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Health Sciences profile

Associate Professor Caroline Bell

PositionAssociate Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Psychological Medicine (UOC)
QualificationsBM BCh (Oxon) MD (Brist) MRCPsych
Research summaryAnxiety Disorders

Research

Caroline Bell is an Associate Professor at the Department of Psychological Medicine, UOC and Clinical Head of the Anxiety Disorders Service, CDHB. Since the Canterbury earthquakes she has also been the Clinical Leader of a Specialist Mental Health service set up to treat people with post traumatic earthquake related distress. Her research interests are in anxiety disorders, particularly understanding some of the neurobiological mechanism involved. She has also researched the treatment of anxiety and has investigated the use of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Her current research involves studying CBT treatments in clinical settings. She is also studying the psychological and neurobiological effects of the earthquakes in both people presenting with significant earthquake related distress and those identifying as resilient.

Publications

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Frampton, C. M., Douglas, K. M., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Carter, J. D., … Porter, R. J. (2017). Earthquake brain: Altered recognition and misclassification of facial expressions are related to trauma exposure but not posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 278. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00278

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2017). In some strange way, trouble is good for people: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 21(1), 31-42. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Beaglehole, B., Frampton, C. M., Boden, J. M., Mulder, R. T., & Bell, C. J. (2017). An evaluation of Health of the Nation Outcome Scales data to inform psychiatric morbidity following the Canterbury earthquakes. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(11), 1098-1105. doi: 10.1177/0004867417714879

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., & Moor, S. (2017). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on successful school leaving for adolescents. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 70-73. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12625

Bell, C. J., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., & Mulder, R. T. (2017). The role of peri-traumatic stress and disruption distress in predicting symptoms of major depression following exposure to a natural disaster. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(7), 711-718. doi: 10.1177/0004867417691852

Authored Book - Research

Nutt, D. J., Bell, C., Masterson, C., & Short, C. (2001). Mood and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. London: Martin Dunitz Limited, 110p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

Bell, C. (2007). Dopamine and dopaminergic agents in social anxiety disorder. In D. Castle, S. Hood & M. Kyrios (Eds.), Anxiety disorders: Current controversies, future directions. (pp. 193-201). Fitzroy, Australia: Australian Postgraduate Medicine.

Bell, C. J., & Hood, S. (2004). Mood disorders and anxiety disorders. In P. R. Joyce & P. B. Mitchell (Eds.), Mood disorders: Recognition and treatment. (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: The University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Bell, C. J., Potokar, J. P., & Nutt, D. J. (2000). Non benzodiazepine anxiolytics acting on the GABA receptor. In Pharmacotherapy for mood and cognition. (pp. 451-463). American Psychiatric Press.

Nutt, D. J., Bell, C., Middleton, H., & Jezzard-Clarke, P. (1999). Anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders. In A. Gregoire (Ed.), Serious Mental Illness. London: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd.

Nutt, D., & Bell, C. (1998). Psychiatry. In J. Van Jones & C. R. V. Thomson (Eds.), Essential medicine. (2nd ed.) (pp. 491-513). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

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Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Frampton, C. M., Douglas, K. M., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Carter, J. D., … Porter, R. J. (2017). Earthquake brain: Altered recognition and misclassification of facial expressions are related to trauma exposure but not posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 278. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00278

Bell, C. J., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., & Mulder, R. T. (2017). The role of peri-traumatic stress and disruption distress in predicting symptoms of major depression following exposure to a natural disaster. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(7), 711-718. doi: 10.1177/0004867417691852

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., & Moor, S. (2017). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on successful school leaving for adolescents. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 70-73. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12625

Beaglehole, B., Frampton, C. M., Boden, J. M., Mulder, R. T., & Bell, C. J. (2017). An evaluation of Health of the Nation Outcome Scales data to inform psychiatric morbidity following the Canterbury earthquakes. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(11), 1098-1105. doi: 10.1177/0004867417714879

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2017). In some strange way, trouble is good for people: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 21(1), 31-42. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Bell, C., Carter, F., Boden, J., Wilkinson, T., McKenzie, J., & Ali, A. (2016). Psychological impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on university staff. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1430), 18-28. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2016). Thriving after trauma: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 20(2, Spec. Iss.), 125-134. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., Ali, A. N., McKenzie, J. M., Boden, J. M., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2016). Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1434), 17-22. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Wilkinson, T. J., McKenzie, J. M., Ali, A. N., Rudland, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2016). Identifying medical students at risk of underperformance from significant stressors. BMC Medical Education, 16, 43. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0565-9

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., Hamilton, G., & McKean, A. (2015). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on prescribing for mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 742-750. doi: 10.1177/0004867415589794

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Beveridge, J., & Frampton, C. (2015). Psychiatric admissions fall following the Christchurch earthquakes: An audit of inpatient data. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(4), 346-350. doi: 10.1177/0004867414560651

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., Ali, A. N., McKenzie, J., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2014). The impact of major earthquakes on the psychological functioning of medical students: A Christchurch, New Zealand study. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1398). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Wilkinson, T. J., Ali, A. N., Bell, C. J., Carter, F. A., Frampton, C. M., & McKenzie, J. M. (2013). The impact of learning environment disruption on medical student performance. Medical Education, 47(2), 210-213. doi: 10.1111/medu.12065

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., & Colhoun, H. C. (2013). Suitability and acceptability of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(2), 142-152. doi: 10.1177/0004867412461384

Bell, C., Bhikha, S., Colhoun, H., Carter, F., Frampton, C., & Porter, R. (2013). The response to sulpiride in social anxiety disorder: D2 receptor function. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(2), 146-151. doi: 10.1177/0269881112450778

Bourke, C., Porter, R. J., Carter, J. D., McIntosh, V. V., Jordan, J., Bell, C., Carter, F., Colhoun, H., & Joyce, P. R. (2012). Comparison of neuropsychological functioning and emotional processing in major depression and social anxiety disorder subjects, and matched healthy controls. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(10), 972-981. doi: 10.1177/0004867412451502

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Carter, F. A., & Frampton, C. M. (2012). Effectiveness of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(7), 630-640. doi: 10.1177/0004867412437345

Bell, C., Hood, S., Potokar, J., Nash, J., Adrover, M., Frampton, C., … Nutt, D. (2011). Rapid tryptophan depletion following cognitive behavioural therapy for panic disorder. Psychopharmacology, 213(2-3), 593-602. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1696-z

Bell, C., Bourke, C., Colhoun, H., Carter, F., Frampton, C., & Porter, R. (2011). The misclassification of facial expressions in generalised social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(2), 278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.10.001

Argyropoulos, S. V., Hicks, J. A., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. (2009). Redistribution of slow wave activity of sleep during pharmacological treatment of depression with paroxetine but not with nefazodone. Journal of Sleep Research, 18(3), 342-348. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00724.x

Bell, C., Bhika, S., Porter, R., Frampton, C., Carter, J., McIntosh, V., Jordan, J., & Joyce, P. (2008). The response to sulpiride in major depression before and after cognitive behavioural therapy: D2 receptor function. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 20(4), 199-206.

Bell, C. J., Nicholson, H., Mulder, R. T., Luty, S. E., & Joyce, P. R. (2006). Plasma oxytocin levels in depression and their correlation with the temperament dimension of reward dependence. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(5), 656-660.

Hood, S. D., Bell, C. J., & Nutt, D. J. (2005). Acute tryptophan depletion. Part I: Rationale and methodology. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 558-564.

Bell, C. J., Hood, S. D., & Nutt, D. J. (2005). Acute tryptophan depletion. Part II: Clinical effects and implications. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 565-574.

Argyropolous, S. V., Hood, S. D., Adrover, M., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nash, J. R., … Nutt, D. J. (2004). Tryptophan depletion reverses the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 503-509.

Bell, C., Wilson, S., Rich, A., Bailey, J., & Nutt, D. (2003). Effects on sleep architecture of pindolol, paroxetine and their combination in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 166, 102-110.

Argyropolous, S. V., Hicks, J. A., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. J. (2003). Correlation of subjective and objective sleep measurements at different stages of the treatment of depression. Psychiatry Research, 120, 179-190.

Coupland, N. J., Wilson, S. J., Potokar, J. P., Bell, C., & Nutt, D. J. (2003). Increased sympathetic response to standing in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 118, 69-79.

Bell, C., Forshall, S., Adrover, M., Nash, J., Hood, S., Argyropolous, S., … Nutt, D. (2002). Does 5HT restrain panic? A tryptophan depletion study in panic disorder recovered on paroxetine. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 16, 5-14.

Bell, C., Vanderlinden, H., Hiersemenzel, R., Otoul, C., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. (2002). The effects of levetiracetam on objective and subjective sleep parameters in healthy volunteers and patients with partial epilepsy. Journal of Sleep Research, 11, 255-263.

Hicks, J. A., Argyropolous, S. V., Rich, A. S., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Edwards, C., … Wilson, S. J. (2002). Randomised controlled study of sleep after nefazodone or paroxetine treatment in out-patients with depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 528-535.

Hicks, J. A., Argyropoulos, S. V., Rich, A. S., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Edwards, C., … Wilson, S. J. (2002). Randomised controlled study of sleep after nefazodone or paroxetine treatment in out-patients with depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 528-535.

Sanford, J. J., Forshall, S., Bell, C., Argyropolous, S., Orlando, K. J., Gammanx, R. E., & Nutt, D. J. (2001). Crossover trial of pagaclone and placebo in patients with DSM IV panic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

Coupland, N. J., Bell, C. J., Potokar, J. P., Bailey, J. E., & Nutt, D. J. (2001). Cardiovascular reflexes during treatment of social phobia with mocbemide. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 5(1), 27-31.

Coupland, N. J., Dorkins, E., Bell, C. J., Potokar, J. P., & Nutt, D. J. (2000). Flumazenil challenge in social phobia. Depression & Anxiety, 11, 27-30.

Wilson, S. J., Bell, C. J., Coupland, N. J., & Nutt, D. J. (2000). Sleep changes during long-term treatment of depression with fluvoxamine: A home based study. Psychopharmacology, 149(4), 360-365.

Bell, C., & Nutt, D. (1998). Serotonin and panic. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 465-471.

Malizia, A. L., Cunningham, V. J., Bell, C., Liddle, P. F., & Nutt, D. (1998). Decreased brain GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder: Preliminary results from a quantitative PET study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 715-720.

Bell, C., Malizia, A. L., & Nutt, D. (1998). Neurobiology of social phobia. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 249(Suppl. 1), S11-S18.

Wilson, S. J., Lillywhite, A. R., Potokar, J. P., Bell, C. J., & Nutt, D. J. (1997). Adult night terrors and paroxetine. Lancet, 350(9072), 185.

Nutt, D., Bell, C., & Malizia, A. L. (1997). Brain mechanisms of social anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(17), 4-9.

Bell, C., Wilson, S. J., & Nutt, D. (1997). Pindolol augmentation of sertraline in resistant depression and its effect on sleep. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 12(1), 105-107.

Bell, C. J., & Nutt, D. J. (1997). Stopping panic attacks. Drug & Therapeutics Bulletin, 35(8), 58-62.

Coupland, N. J., Lillywhite, A. R., Bell, C. J., Potokar, J. P., & Nutt, D. J. (1997). A pilot controlled study of the effects of flumazenil in post traumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 41(9), 988-990.

Malizia, A. L., Wilson, S. J., Bell, C., & et al (1997). Neural correlates of anxiety provocation in social phobia. NeuroImage, 5(Suppl. 2), 301.

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Journal - Research Other

Hood, S. D., Bell, C. J., Argyropoulos, S. V., & Nutt, D. J. (2016). Don't panic: A guide to tryptophan depletion with disorder-specific anxiety provocation. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(11), 1137-1140. doi: 10.1177/0269881116655321

Bell, C., Jordan, J., & Alexander, A. (2016). Transdiagnostic psychological treatments for anxiety and depression. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(3), 201-202. doi: 10.1177/0004867415614084

Robinson, H. M., Hood, S. D., Bell, C. J., & Nutt, D. J. (2006). Dopamine and social anxiety disorder [Editorial]. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 28(4), 263-264.

Bell, C., Abrams, J. K., & Nutt, D. J. (2001). Tryptophan depletion as a clinical tool: Current status and future directions. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 399-405.

Argyropoulos, S. V., Bell, C., & Nutt, D. J. (2001). Brain function in social anxiety disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 707-722.

Nutt, D. J., & Bell, C. J. (1997). Practical pharmacotherapy for anxiety. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 3, 79-85.

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