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Health Sciences profile

Dr Sandy Slow

PositionSenior Research Fellow
DepartmentDepartment of Pathology and Biomedical Science (Christchurch)
QualificationsBSc Hons, PhD
Research summaryInfectious diseases; Medical Microbiology

Research

Sandy is a Research Fellow in The Infection Group. She has fifteen years research experience both laboratory and analytically based, including coordinating trials, with expertise in areas of biochemistry, infectious diseases and aspects of molecular genetics.

Current and previous clinical trials include the Vitamin D and Acute Respiratory Infections Study (VIDARIS) and the Vitamin D and Community Acquired Pneumonia Study (VIDCAPS).

Research in infectious diseases has primarily focused on pneumonia, particularly Legionnaires’ disease, while biochemical research has focused on the field of one-carbon metabolism with particular expertise in regards to the nutrients betaine and choline.

Publications

Mohammadi, A., Chambers, S. T., Slow, S., Anderson, T., Williman, J., Scott, P., Murdoch, D., & Scott-Thomas, A. (2021). Presence of Legionella Longbeachae in pine but not composted green waste used in manufacture of potting soils in New Zealand. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 9(1), 1-4. doi: 10.12691/jaem-9-1-1

Chambers, S. T., Slow, S., Scott-Thomas, A., & Murdoch, D. R. (2021). Legionellosis caused by non-Legionella pneumophila species, with a focus on Legionella longbeachae. Microorganisms, 9, 291. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9020291

Mohammadi, A., Chambers, S. T., Scott-Thomas, A., Lewis, J. G., Anderson, T., Podmore, R., Williman, J., Murdoch, D., & Slow, S. (2020). Enhancement of culture of Legionella longbeachae from respiratory samples using immunomagnetic separation and antimicrobial decontamination. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1128/jcm.01218-20

Slow, S., Pearson, J. F., Florkowski, C. M., Elder, P. A., Lewis, J. G., Kennedy, M. A., & Murdoch, D. R. (2020). Effect of genetic factors on the response to vitamin D3 supplementation in the VIDARIS randomised controlled trial. Nutrition, 75-76, 110761. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.110761

Havlernik, J., Dawson, K., Anderson, T. R., Murdoch, D., Chambers, S., Biggs, P., Cree, S., & Slow, S. (2020). Complete genome sequence of a Legionella longbeachae serogroup 2 isolate derived from a patient with Legionnaires’ disease. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9(5), e01563-19. doi: 10.1128/MRA.01563-19

Lever, M., Slow, S., & Ueland, P. M. (2011). Betaine: Osmolyte and methyl donor. In W. Herrmann & R. Obeid (Eds.), Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases. (pp. 563-598). Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110214499

Chapter in Book - Research

Mohammadi, A., Chambers, S. T., Slow, S., Anderson, T., Williman, J., Scott, P., Murdoch, D., & Scott-Thomas, A. (2021). Presence of Legionella Longbeachae in pine but not composted green waste used in manufacture of potting soils in New Zealand. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 9(1), 1-4. doi: 10.12691/jaem-9-1-1

Journal - Research Article

Hannaway, R. F., Wang, X., Schneider, M., Slow, S., Cowan, J., Brockway, B., Schofield, M. R., Morgan, X. C., Murdoch, D. R., & Ussher, J. E. (2020). Mucosal-associated invariant T cells and Vδ2+ γδ T cells in community acquired pneumonia: Association of abundance in sputum with clinical severity and outcome. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 199(2), 201-215. doi: 10.1111/cei.13377

Journal - Research Article

Mohammadi, A., Chambers, S. T., Scott-Thomas, A., Lewis, J. G., Anderson, T., Podmore, R., Williman, J., Murdoch, D., & Slow, S. (2020). Enhancement of culture of Legionella longbeachae from respiratory samples using immunomagnetic separation and antimicrobial decontamination. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1128/jcm.01218-20

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Pearson, J. F., Florkowski, C. M., Elder, P. A., Lewis, J. G., Kennedy, M. A., & Murdoch, D. R. (2020). Effect of genetic factors on the response to vitamin D3 supplementation in the VIDARIS randomised controlled trial. Nutrition, 75-76, 110761. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.110761

Journal - Research Article

Priest, P. C., Slow, S., Chambers, S. T., Cameron, C. M., Balm, M. N., Beale, M. W., Blackmore, T. K., … Ussher, J. E., van der Linden, A. J., … Murdoch, D. R. (2019). The burden of Legionnaires' disease in New Zealand (LegiNZ): A national surveillance study. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 19, 770-777. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30113-6

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Epton, M., Storer, M., Thiessen, R., Lim, S., Wong, J., Chin, P., Tovaranonte, P., Pearson, J., Chambers, S. T., Murdoch, D. R., and VIDCAPS Group, including Jardine, D., & Pithie, A. (2018). Effect of adjunctive single high-dose vitamin D3 on outcome of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised adults: The VIDCAPS randomised controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 13829. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32162-2

Journal - Research Article

McClatchie, T., Meredith, M., Ouédraogo, M. O., Slow, S., Lever, M., Mann, M. R. W., … Baltz, J. M. (2017). Betaine is accumulated via transient choline dehydrogenase activation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292, 13784-13794. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.803080

Journal - Research Article

Osborne, A. J., Jose, B. R., Perry, J., Smeele, Z., Altken, J., Gardner, P. P., & Slow, S. (2017). Complete genome sequences of two geographically distinct Legionella micdadei clinical isolates. Genome Announcements, 5(22), e00436-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00436-17

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Anderson, T., Miller, J., Singh, S., Murdoch, D., & Biggs, P. J. (2017). Complete genome sequence of a Legionella longbeachae Serogroup 1 strain isolated from a patient with Legionnaires' disease. Genome Announcements, 5(24), e00564-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00564-17

Journal - Research Article

Hefni, M., McEntyre, C., Lever, M., & Slow, S. (2016). Validation of HPLC-UV methods for the quantification of betaine in foods by comparison with LC-MS. Food Analytical Methods, 9(2), 292-299. doi: 10.1007/s12161-015-0195-6

Journal - Research Article

Hefni, M., McEntyre, C., Lever, M., & Slow, S. (2015). A simple HPLC method with fluorescence detection for choline quantification in foods. Food Analytical Methods, 8(9), 2401-2408. doi: 10.1007/s12161-015-0131-9

Journal - Research Article

McEntyre, C. J., Lever, M., Chambers, S. T., George, P. M., Slow, S., Elmslie, J. L., Florkowski, C. M., Lunt, H., & Krebs, J. D. (2015). Variation of betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, choline, glycerophosphorylcholine, taurine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide in the plasma and urine of overweight people with type 2 diabetes over a two-year period. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 52(3), 352-360. doi: 10.1177/0004563214545346

Journal - Research Article

Corbett, H. E., Dubé, C. D., Slow, S., Lever, M., Trasler, J. M., & Baltz, J. M. (2014). Uptake of betaine into mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes via the SLC7A6 isoform of y+L transporter. Biology of Reproduction, 90(4). doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.113.116939

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., George, P. M., Slow, S., Bellamy, D., Young, J. M., Ho, M., … Elmslie, J. L., … Troughton, R. W., Frampton, C. M., Richards, A. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2014). Betaine and trimethylamine-N-oxide as predictors of cardiovascular outcomes show different patterns in diabetes mellitus: An observational study. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e114969. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114969

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., McEntyre, C. J., George, P. M., Slow, S., Chambers, S. T., & Foucher, C. (2014). Fenofibrate causes elevation of betaine excretion but not excretion of other osmolytes by healthy adults. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 8(4), 433-440. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2014.04.001

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., McEntyre, C. J., George, P. M., Slow, S., Elmslie, J. L., Lunt, H., Chambers, S. T., Parry-Strong, A., & Krebs, J. D. (2014). Extreme urinary betaine losses in type 2 diabetes combined with bezafibrate treatment are associated with losses of dimethylglycine and choline but not with increased losses of other osmolytes. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy, 28, 459-468. doi: 10.1007/s10557-014-6542-9

Journal - Research Article

Palmer, B. R., Slow, S., Ellis, K. L., Pilbrow, A. P., Skelton, L., Frampton, C. M., Palmer, S. C., Troughton, R. W., Yandle, T. G., … Whalley, G. A., … Lever, M., George, P. M., Chambers, S. T., … Richards, A. M., & Cameron, V. A. (2014). Genetic polymorphism rs6922269 in the MTHFD1L gene is associated with survival and baseline active vitamin B12 levels in post-acute coronary syndromes patients. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e89029. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089029

Journal - Research Article

Scragg, R., Slow, S., Stewart, A. W., Jennings, L. C., Chambers, S. T., Priest, P. C., Florkowski, C. M., … Murdoch, D. R. (2014). Long-term high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation and blood pressure in healthy adults: A randomized controlled trial. Hypertension, 64, 725-730. doi: 10.1161/hypertensionaha.114.03466

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Florkowski, C. M., Chambers, S. T., Priest, P. C., Stewart, A. W., Jennings, L. C., … Murdoch, D. R. (2014). Effect of monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults on adverse effects of earthquakes: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 349, g7260. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7260

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Priest, P. C., Chambers, S. T., Stewart, A. W., Jennings, L. C., Florkowski, C. M., … Murdoch, D. R. (2014). Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults. Clinical Microbiology & Infection, 20(5), 453-458. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12350

Journal - Research Article

Lee, M. B., Kooistra, M., Zhang, B., Slow, S., Fortier, A. L., Garrow, T. A., Lever, M., … Baltz, J. M. (2012). Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase is active in the mouse blastocyst and promotes inner cell mass development. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287, 33094-33103. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.365478

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., George, P. M., Atkinson, W., Elmslie, J. L., Slow, S., Molyneux, S. L., Troughton, R. W., Richards, A. M., Frampton, C. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2012). The contrasting relationships between betaine and homocysteine in two clinical cohorts are associated with plasma lipids and drug treatments. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032460

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., George, P. M., Elmslie, J. L., Atkinson, W., Slow, S., Molyneux, S. L., Troughton, R. W., Richards, A. M., Frampton, C. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2012). Betaine and secondary events in an acute coronary syndrome cohort. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e37883. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037883

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., Slow, S., George, P. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2012). Betaine excretion correlates with plasma homocysteine when plasma lipids are elevated. Clinical Biochemistry, 45(1-2), 154-156. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.10.021

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., Slow, S., McGregor, D. O., Dellow, W. J., George, P. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2012). Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 11, 34. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-34

Journal - Research Article

Murdoch, D. R., Slow, S., Chambers, S. T., Jennings, L. C., Stewart, A. W., Priest, P. C., Florkowski, C. M., … Scragg, R. (2012). Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: The vidaris randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 308(13), 1333-1339. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.12505

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., George, P. M., Atkinson, W., Molyneux, S. L., Elmslie, J. L., Slow, S., Richards, A. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2011). Plasma lipids and betaine are related in an acute coronary syndrome cohort. PLoS ONE, 6(7), e21666. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021666

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., & Slow, S. (2010). The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, 43, 732-744. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.03.009

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., George, P. M., Slow, S., Elmslie, J. L., Shand, B. I., Scott, R. S., & Chambers, S. T. (2010). Fibrates plus betaine: A winning combination? [Viewpoint]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1324). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1324/4389/content.pdf

Journal - Research Article

Atkinson, W., Slow, S., Elmslie, J., Lever, M., Chambers, S. T., & George, P. M. (2009). Dietary and supplementary betaine: Effects on betaine and homocysteine concentrations in males. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 19(11), 767-776. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.01.004

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., Atkinson, W., Slow, S., Chambers, S. T., & George, P. M. (2009). Plasma and urine betaine and dimethylglycine variation in healthy young male subjects. Clinical Biochemistry, 42(7-8), 706-712. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.02.001

Journal - Research Article

Lever, M., George, P. M., Slow, S., Elmslie, J. L., Scott, R. S., Richards, A. M., Fink, J. N., & Chambers, S. T. (2009). Fibrates may cause an abnormal urinary betaine loss which is associated with elevations in plasma homocysteine. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy, 23(5), 395-401. doi: 10.1007/s10557-009-6188-1

Journal - Research Article

McEntyre, C. J., Slow, S., & Lever, M. (2009). Measurement of plasma free choline by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following derivatization with 1-naphthyl isocyanate. Analytica Chimica Acta, 644, 90-94. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2009.04.014

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Lever, M., Chambers, S. T., & George, P. M. (2009). Plasma dependent and independent accumulation of betaine in male and female rat tissues. Physiological Research, 58(3), 403-410.

Journal - Research Article

Anas, M.-K. I., Lee, M. B., Zhou, C., Hammer, M.-A., Slow, S., Karmouch, J., … Baltz, J. M. (2008). SIT1 is a betaine/proline transporter that is activated in mouse eggs after fertilization and functions until the 2-cell stage. Development, 135(24), 4123-4130. doi: 10.1242/dev.026575

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Vasudevamurthy, M., Fraser, R., McEntyre, C., Lever, M., Chambers, S., & George, P. (2007). Dimethylthetin treatment causes diffuse alveolar lung damage: A pilot study in a sheep model of Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD). Experimental & Toxicologic Pathology, 58, 285-290.

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., & Garrow, T. A. (2006). Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats. Journal of Nutrition, 136(9), 2279-2283.

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Donaggio, M., Cressey, P. J., Lever, M., George, P. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2005). The betaine content of New Zealand foods and estimated intake in the New Zealand diet. Journal of Food Composition & Analysis, 18, 473-485.

Journal - Research Article

Hickford, J. G. H., Zhou, H., Slow, S., & Fang, Q. (2004). Diversity of the ovine DQA2 gene. Journal of Animal Science, 82(6), 1553-1563.

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Lever, M., Lee, M. B., George, P. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2004). Betaine analogues alter homocysteine metabolism in rats. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 36, 870-880.

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., McGregor, D. O., Lever, M., Lee, M. B., George, P. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2004). Dimethylglycine supplementation does not affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in pre-dialysis chronic renal failure patients. Clinical Biochemistry, 37, 974-976. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2004.07.005

Journal - Research Article

Slow, S., Miller, W. E., McGregor, D. O., Lee, M. B., Lever, M., George, P. M., & Chambers, S. T. (2004). Trigonelline is not responsible for the acute increase in plasma homocysteine following ingestion of instant coffee. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 1253-1256.

Journal - Research Article

de Zwart, F., Slow, S., Payne, R. J., Lever, M., George, P. M., Gerrard, J. A., & Chambers, S. (2003). Glycine betaine and glycine betaine analogues in common foods. Food Chemistry, 83, 197-204.

Journal - Research Article

Chambers, S. T., Slow, S., Scott-Thomas, A., & Murdoch, D. R. (2021). Legionellosis caused by non-Legionella pneumophila species, with a focus on Legionella longbeachae. Microorganisms, 9, 291. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9020291

Journal - Research Other

Havlernik, J., Dawson, K., Anderson, T. R., Murdoch, D., Chambers, S., Biggs, P., Cree, S., & Slow, S. (2020). Complete genome sequence of a Legionella longbeachae serogroup 2 isolate derived from a patient with Legionnaires’ disease. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9(5), e01563-19. doi: 10.1128/MRA.01563-19

Journal - Research Other

Maze, M. J., Slow, S., Cumins, A.-M., Boon, K., Goulter, P., Podmore, R. G., … Pithie, A. D., Epton, M. J., Werno, A. M., Chambers, S. T., & Murdoch, D. R. (2014). Enhanced detection of Legionnaires' disease by PCR testing of induced sputum and throat swabs. European Respiratory Journal, 43(2), 644-646. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00191913

Journal - Research Other

Slow, S., Lever, M., & Elmslie, J. (2011). Betaine supplementation and the metabolic syndrome [Letter]. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(6), 771. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.32

Journal - Research Other

Slow, S., Elmslie, J., & Lever, M. (2008). Dietary betaine and inflammation [Letter]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(1), 247-248.

Journal - Research Other

Barrell, G. K., McFarlane, R. G., Slow, S., Vasudevamurthy, M. K., & McGregor, D. O. (2006). CAPD in sheep following bilateral nephrectomy [Short report]. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 26(5), 598.

Journal - Research Other

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