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Professor R Ewan Fordyce

Ewan FordyceBSc PhD(Cant) FRSNZ
  • vertebrate paleobiology
  • systematics and phylogeny of Cetacea (whales and dolphins)
  • Cretaceous-Cenozoic paleontology & stratigraphy
  • paleoceanography and paleoclimates

Email ewan.fordyce@otago.ac.nz
ORCID orcid.org/0000-0002-2656-730X
Tel +64 3 479 7510
 
 

Contact for

Geol 272/372 (Evolution of the NZ Biota) and Geol 263/363 (Basin Studies); the Geology Museum.

Affiliations

Honours

  • Hutton Medallist, Royal Society of New Zealand
  • Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand

Research Interests (see also fossil research web pages)

  • vertebrate paleobiology (see paleontology section of this website), especially New Zealand-Southwest Pacific
  • systematics and phylogeny of Cetacea (whales and dolphins)
  • Cretaceous-Cenozoic paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleoecology
  • paleoceanography and paleoclimates
  • paleontology and geology for the public - Vanished World Trail and Vanished World Centre of North Otago

Volunteering

Are you interested to volunteer in the fossil preparation laboratory? You don't need a particular interest in fossils, but you must be: manually skilled, meticulous, able to follow instructions, able to work closely with others, and able to work for half a day at a time (normally once a week). Email me, ewan.fordyce@otago.ac.nz, with an expression of interest, and give a little background about yourself.

Current and recent research

Mead&Fordyce 2009 cover

Research interests include the paleontology, morphology, taxonomy, systematics, and phylogeny of Cetacea - whales and dolphins, fossil and recent. I have worked with many postgraduate students, most recently those listed below, and with colleagues overseas.

Morphology – or structure - is the interface between genetics and ecology. Morphology is the key to interpreting fossils. If we understand functional complexes in fossils, it can help to understand the evolution of living animals. An interest in cetacean morphology led to publication of this illustrated monograph on osteological landmarks in the dolphin skull, based on the study of modern and fossil species:

  • Mead, J.G. and Fordyce, R.E. 2009 - The therian skull: a lexicon with emphasis on the odontocetes. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 627: 1-248.

Dolphins and whales are radically different from terrestrial mammals; their skeletons present many features that, although often difficult to interpret, are widely used to interpret relationships, evolution, and lifestyle. We homologise features of dolphin skulls with those of other mammals, and explain the comparisons. The work should be of interest to cetacean systematists, mammalogists and vertebrate paleontologists.

Free pdf download of 'The Therian Skull : A Lexicon with Emphasis on the Odontocetes'

Long-term interests particularly involve fossil cetacean studies. Many PhD students, below, are or have been involved in this research. Our studies have considered the evolution of feeding mechanisms in baleen whales such as Tokarahia, Horopeta and Mauicetus. Finds in the 1990s and 2000s have helped to understand the ecology of putative late-surving archaeocetes encompassing Kekenodon. Several articles have considered the relationships and lifstyles of early dolphins including Papahu, Otekaikea, and Awamokoa. A project is under way on phylogenetics of shark-toothed dolphins - Squalodontidae. New Zealand tusked dolphins may be related to archaic long-beaked tusked dolphins from Oregon and Baja California Sur, Mexico. These and other projects deal mainly with fossils of Late Oligocene age - from the early explosive radiation of the Neoceti. Some of the fossils are shown in the adjacent photos of lab activity.

Related activity with living species of cetaceans has included dissections of naturally-stranded juvenile pygmy right whales, Caperea marginata, with Anton van Helden of Museum of New Zealand Te Papa (several dissections, including November 2011 - see photo right). Felix Marx and I have had a longer-term interest in the phylogenetic relationships of Caperea, based on morphological cladistics (Marx & Fordyce, 2015, Baleen boom and bust … Royal Society Open Science 2:DOI 10.1098/rsos.140434). Researchers in the cetacean paleontology group have also been involved in work on recently stranded cetaceans, especially Moyna Müller and Carol Loch. Of note are recent strandings of the spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica. In such work, we have strong links with Department of Conservation, relevant iwi, Otago Museum, and Department of Marine Sciences at Otago.

Dr Carolina Loch (Otago PhD on form and function of cetacean teeth) next to a display case that contains skulls of toothed fossil cetaceans from New Zealand. Specimens include a kekenodontid archaeocete, squalodontids, and putative archaic platanistoids.

Dr Carolina Loch (Otago PhD on form and function of cetacean teeth) next to a display case that contains skulls of toothed fossil cetaceans from New Zealand. Specimens include a kekenodontid archaeocete, squalodontids, and putative archaic platanistoids.

Dissection of naturally-stranded juvenile pygmy right whale, <em>Caperea marginata</em>, at Museum of New Zealand Te Papa, 2011. Otago PhD students with Anton van Helden of the Museum (left, second from front) and other Museum staff on right

Dissection of naturally-stranded juvenile pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, at Museum of New Zealand Te Papa, 2011. Otago PhD students with Anton van Helden of the Museum (left, second from front) and other Museum staff on right.

PhD students in Fordyce's research programme are in the Geology Museum, looking at one key early Mauicetus specimen from Hakataramea Valley
Dr CH Tsai (right) with colleagues, examining the partial skull of the late Oligocene fossil baleen whale Horopeta, in the Geology Museum, University of Otago. Tsai completed his doctorate on Mauicetus-like baleen whales from New Zealand. Others, all PhD graduates from Fordyce's research programme are in the Geology Museum, looking at one key early Mauicetus specimen from Hakataramea Valley. From left to right: Yoshi Tanaka, Carol Loch, Bobby Boessenecker, Gabriel Aguirre, and CH Tsai. Fossil preparator Sophie White is working at the table behind, with the fossil preparation lab in the background.

I maintain a field programme to recover fossil cetaceans and other fossil vertebrates from southern New Zealand, especially from rocks around the Waitaki Valley. This usually involves postgraduate students - and provides training in field methods using pneumatic tools (chipping hammers, air scribes, grinders, rock drills), masonry and chainsaws, petrol (gas)-powered rock drill, and plaster jacketing.

Pictures show field work from the distant past to recent:

Felix Marx (left) and Carol Loch (right) finish cleaning a block of muddy limestone containing baleen whale bones, before starting to encase the block in a plaster jacket (August 2010). The specimen has now been prepared out fully; it is a species of Mauicetus from close to the Oligocene/Miocene boundary.
Felix Marx (left) and Carol Loch (right) finish cleaning a block of muddy limestone containing baleen whale bones, before starting to encase the block in a plaster jacket (August 2010). The specimen has now been prepared out fully; it is a species of Mauicetus from close to the Oligocene/Miocene boundary.

Dan Ksepka (right) and Paul Brinkman (left), excavating a large Late Oligocene penguin, probably Kairuku,   from Kokoamu Greensand, Waihao Valley, December 2011. Ksepka and Brinkman (both from North Carolina State University) visited Otago for collaborative work on fossil penguins.
Dan Ksepka (right) and Paul Brinkman (left), excavating a large Late Oligocene penguin, probably Kairuku, from Kokoamu Greensand, Waihao Valley, December 2011. Ksepka and Brinkman (both from North Carolina State University) visited Otago for collaborative work on fossil penguins.

Site of an Early Miocene baleen whale, Otaio River, January 2012. From left to right: Philip Howe (S Canterbury Museum), Julie Brown (Ngai Tahu Rock Art Project), Nichole Moerhuis and Felix Marx (Department of Geology, University of Otago); Felix is close to the whale, with a limb element and part of the left mandible visible just below him.
Site of an Early Miocene baleen whale, Otaio River, January 2012. From left to right: Philip Howe (S Canterbury Museum), Julie Brown (Ngai Tahu Rock Art Project), Nichole Moerhuis and Felix Marx (Department of Geology, University of Otago); Felix is close to the whale, with a limb element and part of the left mandible visible just below him. The fossil was found by Robert White and family, and was collected with help from Dr William Rolleston. The fossil is now at University of Otago where it is under preparation.

Evolution and systematics of penguins

Rocks in southern New Zealand have produced important fossil penguins, including many specimens found during field work on fossil cetaceans and now held in the Geology Museum at University of Otago. These have been studied by past postgraduate students: Craig Jones (MSc), Tatsuro Ando (PhD) and Daniel Thomas (PhD). Of note are stem-penguins in the genus Waimanu, and the recently-named Kaiika [literally, food-fish, alluding to penguin diet], studied with former PhD student Daniel Thomas. In 2012, Dan Ksepka, Tatsuro Ando, Craig Jones and I named and described a new genus, Kairuku [diver that returns with food], for 2 of the “giant” Late Oligocene Palaeeudyptes-like penguins in our article “New fossil penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes) from the Oligocene of New Zealand reveal the skeletal plan of stem penguins” which appeared in Journal of vertebrate paleontology 32:235-254. Most recently, Dan Ksepka and I wrote a popular article on penguins in Scientific American for November 2012. See also the separate web pages on penguins.

New Zealand marine vertebrates

Beyond cetaceans and penguins, covered above, New Zealand has an important record of other marine vertebrates. The Geology Museum at University of Otago holds specimens of plesiosaurs, mosasaurs, sea turtles, bony fish, and chondrichthyans. Articles of note in recent years include those of Gottfried et al. (2006 and 2012) on the teleosts Megalampris and Aglyptorhynchus, Gottfried & Fordyce on the extinct white shark Carcharodon angustidens, and Cruickshank & Fordyce on the enigmatic “Shagosaurus” plesiosaur from North Otago – formally known as Kaiwhekea. Other web pages review some of these New Zealand records. For summary accounts of New Zealand’s marine vertebrates, see the articles by Fordyce (1991) and King et al. (2009) – the latter partly updating the earlier Fordyce summary.

New taxa named and/or described in this research programme

Waipatia maerewhenua Fordyce, 1994 – new genus and species of fossil dolphin (new family Waipatiidae)
Neoceti Fordyce & Muizon 2001 – new clade for Odontoceti and Mysticeti [= crown Cetacea]
Simocetus rayi Fordyce, 2002 – new genus and species of fossil dolphin (new family Simocetidae)
Kaiwhekea katiki Cruickshank & Fordyce, 2002 - new genus and species of plesiosaur (Elasmosauridae)
Australodelphis mirus Fordyce, Quilty & Daniels, 2002 - new genus and species of fossil dolphin (Delphinidae)
Megalampris keyesi Gottfried, Fordyce & Rust, 2006 – new genus and species of teleost fish – moonfish (Lamprididae)
Waimanu manneringi Jones, Ando & Fordyce, 2006 – new genus and species of fossil penguin
Waimanu tuatahi Ando Jones & Fordyce, 2006 – new species of fossil penguin
Kaiika maxwelli Fordyce & Thomas, 2011 – new genus and species of fossil penguin
Aglyptorhynchus hakataramea Gottfried, Fordyce & Rust, 2012 – new species of teleost fish – billfish (Palaeorhynchidae)
Kairuku waitaki Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones 2012 – new genus and species of giant fossil penguin
Kairuku grebneffi Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones 2012 – new species of giant fossil penguin
Papahu taitapu Aguirre-Fernandez & Fordyce 2014 - new genus and species of fossil dolphin
Otekaikea Tanaka & Fordyce 2014 - new genus for Prosqualodon marplesi Dickson, fossil dolphin
Otekaikea huata Tanaka & Fordyce 2015 - new species of fossil dolphin
Waharoa ruwhenua Boessenecker & Fordyce, 2015 – new genus and species of dawn baleen whale (Eomysticetidae)
Tohoraata raekohao Boessenecker & Fordyce, 2015 – new genus and species of dawn baleen whale (Eomysticetidae)
Tokarahia kauaeroa Boessenecker & Fordyce, 2015 – new genus and species of dawn baleen whale (Eomysticetidae)
Tokarahia lophocephalus (Marples, 1956) now in new genus Tokarahia Boessenecker & Fordyce, 2015 (Eomysticetidae)
Fucaia buelli Marx, Tsai & Fordyce, 2015 - new genus and species of toothed archaic mysticete
Alexandronectes zealandiensis Otero, O'Gorman, Hiller, O'Keefe & Fordyce, 2016 - new genus and species of plesiosaur (Elasmosauridae)
Horopeta umarere Tsai & Fordyce, 2016 - new genus and species of toothless archaic mysticete
Matapanui waihao (Boessenecker & Fordyce, 2016) – new genus (to replace Matapa of Boessenecker & Fordyce, 2016, preoccupied) and species of dawn baleen whale (Eomysticetidae)
Awamokoa tokarahi Tanaka & Fordyce, 2016 - new genus and species of fossil dolphin
Mammalodon hakataramea Fordyce & Marx, 2016 - new genus and species of toothed archaic mysticete (Mammalodontidae)
Whakakai waipata Tsai & Fordyce, 2016 - new genus and species of toothless archaic mysticete

Research Visitors

Visiting researchers have brought important expertise to help interpret material from the Geology Museum collections, and to work with modern cetacean anatomy. Some visitors – either short or long term, and researchers or interns - include:
Tatsuro Ando (Ashoro Museum, Japan)
Tomasz Baumiller (U Michigan, MI, USA),
Monica Buono (CENPAT-CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina)
Gerardo Gonzalez Barba (Univ. Autonoma Baja California Sur, Mexico)
Michael D Gottfried (Michigan State University, MI, USA)
Atzcalli Ehecatl Hernandez Cisneros (Univ. Autonoma Baja California Sur, Mexico)
Erich MG Fitzgerald (Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia)
Manon Hullot (Univ of Lyon, France)
Hiroto Ichishima (Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, Japan)
Daniel Ksepka and Paul Brinkman (NC State University, NC, USA)
Ignacio Moreno (Grupo de Estudos de Mamíferos Aquáticos do Rio Grande do Sul – GEMARS, Brazil)
Jose P O’Gorman (Museo de La Plata, Argentina)
Rodrigo A. Otero (Univ of Chile, Chile)
Nicholas Pyenson (formerly UC Berkeley and now Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution, USA)
Mariana Viglino (CENPAT-CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina)
Alastair G Watson (Oklahoma State University, USA).

Postgraduate Student Supervision

Are you an international student interested in postgraduate study with the Otago cetacean systematics/ fossil vertebrates group? If so, check the web information for International Students to see if you are eligible. International students will need a PhD scholarship to fund their study; applications for Otago scholarships, which are competitive awnd hards, close at any time, and are usually applied for at the same time as the application for admission. There are few scholarships for MSc study, and these are highly competitive. If you are eligible to study here, aave first class grades that are likely to win you a scholarship, then please contact me.

Postgraduate students

Postgraduate studies in progress

  • Alexandra Burt – morphology and systematics of an allodelphinidae-like dolphin (Postgrad Diploma of Sciences in progress)
  • Joshua Corrie - Systematics and functional morphology of Kekenodon-like archaic whales from New Zealand (PhD, in progress)
  • Moyna Müller – Structure and evolution of dolphin flippers (PhD, in progress)
  • Marcus Richards – A giant latest Eocene penguin from Kyeburn, Central Otago (MSc in progress)
  • Tiffany Plencner – Ontogeny of hearing in dolphins as revealed by microCT study of the cochlear (MSc in progress)
  • Mariana Viglino (CENPAT – CONICET Puerto Madryn, Argentina) - Systematics and functional morphology of Notocetus and related odontocetes from Patagonia (Fordyce is adjunct advisor for this project) (PhD, in progress)
  • Matt Whitten – Foraminiferal calibration of sedimentation rates in Mt Harris Formation (MSc in progress)

Postgraduate studies completed, 2010 onwards

  • Gabriel Aguirre - Neogene dolphins from New Zealand - Kentriodontidae (PhD, completed). Gabriel is now at University of Zurich, working as a researcher.
  • Kristina Arthur - Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, isotopic patterns, and Middle Miocene climate change in the Bryce Burn section (MSc, completed). Kristina has completed a PhD in The Netherlands.
  • Robert "Bobby" Boessenecker - New Zealand archaic baleen whales in the family Eomysticetidae (PhD, completed). Bobby is doing postdoctoral research at the College of Charleston, SC, USA.
  • Henry Gard - The paleoecology of the Pomahaka Formation, South Otago. Henry is writing up papers from his MSc studies.
  • Simone Hicks - Ecological and sedimentological evolution of the volcanically active Eo/Oligocene continental shelf, east Otago (PhD, completed). Simone has been working for a micropal-stratigraphy-sedimentology consultancy in the UK.
  • Carolina Loch Silva - Comparative study of modern and fossil cetacean dentitions (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Platanistoidea) (PhD, completed). Carolina is doing postdoctoral research on tooth structure and function, and teaching, in the Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago.
  • Felix Marx - Evolution of structural disparity in the Cetacea (PhD, completed). Felix has most recently been a postdoctoral researcher, working on fossil Cetacea at National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan and most recently at Museum Victoria, Melbourne Australia. .
  • Megan Ortega - Systematics and geological setting of fossil whales and dolphins from Gee Greensand and Mount Harris Formation, Awamoa Beach, North Otago (MSc, completed). Megan is now working in the oil industry in Texas.
  • Yoshihiro Tanaka - Morphology and systematics of squalodelphinid and related platanistoid dolphins from New Zealand (PhD, completed). Yoshi is now a curator at the Numata Fossil Museum, Hokkaido, Japan.
  • Daniel Thomas - Evolution of thermal physiology in penguins: fossils, modern penguins, anatomy, and geochemistry (PhD, completed). Daniel completed postdoctoral fellowships at University of Cape Town, and the Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution, and is now a lecturer at Massey University, Albany, NZ.
  • Cheng-Hsiu Tsai (Tsai) - Systematics and functional morphology in early Mauicetus-like baleen whales (PhD, completed). Tsai is now a postdoctoral researcher, working on fossil Cetacea at National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan.

Outreach - for the public

Teaching

100-level

200 Level

300 Level

400 Level

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Publications

Samonds, K. E., & Fordyce, R. E. (2019). The first pre-Pleistocene cetacean from Madagascar, western Indian Ocean. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 151, 184-188. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2018.12.015

Baumiller, T. K., & Fordyce, R. E. (2018). Rautangaroa, a new genus of feather star (Echinodermata, Crinoidea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand. Journal of Paleontology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/jpa.2018.17

Fordyce, R. E., & Marx, F. G. (2018). Gigantism precedes filter feeding in baleen whale evolution. Current Biology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.027

Tsai, C.-H., & Fordyce, R. E. (2018). A new archaic baleen whale Toipahautea waitaki (Early late oligocene, New Zealand) and the origins of crown Mysticeti. Royal Society Open Science, 5, 172453. doi: 10.1098/rsos.172453

Bohrer do Amaral, K., Amaral, A. R., Fordyce, R. E., & Benites Moreno, I. (2018). Historical biogeography of Delphininae dolphins and related taxa (Artiodactyla: Delphinidae). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 25(2), 241-259. doi: 10.1007/s10914-016-9376-3

Authored Book - Research

Mead, J. G., & Fordyce, R. E. (2009). The Therian Skull: A lexicon with emphasis on the odontocetes. Washington, D. C: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 248p.

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Edited Book - Research

Graham, I. J., Skinner, D. N. B., Isaac, M. J., Cooper, R. A., Mortimer, N., Cooper, A. F., … Carter, L., Fordyce, R. E., … Johnston, M. R. (Eds.). (2008). A continent on the move: New Zealand geoscience into the 21st century. Wellington, New Zealand: Geological Society of New Zealand and GNS Science, 377p.

Darby, J., Fordyce, R. E., Mark, A. F., Probert, K., & Townsend, C. (Eds.). (2003). The natural history of Southern New Zealand. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press, 370p.

Carwardine, M., Hoyt, E., Fordyce, R. E., & Gill, P. (Eds.). (1998). Whales, dolphins and porpoises (Nature Company Guides). Sydney and various locations: Weldon Owen/Time-Life/Reader's Digest, 288p.

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Edited Book - Other

Darby, J., Fordyce, R. E., Mark, A., Probert, K., & Townsend, C. (Eds.). (2006). The natural history of southern New Zealand [Reprint]. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press, 400p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

Fordyce, R. E. (2013). Cetacea (whales, porpoises and dolphins). In eLS. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001574.pub2

Fordyce, E. (2010). Darwin's legacy and New Zealand fossils. In D. Galloway & J. Timmins (Eds.), Aspects of Darwin: A New Zealand celebration. (pp. 65-84). Dunedin, New Zealand: Friends of the Knox College Library, Hewitson Library, Knox College.

Fordyce, R. E. (2009). Cetacean evolution. In W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig & J. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. (2nd ed.) (pp. 201-207). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

King, C. M., Roberts, C. D., Bell, B. D., Fordyce, R. E., Nicoll, R. S., Worthy, T. H., … Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: Lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals. In D. P. Gordon (Ed.), New Zealand inventory of biodiversity (Vol. 1) Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. (pp. 433-553). Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.

Fordyce, R. E. (2009). Cetacean fossil record. In W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig & J. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. (2nd ed.) (pp. 207-215). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Fordyce, R. E. (2009). Fossil sites, noted. In W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig & J. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. (2nd ed.) (pp. 459-466). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Fordyce, R. E. (2009). Neoceti. In W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig & J. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals. (2nd ed.) (pp. 758-763). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Uhen, M. D., Fordyce, R. E., & Barnes, L. G. (2008). Odontoceti. In C. M. Janis, G. F. Gunnell & M. D. Uhen (Eds.), Evolution of tertiary mammals of North America (Vol. 2): Small mammals, xenarthrans, and marine mammals. (pp. 566-606). Cambridge University Press.

Fordyce, R. E. (2008). Closet skeletons. In I. J. Graham (Ed.), A continent on the move: New Zealand geoscience into the 21st century. (pp. 228-231). Wellington, New Zealand: Geological Society of New Zealand and GNS Science.

Fordyce, R. E. (2008). Fossil markers: Ancient life-forms: The past explaining the present. In I. J. Graham (Ed.), A continent on the move: New Zealand geoscience into the 21st century. (pp. 223-227). Wellington, New Zealand: Geological Society of New Zealand and GNS Science.

Uhen, M. D., Fordyce, R. E., & Barnes, L. G. (2008). Mysticeti. In C. M. Janis, G. F. Gunnell & M. D. Uhen (Eds.), Evolution of tertiary mammals of North America (Vol. 2): Small mammals, xenarthrans, and marine mammals. (pp. 607-628). Cambridge University Press.

Fordyce, R. E. (2008). Fossil mammals. In M. Winterbourn, G. Knox, C. Burrows & I. Marsden (Eds.), The natural history of Canterbury. (3rd ed.) (pp. 415-428). Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.

Fordyce, R. E. (2006). A southern perspective on Cetacean evolution and zoogeography. In J. R. Merrick, M. Archer, G. M. Hickey & M. S. Y. Lee (Eds.), Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. (pp. 755-778). New South Wales, Australia: Auscipub.

Fordyce, R. E. (2003). Fossils and the history of life. In J. T. Darby, R. E. Fordyce, A. F. Mark, P. K. Probert & C. R. Townsend (Eds.), The natural history of Southern New Zealand. (pp. 35-64). Dunedin: University of Otago Press.

Fordyce, R. E. (2003). Cetacean evolution and Eocene-Oligocene oceans revisited. In D. R. Prothero, L. C. Ivany & E. A. Nesbitt (Eds.), From greenhouse to icehouse: The marine Eocene-Oligocene transition. (pp. 154-170). New York: Columbia University Press.

Fordyce, R. E., & de Muizon, C. (2001). Evolutionary history of cetaceans: A review. In J. M. Mazin & V. de Buffrénil (Eds.), Secondary Adaptation of Tetrapods to Life in Water. (pp. 169-234). München, Germany: Pfeil.

Fordyce, R. E. (1999). The origin of the whale (2nd Edition). In M. Carwardine (Ed.), Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. (pp. 14-23). New York: Facts on File.

Fordyce, R. E. (1999). Whale anatomy. In M. Carwardine (Ed.), Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises (2nd Edition). (pp. 116-123). New York: Facts on File.

Fordyce, R. E., & Watson, A. G. (1998). Vertebral pathology in an Early Oligocene whale (Cetacea, ?Mysticeti) from Wharekuri, North Otago, New Zealand. In K. I. Grimm, M. C. Grimm & M. Morlo (Eds.), Festschrift zum 70: Geburtstag von Karlheinz Rothausen. (pp. 161-176). Mainz, Germany: Naturhistoriches Museum Mainz.

Higham, C. F. W., Fordyce, R. E., & O'Reilly, D. J. W. (1998). The Faunal Remains and Worked Bone. In C. F. W. Higham & R. Thosarat (Eds.), The excavation of Nong Nor: A Prehistoric Site in Central Thailand (Otago Monographs in Prehistoric Anthropology XVIII, Dunedin). (pp. 119-126).

Fordyce, R. E. (1997). Contributions on fossil whales and evolution CD-ROM. In Whales and dolphins of the world. Sydney: Webster.

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Journal - Research Article

Samonds, K. E., & Fordyce, R. E. (2019). The first pre-Pleistocene cetacean from Madagascar, western Indian Ocean. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 151, 184-188. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2018.12.015

Baumiller, T. K., & Fordyce, R. E. (2018). Rautangaroa, a new genus of feather star (Echinodermata, Crinoidea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand. Journal of Paleontology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/jpa.2018.17

Bohrer do Amaral, K., Amaral, A. R., Fordyce, R. E., & Benites Moreno, I. (2018). Historical biogeography of Delphininae dolphins and related taxa (Artiodactyla: Delphinidae). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 25(2), 241-259. doi: 10.1007/s10914-016-9376-3

Tsai, C.-H., & Fordyce, R. E. (2018). A new archaic baleen whale Toipahautea waitaki (Early late oligocene, New Zealand) and the origins of crown Mysticeti. Royal Society Open Science, 5, 172453. doi: 10.1098/rsos.172453

Fordyce, R. E., & Marx, F. G. (2018). Gigantism precedes filter feeding in baleen whale evolution. Current Biology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.027

Hernández Cisneros, A. E., González Barba, G., & Fordyce, R. E. (2017). Oligocene cetaceans from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 69(1), 149-173.

Kear, B. P., Fordyce, R. E., Hiller, N., & Siversson, M. (2017). A palaeobiogeographical synthesis of Australasian Mesozoic marine tetrapods. Alcheringa. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/03115518.2017.1397428

Tanaka, Y., Abella, J., Aguirre-Fernández, G., Gregori, M., & Fordyce, R. E. (2017). A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador. PLoS ONE, 12(12), e0188380. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188380

Boessenecker, R. W., & Fordyce, R. E. (2017). A new eomysticetid from the Oligocene Kokoamu Greensand of New Zealand and a review of the eomysticetidae (mammalia, cetacea). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 15(6), 429-469. doi: 10.1080/14772019.2016.1191045

Tanaka, Y., & Fordyce, R. E. (2017). Awamokoa tokarahi, a new basal dolphin in the Platanistoidea (late Oligocene, New Zealand). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 15(5), 365-386. doi: 10.1080/14772019.2016.1202339

Dawson, S. M., Fordyce, R. E., Ridgway, S. H., Brough, T. E., & Slooten, E. (2017). Observations of a New Zealand dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) breathing via its mouth. Marine Mammal Science, 33(1), 350-355. doi: 10.1111/mms.12349

Boessenecker, R. W., & Fordyce, R. E. (2017). Cosmopolitanism and Miocene survival of Eomysticetidae (Cetacea: Mysticeti) revealed by new fossils from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 60(2), 145-157. doi: 10.1080/00288306.2017.1300176

Gard, H. J. L., & Fordyce, R. E. (2017). A fossil sea turtle (Testudines: Pan-Cheloniidae) from the upper Oligocene Pomahaka Formation, New Zealand. Alcheringa, 41(1), 134-140. doi: 10.1080/03115518.2016.1206319

Fordyce, R. E., & Marx, F. G. (2016). Mysticetes baring their teeth: A new fossil whale, Mammalodon hakataramea, from the Southwest Pacific. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria, 74, 107-116.

Otero, R. A., O'Gorman, J. P., Hiller, N., O'Keefe, F. R., & Fordyce, R. E. (2016). Alexandronectes zealandiensis gen. et sp. nov., a new aristonectine plesiosaur from the lower Maastrichtian of New Zealand. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 36(2), e1054494. doi: 10.1080/02724634.2015.1054494

Tsai, C. H., & Fordyce, R. E. (2016). Archaic baleen whale from the Kokoamu Greensand: Earbones distinguish a new late oligocene mysticete (Cetacea: Mysticeti) from New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 46(2), 117-138. doi: 10.1080/03036758.2016.1156552

Yamato, M., Khidas, K., Pyenson, N. D., Fordyce, R. E., & Mead, J. G. (2016). Extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears. Journal of Anatomy, 228(1), 125-136. doi: 10.1111/joa.12385

Marx, F. G., & Fordyce, R. E. (2016). A link no longer missing: New evidence for the cetotheriid affinities of Caperea. PLoS ONE, 11(10), e0164059. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164059

Tanaka, Y., & Fordyce, R. E. (2016). Papahu-like fossil dolphin from Kaikoura, New Zealand, helps to fill the Early Miocene gap in the history of Odontoceti. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 59(4), 551-567. doi: 10.1080/00288306.2016.1211540

Conran, J. G., Bannister, J. M., Lee, D. E., Carpenter, R. J., Kennedy, E. M., Reichgelt, T., & Fordyce, R. E. (2015). An update of monocot macrofossil data from New Zealand and Australia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 178(3), 394-420. doi: 10.1111/boj.12284

Boessenecker, R. W., & Fordyce, R. E. (2015). Trace fossil evidence of predation upon bone-eating worms on a baleen whale skeleton from the Oligocene of New Zealand. Lethaia, 48(3), 326-331. doi: 10.1111/let.12108

Loch, C., Kieser, J. A., & Fordyce, R. E. (2015). Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti). PLoS ONE, 10(1), e0116557. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116557

Boessenecker, R. W., & Fordyce, R. E. (2015). A new genus and species of eomysticetid (Cetacea: Mysticeti) and a reinterpretation of 'Mauicetus' lophocephalus Marples, 1956: Transitional baleen whales from the upper Oligocene of New Zealand. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 175(3), 607-660. doi: 10.1111/zoj.12297

Boessenecker, R. W., & Fordyce, R. E. (2015). Anatomy, feeding ecology, and ontogeny of a transitional baleen whale: A new genus and species of Eomysticedtidae (Mammalia: Cetacea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand. PeerJ, 3, e1129. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1129

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