuerent father and mother / of duety kynde dothe the bynde
Such chyldren encreaseth / and lykely to recouer vertu by kynd
Against father and mother / multiply no wordes loke ye be sure
It wyl be to thy great laude / and to thy frendes ioyful to here
25 A plant without moysture / may not brynge forth his floure
Yf youth be voyde of vertue / in age he shall lacke honoure
Fyrst drede god / next fle syn / for erthly thynges are mortall
Stande not to fast in thy conceyt / for pryde wyl haue a fall
Use erly rysynge in the mornynge / for it hath propretes thre propretes: obs. form of properties
30 Holy helthy and welthy / in youth thus my father taught me
At syxe of the clocke at farthest / accustome the to a_ryse
Loke thou forget not to blysse the / ones or twyse
In the mornynge vse some deuocyon / and let for no nede
Then all the day afterwarde / the better shalte thou spede
35 Or thou thy chambre passe / purge thy nose and make it cleane
Of fylthy thynges backe and bely / ye knowe what I meane
Sponge and brusshe thy clothes clene / that thou shalte on were
Cast vp your bed / and take hede ye lese none of your gere
Make clene thy shoes / combe thy heed / and manerly the brace
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40 Se thou forget not / to wasshe bothe thy handes and face
Put on thy clothynge for thy degre / honestly do it make
Byd your felowe good morowe / or ye your way forth take
To your frendes / and to father and mother / loke ye take hede
For any hast do them reuerence / the better shalte thou spede
45 Drede the cursyng of father and mother / for it is a heuy thyng
Do thy duety to them / the contrary wyl be to thy dispraysyng
When thy father and mother come in syght / do them reuerence
And aske them blessyng / yf they haue ben long out of presence
Clenly apoynt you in your aray / beware then of dysdayne
50 Then be gentyll of speache / and manerly you retayne
And as ye passe by towne or strete / sadly go forth your way
Gase ne scoffe nor scolde / with man ne chylde make no fray
Fayre speche doth great pleasure / it semeth of a gentyl blode
Gentyl is to vse fayre spech / it requyreth nothyng but good
55 And when thou comest in-to the chyrche / thy prayers for to say
Knele / sytte / stande / or walke / deuoutly loke thou do pray
To helpe a preest to say masse / it is greatly to be commended
Thou takest on hande an aungels office / the preest to attend
Caste not your eye to and fro / all thynges for to se
60 Then shalt thou be iudged playnly / a wanton for to be
When thou arte in the chyrche / do chyrchly workes
Communicacyon vse thou not / to women preestes nor clarkes
When your deuocyon is done / and tyme is towardes dyner
Draw home to your maysters presens / theyr do your deuer
65 If ye be desyred to serue or sytte / or eate meate at the table
Enclyne to good maners / and to nurture your-selfe inable
And your souerayne call you / with hym to dyne or soupe
Gyue hym reuerence to begynne / of meate and cuppe
And beware for any-thynge / prease not thy-selfe to hye
70 To sytte in the place apoynted the / that is curtesye
And when thou arte set / and table couered the before
Pare not your nayles fyle not the clothe / lerne ye that lore
And thy mayster speake to the / take thy cap in thy hande
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If thou syt at meate when he talketh to the / se thou stande
75 Leane not on the one syde / when thou speakest for nothyng
Holde styll bothe hande and fote / and beware of tryflynge
Stande sadly in tellynge thy tale / when as thou talkest
Tryfle with nothyng / and stande vpryght when thou spekest
Thwart not with thy felowe / nor speke not with hye voyce
80 Poynt not thy tale with thy fynger / vse no suche toyes
Haue audiens when thou speakest / then speake with auctoryte
Els yf thou speake great wysdomes / lytel it wyl auayle the
Pronounce thy speche with a pause / marke well thy worde
It is good herynge a chylde / beware with whome ye borde
85 Talke not to thy souerayne / no-tyme when he dothe drynke
When he speketh gyue hym audiens / that is good I thynke
Before that ye sytte / se that your knyfe be bryght
And your handes clene and nayles pared / that is a good syght
When thou shalte speake / rolle not to faste thy eye
90 Gase not to and fro / as one that were voyde of curtyse
For the countenauns of a man / oftyme dyscloseth his thought
His loke with his speche / wyl iudge hym good or nought
And se your knyfe be sharpe / to cut your meate with-all
So the more clenlyer cut your meate ye shall
95 Or thou put moche brede in thy potage / loke thou it assaye
Fyll not thy spone to full / leste thou lese some by the waye
If men eate of thy dysshe / crumme therin no breade
Leste your handes be sweate / therof take ye good hede
They may be corrupte that causeth it / it is no fayre vsage
100 Of breade dyce out fayre morselles / to put in your potage
Fyll it not to full of breade for it may be to the reprouable
Lest thou leaue part of it / then to mesure thou art varyable
And suppe not loude of thy potage / no-tyme in al thy lyfe
Dep not thy meate in the saltseller / but take it with a knyfe
105 When thou hast eaten thy potage / do as I shall the wysshe
Wype cleane thy spone and leaue it not in dysshe
Lay it downe before thy trencher / therof be not afrayde
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And take hede who taketh it vp / leste it be conuayde
Cut not the beste morsell for thy-selfe / leaue parte behynde
110 Be not gredy of meate and drynke / be lyberall and kynde
Burnyshe no bones with thy tethe / for that is vnsemely
Rent not thy meate asondre for to curtesy it is contrary
And straungers syt nere the / euer amonge nowe and than
Rewarde them with some dayntes / lyke a gentyll-man
115 If your felowe syt fro his meate / and can not come therto
Then cut hym suche as thou hast / that is gentelly do
Belke nere no manes face / with a corrupte tumosyte
Turne from suche occyons / it is a stynkyng ventosyte
Eate small morsels of euery meate, and not to great in quantite
120 If ye lyke suche maner of meates / yet folow not thy fantasy
Corrupt not thy lyppes with eatynge / as a pygge in draffe
Eate softlye, and drynke meanely / beware ye do not quaffe
Scratch not thy heed nor fyngers / when thou arte at meate
Nor spytte ouer the table-borde / se thou do it not forgette
125 Pycke not thy tethe with thy knyfe / nor fynger ende
But with a stycke or some cleane thyng / then do ye not offend
If your tethe be putryfyed / methynke it is no ryght
To touche meate other shulde eate / it is no clenly syght
Pycke not thy handes / nor play not with thy knyfe
130 Kepe styll fote and hande at meate-tyme / begynne ye no stryfe
Wype thy mouthe when thou shalt drynke / ale or wyne
On thy napkyn onely / and se all thynges be cleane
Blow not your nose in the napkyn, where ye wype your hande
Clense it in your handkercher, then passe ye not your bande
135 With your napkyn ye may ofte wype your mouth cleane
Some-thynge theron wyll cleue / that can not be sene
Fyll not thy trencher with morsels / great and large
Wt moch flesshe and lytel bread / fyl not thy mouth lyke a barge
Temper thy-selfe with drynke / so kepe the from blame
140 It hurteth thy honestye / and hyndereth thy good name
A pynte at a draught to powre in fast / as one in haste
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Foure at a meale is .iii. to many / in suche I thynke waste
Use thy-selfe from excesse / bothe in meate and drynke
And euer kepe temperaunce / yf that ye wake or wynke
145 Fyll not thy mouthe to full / lest thou must nedes speake
Nor blowe not out crommes / when that thou doest eate
Foule not the place with spyttynge / where thou doest sytte
Leste it abhorre some to se it / when thou haste forgette
If thou muste spyt or blowe thy nose / kepe it out of syght
150 Let it not lye on the grounde / but treade it out-ryght
With bones and voyde morsels / fyl not thy trencher to full
Auoyde them into a voyder / and no man wyll it anull
Roll not the meate in thy mouthe / that euery man may it se
But eate thy meate somwhat close / for that is great honeste
155 If thy souerayn profer the to drynke / ones twyse, or thryes
Take it gentelly at his hande / for in courte it is the guyse
When thou hast dronke set it downe / or take it to his seruaunt
Let not the mayster set it downe / then doest thou wel I warrant
Blowe not in thy potage or drynke / that is not commendable
160 For and thou be not hole of body thy breath is corruptable
Cast not bones vnder the table / nor none do thou knacke
Stretch the not at the table / nor leane not forth or backe
Afore dyner nor after / with thy knyfe scorche not the borde
Suche toyes are not commendable / truste me at a worde
165 Leane not on the borde / when your mayster is therat
For then wyll your souerayne / thynke in you checke-mate
Be not a_shamed to eate the meate / which is set before the
Manerly for to take it / that agreeth well with curtesy
Cast not thy eyes to and fro / as one that were full of toyes
170 Moche wagynge with thy heed / semeth thou arte not wyse
Scratche not thy heed / put not thy fynger in thy mouthe
Blowe not thy nose nor loke theron / to some it is lothe
Be not loude where ye be / nor at the table where ye sytte
Some men wyll deme the dronken / or mad and to lacke wytte
175 When meate is taken away / and the voiders set in presens
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Put your trencher in the voyder / and also the resydens
Take your napkyn and stryke forth the crommes before the
Put your napkyn in the voyder / for it is curteyse
Be gentyll alway and good to please / be it nyght or day
180 With tonge and hande be not ragyous / let reason rule alway
When the meate is taken vp and the table-clothe made cleane
Then take hede of grace and to wasshe / so your-selfe demene
And whyle grace is saynge / se ye make no noyse
Thanke god of your face / and to your souerayne gyue prayse
185 Then perceyue ye a tyme to ryse / and say to your felowes all
Moche good do it you gentylly / then gentyl-men wyl ye cal
Then go to your souerayne / and gyue obeysans manerly
And withdrawe your-selfe asyde / as best is for you honestly
And ye se men in great counsell / prease ye not to nere
190 They wyll say ye are [vntaught] / that is sure and clere vntaught] vnthaught 1545, vntaught 1560
Speke not moch in thy felowes ere / ne gyue no yl langage
Men are suspecyous / and wyll thynke it no good vsage
Laughe not moche at the table / nor at it make no game
Uoyde sclaunderous and bawdy tales / vse them not for shame
195 Or thou be olde beware / so thou mayst get a sodayne fall
And ye be honest in youth / in age ye may be lyberall.

¶For the waytynge-Seruaunt.

If ye wyll be a seruyng-man / se with attendaunce ye begyn
Fyrst serue god and then the worlde / and euer flee from syn
Apparel the after thy degre / youthe shulde be clene by kynde
200 Pryde and dysdayne go before / and shamefastnes behynde
Acquaynte yourselfe with honest men / that are in auctorite
Of them may ye lerne in youth / to auoyde all necessyte
Serche thou must for frenshyppe / and beware flatery
With lewede persones I the counsell / haue no familiaryte
205 Beholde not thy-selfe in thy apparell / in chyrch ne in strete
To gase on thy-selfe / men wyll thynke it is not mete
Crye ne speake with loude voyce / where-as thou doest walke
For of lyght wytte / or dronken name be thou shalte
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Be thou not slouthful / for it is the gouernour of all vyce
210 Nor be thou enuyous to the people / for then ye be not wyse
Please frendes / delyte not in slouth / that vyce wasteth goodes
It dulleth wyttes / rankleth flesshe / and palleth fresshe blodes
Yf ye come to another mannes house / to sporte or to play
And the good-man be at his meate / returne and go your waye
215 Yf fortune the auaunce / and put the in some hye degre
Be thou lyberall and gentyll / yf thou wylte be ruled by me
To lyberall nor scant / measure is best in euery-thynge
To get in one yere and spende it in another / is no lyuynge
It is better to saue somwhat / and kepe it with good prouision
220 Then to wysshe for that is myspent / for it is euyll deuisyon
Measure thy exspence / spende gladly / and auoyde excesse
Ynough is a feest / more then ynough is folysshnesse
A dilygent seruaunt / takynge payne for his mayster so
No dout his mayster wyl it consyder / and agayne for hym do
225 A mayster wyl know where he is / and somtyme for his plesure
A seruaunt to suffre swageth angre / to his mayster is tresure
A seruaunt not reformable / nor of reason wyl take no hede
He falleth in pouerte / in welth he may not longe abyde
Be manly at a nede / and begyn no quarel in wronge ne ryght
230 A iust quarel defendeth it-selfe / in wronge do not fyght
Forbere and thou mayst / yf any wyll stryke then take hede
Defende thy-selfe / the lawe wyll acquyte the at thy nede
A man of his handes / with hastynesse shulde not be defylde
Uoyde murdre and saue thy-selfe / play the man yf thou be compelde
235 Be seruiable / clenly / manly / and swere thou no othe
Be wyse / redy / and well aduysed / for tyme tryeth trouthe
Thou doest thy mayster no worshypp / to thy-selfe no honesty
Be not chekmate with thy mayster / for a worde to gyue foure
Such a seruaunt contynueth to longe / yf he passe one houre
240 Few wordes in a seruaunt / sheweth in him good commendacions
Such as be of moch spech / no [d]out they be of yll operacyons dout] bout 1545, 1560 omits
[Be not] to bolde with honest men / that are in degre aboue the Be not] omit 1545; supplied from 1560
sig: [B3v]
In age / byrth or substaunce / lowlynesse wyll do the honesty
Take payn in youth / slouth is dulnes / in attendauns be wyse
245 Do thy dilygence, suffre a tyme / an yll seruaunt is ful of vyce
Put not thy mayster to payne / with thy fayned subtylte
Wyse men wyll say lytell / and suffre to se thyne iniquite
A man that sayth lytell / shall perceaue by the spech of other
Be thou styll the more shalte thou perceaue in another
250 Gouerne thou thy tonge / and let not thy wordes mayster the
Yf ye folowe wyll ye are lyke hym that wyl not thryue parde
Obstynacy is great foly / in them that shulde haue reason
That wyll not know nor amende / theyr wyttes be so geson
In displeasure forbere your felow / tyl malys be layd a_part
255 Nor medle not you with suche as ye thynke to be ouerthwart
A hasty or wylfull mayster / that ofte chaungeth seruaunt
And a seruaunt fletyng / lacketh wyt and honesty I the warrant
Chaunge not often seruyce / for it betokeneth a seruaunt lyght
He careth for no man / ne no man for hym / in wrong ne ryght
260 A tendable seruaunt standeth in fauour / for his auauntage
Promoted shal he be in offyce or se / the easyer to lyue in age
Use honest pastyme, talke or synge, or some instrument vse
Though they be thy betters, they wyll not the refuse
To prate in thy maysters presence, it is no humanyte
265 For your promocyon resort to such / as ye may take auauntage
Among gentylmen for rewardes, to gentylwomen for mariage
Se your eye be indyfferent, amonge women that be fayre
And tell them storyes of loue, and so to you they wyll repayre
Suche pastymes somtyme, doth many men auaunce
270 In way of maryage, and your good name it wyl enhaunce
Of worldly pleasure, it is a treasure for to say the trueth
To wed a gentyll wyfe, of his bargayne he neuer rueth
What is most trouble to a man, of all thynges lyuynge
A cursed wyfe shortneth his lyfe, and bryngeth him to his ending
275 A woman nyse and not wyse, waketh men when thei shuld slepe
Lyght as a fether in the wether, of suche I take no kepe
sig: [B4]
Fulgencius declareth de nuptiis in Chana_galilee
The condicyons of men and women / a_parte I wyll shewe ye
He lykeneth Chryst to a good man / the auctour of all verite
280 To rule hym-selfe and all thynges / to obey to man truely
He lykeneth a good woman / to the myrrour of humylyte
In them is roted pacyence / where spryngeth fayth and charite
Fayth and truste is in good women / bothe in dede and worde
Louyng god / obeyng theyr husbondes / clene at bed and borde
285 Lykened women to ydols taken for gods: yet they were deuils
Iudge ye yf women now be corrupt with any suche euyls
Women to blame or to defame / I wyll disprayse none
Say as ye lust / women are yl to trust / in al thinges but one
Fayre and good are two qualytes / scarcely in one body is sene
290 Fayrenes is sone sene / her pacience and goodnes is yl to deme
For to saue that a man wold haue / is at large without a keper
Who can stay that wyl away without restreynt / who can let her
To wed a woman that is bothe good / fayre and wyse
Is to haue ynough for hymselfe / and for her as moche thryse
295 The best lyeng with a woman when she is yonge clene and lyght
And when thou wylte feble the body and hed / and wast the syght
What people are yl to please / whose hert and eye is insaciable
An olde man and a yonge woman / to satysfye is vncurable
When womens wyts are moued / of reason they take no hede
300 To please them agayne / must be for loue mede or drede
From pryde couetes and lechery / and yf thou wylt from them fle
From tresour / apparel and fayre women / withdrawe thyn eye
Be not to bolde in worde and dede / for it is but lytell honesty
In chambre with women / vse not to muche famylyaryte
305 Tell them nought that wyll not byleue the / at thy worde
It appereth by them / theyr good-wyl they may lytel a_forde
Of women ye haue herd part / wherby ye perceaue my mynde
Fewe wordes to wyse men is best / thus I make an ende
I holde them wyse and well taught / and lykely to be Ioly
310 That can beware to se the care / of another mannes foly
sig: [B4v]
Make thy myrrour of an honest man / and marke how he doth
Do thou lyke to them / then doest thou wysely for-sothe
It is better to be poore and honest / and to lyue in iest with myrth
Then to be ryche with sorowe / and come of noble byrth
315 Yf thou wylt haue helth of body / euyl dyet thou must eschew
And to get a good name / euyl company thou mayst not sew
Euyl ayres corrupt mans body / euyl company doth the same
Eschew euyl company / therof cometh honesty and good fame
All byrdes doth loue by kynde / that be lyke in fether
320 Good and bad / wylde and tame / all kyndes do drawe togyther
Great diuersite is bytwene pryde and honesty / it is sone sene
Amonge wyse it is sone iudged / and knowen what they bene
By theyr condicyon or new facyon / al-thyng sheweth as it is
Iagged or ragged / proude or meke / wyse men call it excesse
325 Many hath conyng and vertu / and knowlege without gouernauns
Wo worth reason euyl vsed / for it lacketh good remembrauns
Better is to speke lytell for profyte / then muche for payne
It is pleasure to spende and speke / but hard is to cal it agayne
Use not hasty angre / a wyse man wyll take leasure
330 Custume of sodayne malyce / wyl ones turne to displeasure
Fyrst thynke / then speke / and then do it with discrecyon
Gyue with good-wyll / and auoyde thyn enemy with good prouision
Euyll men take payne to bye hell / and al for worldly pleasure
Derer then good men bye heuen / in god is al theyr treasure
335 Lerne: or be lewde / folowe the proued mannes aduyse
Thou shalt perceaue more by this glose then by the letter ther is
Be content with few rebukes / and haue thy faute in mynde few rebukes] faire rebuke 1560
The wyselyer thou doest / the better shalte thou fynde
Yf thou be wyse consyder thy frende / bothe in worde and dede
340 And thanke hym that gyueth the / clothe drynke or breade
Turne not the face lyke a chorle / as voyde of all mekenesse
To them that do the good / gyue thankes and shew thy gentylnesse
Many coueyt moche / and lytell payne therfore wyll take
Yf thou wylt a maister please / from slouth thou must awake
sig: C1
345 One thynge take hede / the tyme ye spende not in vayne
Tyme myspent or ones past / can not be called agayne
Seke in youth and thou shalt fynde / to be one not vntaught
Wyse or folysshe, to rule or be ruled / or to be set at nought
If thou wyll take no payne in youth / and wyll be called wyse
350 Thou muste take payne in age / and be full of vyce
Let measure guyde the in welthe / a tyme to the is but lent
It is better to saue with measure / then to suffer when all is spent
Remember before what wyll fall / it wyll do thy herte ease
Fortune doth ebbe and flowe / a good forewyt doth men please
355 Lyue iustly, do well and haue well / let men say what they lyste
Be secret and frendly to thy-selfe / and beware of had I wyste
Better is a byrde in hande / then in the wood two or thre
Leaue not the certayne for the vncertayne / I aduyse the
Take hede today before to_morowe / tyme hath no measure
360 Blame no goodnes, prayse no euyll / loue is a treasure
Better is truthe with pouerte / then rychesse with shame
Couetyse auoydeth gentylnes / and lechery good fame
Sufferans aswageth yre / and amendeth that is amys
In lytel medlyng is moch rest / in a busy tonge none ther is
365 Be not to quycke in any mater / but marke well the ende
Se thou be no foo to thy-selfe / though an-other the offende
Presume not to hye / leste it turne the vnto blame
In trust is treson be ruled by reason / and beware of shame
It is no maystry to get a frynde / but for to kepe hym longe
370 As thou woldest do to thy-selfe / so do to thy frende amonge
Where thou arte put in trust / be not false in worde ne dede
In lytell valowe lyeth moche shame / in trueth moche mede valowe: value?; 1560 reads: In a lytle falshode is shame
Be not busy with thy neyghbour / let hym lyue in reste
For suche oftymes byddeth them / vnto an euyll feeste
375 Where foles be there is moche stryfe / dysdayne and debate
Amonge wyse men euer rest and pease / after a good rate
An yreful body is neuer quyet, nor in rest where he doth dwel
One amonge .x. is .ix. to many, his malyce is so cruell
sig: [C1v]
Shew gentelnes to thy seruaunt / yf he be wyllyng to amend
380 Wysdom wolde to forbere / thoughe he somtyme offende
In thy malice be not vengable, as saint mathew doth speake
Due correccyon is nedefull / and blyssed are ye that be meke
To chyde and braule seldom / therin gentelnes is there none
Fyrst proue, and then chose / of two harmes make one
385 Where thou mayste ouer there forbere / that is gentelly do
Malys had in a frendly wyse / maketh a frende of thy fo
And thou be good thou mayst do good / that is very playne
If thy dedes be contrary all thou doest is in vayne
To correcte other men / and thou corrupte in the same
390 In so doynge thou mayst / thy-selfe greatly defame
Be not busy to fynde faute / in men of good perseueraunce
Correcte thy-selfe / els men wyll iudge the full of ignoraunce
Controll not your felowes of fautes, as yf ye were cleare
To do you a pleasure at nede / ye shall fynde them nere
395 And thou wylte do for no man / in thy prosperyte
Who then shall do for the / when thou arte in thy aduersyte
If thou become of gentell stocke / or of a noble plante
It wyll appere by thy condicyons / I wyll the warrant
Subdue thy yll / that wyll in nowyse good order abyde
400 Beware of comon grudgers / for they wyll fayle the at nede
Thynke not in thyn owne conceyte that thou canst do all
When such men thynke them-self most sure / sodaynly they fal
He that is hye-mynded of hert / demeth no man lyke hym
When he semeth most hyest / men set not by hym a pyn
405 In auctoryte, and vnder thy gouernaunce / do no man blame
Fynd few fautes, vse gentyl speche / to get the a good name
An honest man wyll rebuke hym-selfe / of his faute alone
Without hye wordes / perceyuyng hym-selfe he hath yll done
Tempt no man that is moued / multiplyeng from .ii. to ten
410 Of a lytell sparke cometh great fyer / yf it be forsed to bren
In malis be not sclaunderus / to thy felow haue no dysdayne
Oft vnkyndnes doth happen / yet ye may be frendes agayne
sig: [C2]
In angre or malyce then to forbere / it is a frendly leche
After your malyce / ye wyll be sory for your euyll speche
415 A great meruayle to be wondered at / and easy to be done
To leaue thy pleasure, to kepe sylence / and to folow reason
For it is sayde of olde / better it is to rule then to be ruled
Be gentyll and beware of dysdayne / leste thy name be defiled
Loue vertue and hate vyce / and lese no tyme in waste
420 Be not couetyse, spende in mesure / accordyng as thou hast
Beware of moche speakynge / yf thou wylte be called wyse
It is wysdome to speake lytell / for moche is taken for vyce
A fole commonly wyll teache / he wyll in no-wyse be taught
Contrary hym not he wyll the dyspyse / and set the at nought
425 Good and bad are knowen / by theyr workes they go about
An honest man wyl vse his wordes / to put no man in dout
If I had Sampsons strength / and lacke reason withall
In myne owne turne sodaynly / may I take a fall
There is that can good skyl / and lacketh it shuld go therto
430 Some are put in auctoryte / and lytell good therin wyll do
All polycy is not in one man / though he be of hye scyence
One may haue lernynge / and an-other great experyence
Cunnynge with pryde, an offycer cruell is an heuy case
A pore man proud, a ryche man a thefe / such do lacke grace
435 A tyme for al-thyng to be mery or sad, to serue god or deuyll
Cunnyng not vsed grace without gouernaunce is very euyll
Put auctorite fro yong men, that are proude subtyll and lyght
A man tryed in youth, his experyence is worth moch myght
Trueth it is that many take to moche pryde in cunnynge
440 They do forget honestye, then it is not worth a podynge
Displesure of them that lacke maner, to wyse men is pitiable
A foles good-wyll is vnstedfast, his desyre is insatyable
If thou here a proude man speake, reply not agaynst hym much
He may not be agaynsayd, he thynketh hym-selfe none such
445 Better it is to beate a proude man, then to rebuke hym
They thynke theyr owne conceyte wyse, yet it is very thyn
sig: [C2v]
Trauers not in one tale / stedfastnes wyl enhaunce thy name
Lyght in speche and slowe in dedes / ywys it is great shame
Yf thou sporte and play / with any man of symple byrth
450 Use gentyl pastyme harmeles / men wyl commende your myrth
Beware of crafte and subtylte / therin be thou not infect
Yf an yl dede be done where thou arte / therin thou wyle be suspect
Bost the of no bawdynesse / for to haue it knowen
Do well yet some wyl say yll / an euyl name is sone blowen
455 A man clenly arayed / ought clenly wordes to speke and preche
Use wordes lyke apparel / or let apparel be lyke your speche
Be not bolde in your araye / nor yet of your goodes
More worth is honesty / then all your gardes and hoodes
Gyue reuerence to thyne elders / therof be thou fayne
460 Yf thou be as good as they / els shalt thou haue dysdayne
Reporte of your felowe no sclaunder / ne shew hym no flatery
It causeth preuy malyce / also it is voyde of curtesy
Medle not in many maters / therin thou shalt fynde ease
The lesse thou medlest / the better shalte thou please
465 Auyse you wel what ye speke / of whome where and whan
To be beloued / is the propertye of a wyse man
Thynke or thou speke / and take good hede at the lest
For thy speche is sone percyued / thy tale shall iudge the best
Prayse not thy-selfe / bycause thou woldest haue souereynte
470 Good dedes prayseth them-selfe / and putteth the in auctoryte
Laugh not at thyn owne conceyt / nor therof make no game
Uoyde sclaunder and bawdy tales / vse them not for shame
And laugh not ouer-moche / for ynough is a treasure
Moche laughyng is reputed / in suche as lacketh nurture
475 To sad is not alway best, to be mery amonge is auauntage To sad: thus 1545 and 1560
Somtyme myrth for a polycy, is wysdome and no outrage
Marke well the ende or ye begyn / and take ye good hede
For with a good forethought, ye may make a frend at nede
Loke thou be not to hasty, thy answere to make
480 Lest thou repent it afterwarde, and then it is to late
sig: [C3]
Get and spare or thou spend / so may thou byd thy frend good morow
And so content with a lytell payne, then after with sorowe
He that hath a byrde in hande / is worth ten at large
He that may be fre and wyll not, of suche I take no charge
485 Disprayse no man absent, and for smal fautes be not vengeble
Smal fautes seldom done / easy correctyon is commendable
Yf thou canst not refrayne wrath, yet correcte at leasure
Use not thy vtter malys, for somtyme it wyl do the displesure
An honest man wyll haue honest wordes, erly and late
490 With his betters / and wyl not with them be checkmate
And thou come to thy frendes house / by nyght or by daye
When rekenynge is done and past / then go on thy way
Yf thou do borow / kepe thy day / though it be to thy payne
Be as glad to brynge it / then thou mayst borowe agayne
495 Kepe thy promyse and day / though it be farre sought
Yf thou fayle then foloweth payne / then it is derely bought
Some be euer crauyng and borowyng / and neuer bryng agayn
Euer nedy and neuer content / but puttyng his frende to payne
Alway beggyng is no mesure / euer borowing can not endure
500 Such fayle of theyr promyse: when they it thynke most sure
It is great heuynes to a man / that hath nothynge to lose
More payne to them that had plenty / so sayth the glose
Yf thou spende aboue thy degre / thou arte lyke to lacke
Take hede betyme it maketh men slepe / when other wake
505 A prodygal man / wyl aboue his degre couet to mayntayne
So may not he prosper / spendynge his goodes in vayne
Loke or thou lepe / so shalte thou the more ease take
Yf thou lepe or thou loke / then apereth thy wysdome to late
He that worketh by good counsell / doth many a man please
510 It is to his frende great pleasure / and to hym-selfe great ease
He thou hast displeased haue in suspect / yf he speke playne
Such malys is ofte in mynd / tyll he be payed home agayne
A mans wysdome is proued moch / when he is yl-sayd vnto
Then to suffre it is great vertue / a fole can not do so
sig: [C3v]
515 When thou hast loue, seke for profyte / loue endureth not euer
It ebbeth and floweth / it lasteth no lenger then pleseth the gyuer
Yf thou wylt speake with thy mayster / gentelly go and se
It i[s] agaynst maner / he shulde ryse and come to the is] it 1545, is 1560
Some take no shame to borow / refusing no person ne tyme
520 Alway crauyng / carynge for them-selues / and not for thyne
Use gentyl condicyons / the pore asketh nought els of thy good
Gentylly gyue them part therof / toward theyr lyuyng and food
Trouth to be spoken vnder a gentyll facyon / is very good
Fayre speche with a subtyl tonge, is comonly a vylayns blood
525 Mocke or mow at another man / they wyl do as moch at the
An honest man to mocke or rebuke / it is agaynst al curtesye
In dispraysynge thyne enemy thou arte a lytell to blame
Of good sayeng cometh no yll / wherfore say well for shame
A styll man is a stronge castell / and a man from wo
530 A besy tonge oftymes / of his frende maketh his fo
A pore man wyse is worshyp / in a gentylman vnstable is foly
Worshypful byrth and shamful lyfe / in a gentylman is vngoodly
A gentylman mercyful / a chorle spyteful is great diuersyte
One lyberal, another couetous, sheweth theyr natyuyte
535 Poore men faythfull, and gentylmen deceytful in lyuynge
The gredy myndes of rulers / hath caused blode-shedynge
Grace foloweth good gouernauns / yf it be kept wel in mynd
Wanton in youth, vyce in age, one foloweth other by kynd
Prayse not thy-selfe nor thy goodes, for thy soueraynte
540 Thy good dedes wyll prayse them-selfe, and put thou in auctorite
Be not conuersaunt with euery straunger / to shewe your mynde
Some be lyberal of theyr tonges, counsel they can not bynde
Know a man or ye gyue credens, and of his sayeng be in dout
Of custom som wyl lye / gyue no sentens tyl truth be tryed out
545 Uttraunce of grefe somtyme doth ease / as I herde say
In my mynde I holde it best, thy counsell neuer bewray
Yf another man recorde thy sayenges / it may seme to be true
When counsel is closed in thy brest, vttraunce wyl the rue
sig: [C4]
It is good to kepe close counsel, except sufficyent probacyon
550 A knot vnknyt is easy to slack, the people are ful of decepcion
Take hede to whom thou brekest thy mynde, onely for flattery
In all my lyfe I coude skant fynde, one that was trusty
Fyrst make a frende then proue hym, that thou wylt trust to
So shalte thou knowe, what thy frende wyll for the do
555 Yf thou trust a frende, suspect hym not, and chaunge not for a newe
They that trust but them-selfes, for frendshyp nede not to sewe
Yf thyne enemy speke to the, here his tale to an ende
Better is a trewe rebuke of thy fo, then a fals prayse of thy frende
Yf a frend come to thy house, for loue or amyte
560 Put apart al sad fantases, and shew them gentyl familyaryte
Gyftes receaued of ryche and poore, ponder his gyfte and degre
A poore mans hart with smal reward, may be worth other thre
Of whom thou receauest, gyue somwhat agayne
A smal reward pleseth a frend, empty fystes can not hawkes reclayme
565 Yf a straunger syt the nere, make hym some frendly chere
That he may reporte thy name, bothe farre and nere
Retayne thou a straunger well / accordyng to his degre
It may fortune hym another tyme / to do as moche for the
Of secrete maters, be not with them to bolde, yf the be sage
570 Then talke with them discretly, and do not rage
Honest men wyl be content, with such as they bryng or fynd
Yf they be gentyll and pleased, men wyll report them kynde
Commaund not in another mans house, but gently be contented
So shal ye be welcome / and also the better commended
575 A man controllyng and yl to please, and in payment nothyng lyberal
It commeth nothynge of gentylnesse, to be prodygall
Syt not in the hyest place, where the good-man is presente
Gyue hym place and sylence and marke his maners with auysement
Regard thy honesty in euery company, where tyme is spent
580 Conuay nothyng therof to thy-self / so men wyll not be content
In sporte and play / with man or chylde of symple byrth
Use gentyll pastyme / then wyll men commende thy myrth
sig: [C4v]
Suspecte no counsell / yf the mater be not to the moued
For suche frowarde thoughtes / are oftymes deceyued
585 If thou come to an honest mans house / knocke or thou go in
Presume not to far in chamber / though there be of thy kyn
Go no farther then behoueth the / lest thou haue blame
In truste is treason, be ruled by reason / euer fle from shame
If ye be sente on message / knowe it sure yf ye be in doubte
590 A tale well-knowen may be well tolde (the trueth tryed out)
Delyte to rede in good bokes / and marke them ryght well
Therof cometh great knowledge / wysdome and counsell
I holde it of this matter / beste for to make an ende
He that wyll not for wysdome seke / is not his owne frende.

595 ¶He that spendeth moche and getteth nought
He that oweth moche and hath nought
He that loketh in his purse and fyndeth nought
May be sory and say nought

¶He that may and wyll not
600 He then that wolde shall not
He that wolde and can not
May repent and syghe not.

¶He that sweareth tyll no man trust hym
He that lyeth tyll no man byleue hym
605 He that boroweth tyll no man wyll lende hym
Let hym go where no man dothe knowe hym.

¶He that hath a good mayster and wyll not kepe hym
He that hath a good seruaunt and neuer content with him
He that hath such condicions that no man loueth hym
610 May well knowe, but fewe men wyll know hym.
¶Thus endeth the boke of Nurture or gouernaunce of youth, with Stans puer ad mensam . Compyled by Hewe_Rodes one of the kynges chapell. Imprynted at London in paules chyrchyarde by Thomas_Petyt.