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Health Sciences profile

Professor Frank Griffin

PositionEmeritus Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology
QualificationsBA PhD (Dub)
Research summaryApplied and molecular immunology, animal disease

Research

Professor Frank Griffin is the Director of the Ag@Otago research theme at the University of Otago, a new initiative drawing on the strengths in plant and animal production, food and health, and sustainability. With over 40 years experience in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology he is a consultant to many international committees and consortia, and a member of societies of immunology and microbiology in New Zealand, Australia and the United States.

Professor Frank Griffin was the founding director of DRL, which has been carrying out research on mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis/paratuberculosis) in ruminants and wildlife species for the past 35 years. In the past decade their work has led to the development of improved immunodiagnostics and molecular techniques for the detection of paratuberculosis (Johnes disease). DRL has recently identified deer breeds with polarised phenotypes for resistance and susceptibility to paratuberculosis. DRL is now a part of Otago Innovation Limited.

Publications

Bates, A., Laven, R., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2020). Estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of four serum ELISA and one fecal PCR for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in adult dairy cattle in New Zealand using Bayesian latent class analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105199

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2019). Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection on a New Zealand pastoral dairy farm. BMC Veterinary Research, 15, 266. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-2014-6

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2018). The effect of sub-clinical infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on milk production in a New Zealand dairy herd. BMC Veterinary Research, 14, 93. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1421-4

Busch, F., Bannerman, F., Liggett, S., Griffin, F., Clarke, J., Lyashchenko, K. P., & Rhodes, S. (2017). Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England. Veterinary Record, 180(3), 68. doi: 10.1136/vr.103930

Gupta, S. K., Haigh, B. J., Seyfert, H.-M., Griffin, F. J., & Wheeler, T. T. (2017). Bovine milk RNases modulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acids in cultured immune and epithelial cells. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 68, 87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.11.015

Griffin, F., & de Lisle, G. (1995). Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. Dunedin: Otago University Press, 377p.

Authored Book - Research

Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. (2010). Paratuberculosis in deer, camelids and other ruminants. In M. A. Behr & D. M. Collins (Eds.), Paratuberculosis: Organism, disease, control. (pp. 179-187). CABI. doi: 10.1079/9781845936136.0179

Chapter in Book - Research

Bothamley, G. H., Catty, D., Clifton-Hadley, R., Griffin, J. F. T., Hewinson, G., & Pollock, J. M. (1999). Immunodiagnosis of Mycobacterial Infection. In J. Dale & G. Ratledge (Eds.), Mycobacteria: Molecular Biology & Virulence. (pp. 180-197). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Chapter in Book - Research

Buchan, G. S., Lockhart, D., Slobbe, L., Chinn, N., Hook, S., Thomson, A., & Griffin, F. (1995). Vaccination: Can it be improved? In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 116-120). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Chinn, N., Ragg, J., Mackintosh, C. G., Buchan, G. S., & Griffin, F. (1995). Development of an Elisa for the detection of antibodies to M. bovis in ferrets. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 325-327). Dunedin: University of Otago Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Cross, M., Slobbe, L., Chinn, N., Griffin, F., & Buchan, G. (1995). Cervine mononuclear phagocytes: Cytokine production, phagocytic activity and generation of T cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 155-157). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Griffin, F. (1995). TB immunology: from diagnosis to vaccination. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 193-197). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Hook, S., Slobbe, L., Chinn, N., Griffin, J. F. T., & Hesketh, J. B. (1995). Measuring cytokine responses to vaccination with live and killed BCG. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 128-130). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Kalmakoff, J., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). A pseudovertical transmission model for the epidemiology of tuberculosis in New Zealand possums. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 225-227). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Lockhart, E., Slobbe, L., Hook, S., Griffin, F., & Mackintosh, C. G. (1995). The development of a new, multipurpose, animal model of tuberculosis. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 158-160). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Lugton, I., Morris, R., Wilson, P., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). Natural infection of red deer with tuberculosis. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 280-283). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Mackintosh, C. G., Waldrup, K., Labes, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). Selection for resistance and susceptibility of deer to tuberculosis using experimental challenge. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 72-75). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Mackintosh, C. G., Waldrup, K., Labes, R., Buchan, G. S., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). Intra-tonsil moculation: an experimental model for tuberculosis in deer. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 121-122). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Thomsan, A., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). The effect of dexamethasone of the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in deer. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 131-134). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Cousins, D. V., Huchzermeyer, H. F. K. A., Griffin, J. F. T., Brückner, G. K., van Rensburg, I. B. J., & Kriek, N. P. J. (2005). Tuberculosis. In J. A. W. Coetzer & R. C. Tustin (Eds.), Infectious diseases in livestock. (2nd ed.) (pp. 1973-1993). Southern Africa: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in Book - Other

Bates, A., Laven, R., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2020). Estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of four serum ELISA and one fecal PCR for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in adult dairy cattle in New Zealand using Bayesian latent class analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105199

Journal - Research Article

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2019). Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection on a New Zealand pastoral dairy farm. BMC Veterinary Research, 15, 266. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-2014-6

Journal - Research Article

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2018). The effect of sub-clinical infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on milk production in a New Zealand dairy herd. BMC Veterinary Research, 14, 93. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1421-4

Journal - Research Article

Busch, F., Bannerman, F., Liggett, S., Griffin, F., Clarke, J., Lyashchenko, K. P., & Rhodes, S. (2017). Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England. Veterinary Record, 180(3), 68. doi: 10.1136/vr.103930

Journal - Research Article

Gupta, S. K., Haigh, B. J., Seyfert, H.-M., Griffin, F. J., & Wheeler, T. T. (2017). Bovine milk RNases modulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acids in cultured immune and epithelial cells. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 68, 87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.11.015

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Griffin, J. F. T., Scott, I. C., O'Brien, R., Stanton, J. L., Maclean, P., & Brauning, R. (2016). SOLiD SAGE sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (Cervus elaphus) challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 169, 102-110. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.10.009

Journal - Research Article

Buddle, B. M., de Lisle, G. W., Griffin, J. F. T., & Hutchings, S. A. (2015). Epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in New Zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 63(Suppl. 1), 19-27. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2014.929518

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, F. (2014). Farmed deer: A veterinary model for chronic mycobacterial diseases that is accessible, appropriate and cost-effective. Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 6(1), 10-15. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.124302

Journal - Research Article

Dobson, B., Liggett, S., O'Brien, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2013). Innate immune markers that distinguish red deer (Cervus elaphus) selected for resistant or susceptible genotypes for Johne’s disease. Veterinary Research, 44(1), 5. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-5

Journal - Research Article

Marfell, B. J., O'Brien, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2013). Global gene expression profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages from red deer (Cervus elaphus) genotypically resistant or susceptible to Myobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 40(2), 210-217. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2013.02.004

Journal - Research Article

O'Brien, R., Hughes, A., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2013). Composite testing for ante-mortem diagnosis of Johne's disease in farmed New Zealand deer: Correlations between bacteriological culture, histopathology, serological reactivity and faecal shedding as determined by quantitative PCR. BMC Veterinary Research, 9, 72. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-72

Journal - Research Article

Gupta, S. K., Haigh, B. J., Griffin, J. F. T., & Wheeler, T. T. (2012). The mammalian secreted RNases: Mechanisms of action in host defence. Innate Immunity, 19(1), 86-97. doi: 10.1177/1753425912446955

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C., Clarke, G., Tolentino, B., Liggett, S., de Lisle, G., & Griffin, F. (2012). Longitudinal pathogenesis study of young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Veterinary Medicine International, 2012, 931948. doi: 10.1155/2012/931948

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Clark, R. G., Tolentino, B., de Lisle, G. W., Liggett, S., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2011). Immunological and pathological responses of red deer resistant or susceptible genotypes, to experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 143(1-2), 131-142. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.06.035

Journal - Research Article

Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., Clark, R. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2011). Immunoregulatory cytokines are associated with protection from immunopathology following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in red deer. Infection & Immunity, 79(5), 2089-2097. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00779-10

Journal - Research Article

Warren, B., Dovey, S., & Griffin, F. (2011). The evidence behind more than a decade of policy recommending influenza vaccination for young New Zealanders with long term medical conditions. Kai Tiaki Nursing Research, 2(1), 27-32.

Journal - Research Article

Clark, R. G., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2010). Johne's disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculusis infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus): An histopathologidal grading system, and comparison of paucibacillary and multibacillary disease. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 58(2), 90-97.

Journal - Research Article

Dobson, B. J., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Development of the thymus and Peyer's patches in the first year of life in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 137, 93-98. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.04.014

Journal - Research Article

Gillan, S., Hughes, A. D., O'Brien, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Ovine immune parameters following immunisation against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis using a lipid-based live cell vaccine. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 137(1-2), 109-119. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.04.020

Journal - Research Article

Gillan, S., O'Brien, R., Hughes, A. D., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Identification of immune parameters to differentiate disease states among sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 17(1), 108-117. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00359-09

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Clark, R. G., Thompson, B., Tolentino, B., Griffin, J. F. T., & de Lisle, G. W. (2010). Age susceptibility of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology, 143(2-4), 255-261. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.014

Journal - Research Article

Pieterse, M. C., Eisenberg, S. W., Folmer, G. E., Liggett, S., Griffin, J. F., Koets, A. P., & Nielen, M. (2010). Evidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis infection in Dutch farmed red deer. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde, 135(23), 886-890.

Journal - Research Article

Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell population changes associated with age and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 136(3-4), 211-218. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.03.009

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., Hughes, A. D., Liggett, S., Farquhar, P. A., Mackintosh, C. G., & Bakker, D. (2009). Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep. Vaccine, 27(6), 911-918. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.053

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Labes, R. E., Thompson, B. R., Clark, R. G., de Lisle, G. W., Johnstone, P. D., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2008). Efficacy, immune responses and side-effects of vaccines against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 56(1), 1-9.

Journal - Research Article

Robinson, M., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C., & Griffin, F. (2008). Differential immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) following experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 15(6), 963-969. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00031-08

Journal - Research Article

Bannantine, J. P., Radosevich, T. J., Stabel, J. R., Berger, S., Griffin, J. F. T., & Paustian, M. L. (2007). Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a major membrane protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 14(3), 312-317.

Journal - Research Article

Berger, S., Bannantine, J. P., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2007). Autoreactive antibodies are present in sheep with Johne's disease and cross-react with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens. Microbes & Infection, 9, 963-970.

Journal - Research Article

Hines, II, M. E., Stabel, J. R., Sweeney, R. W., Griffin, F., Talaat, A. M., Bakker, D., … Whitlock, R. H. (2007). Experimental challenge models for Johne's disease: A review and proposed international guidelines. Veterinary Microbiology, 122(3-4), 197-222. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.03.009

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Labes, R. E., Clark, R. G., de Lisle, G. W., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2007). Experimental infections in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) with a bovine and an ovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 55(1), 23-29.

Journal - Research Article

Berger, S. T., & Griffin, F. T. (2006). A comparison of ovine monocyte-derived macrophage function following infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Immunology & Cell Biology, 84, 349-356.

Journal - Research Article

Berger, S., Hinz, D., Bannantine, J. P., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2006). Isolation of high-affinity single-chain antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins from sheep with Johne's disease. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 13(9), 1022-1029.

Journal - Research Article

de Klerk, L., Michel, A. L., Grobler, D. G., Bengis, R. G., Bush, M., Kriek, N. P. J., … Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2006). An experimental intratonsilar infection model for bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 73, 293-303.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., Mackintosh, C. G., & Rodgers, C. R. (2006). Factors influencing the protective efficacy of a BCG homologous prime-boost vaccination regime against tuberculosis. Vaccine, 24, 835-845.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., Rodgers, C. R., Liggett, S., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2006). Tuberculosis in ruminants: Characteristics of intra-tonsilar Mycobacterium bovis infection models in cattle and deer. Tuberculosis, 86(6), 404-418.

Journal - Research Article

O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., Bakker, D., Kopecna, M., Pavlik, I., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2006). Immunological and molecular characterization of susceptibility in relationship to bacterial strain differences in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection & Immunity, 74(6), 3530-3537.

Journal - Research Article

Begg, D. J., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2005). Vaccination of sheep against M. paratuberculosis: Immune parameters and protective efficacy. Vaccine, 23, 4999-5008.

Journal - Research Article

Begg, D. J., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2005). Experimental infection model for Johne's disease in sheep. Infection & Immunity, 73(9), 5603-5611.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., Spittle, E., Rodgers, C. R., Liggett, S., Cooper, M., Bakker, D., & Bannantine, J. P. (2005). Immunoglobulin G1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Clinical & Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12(12), 1401-1409.

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Labes, R. E., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2005). The effect of Johne's vaccination on tuberculin testing in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 53(4), 216-222.

Journal - Research Article

Begg, D., Kemp, R. A., & Griffin, F. (2004). Normal levels of immunocompetence in possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) exposed to different laboratory housing conditions post capture. Immunology & Cell Biology, 82, 253-256. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1711.2004.01219.x

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., Chinn, D. N., & Rodgers, C. R. (2004). Diagnostic strategies and outcomes on three New Zealand farms with severe outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, 84, 293-302.

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., de Lisle, G. W., Collins, D. M., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2004). Mycobacterial diseases of deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 52(4), 163-174.

Journal - Research Article

Peake, J. M., Gerrard, D. F., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2003). Plasma zinc and immune markers in running in response to a moderate increase in training volume. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 212-216.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T. (2002). A strategic approach to vaccine development: Animal models, monitoring vaccine efficacy, formulation and delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 54, 857-861.

Journal - Research Article

Haig, J. C., Mackintosh, C., & Griffin, F. (2002). Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 21(2), 219-248. doi: 10.20506/rst.21.2.1331

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C., Haig, J. C., & Griffin, F. (2002). Bacterial diseases of farmed deer and bison. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 21(2), 249-264. doi: 10.20506/rst.21.2.1341

Journal - Research Article

Aldwell, F. E., Wedlock, D. N., Slobbe, L. J., Griffin, J. F. T., Buddle, B. M., & Buchan, G. S. (2001). In vitro control of Mycobacterium bovis by macrophages. Tuberculosis, 81(1/2), 115-123.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., Chinn, D. N., Rodgers, C. R., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2001). Optimal models to evaluate the protective efficacy of tuberculosis vaccines. Tuberculosis, 81, 133-139.

Journal - Research Article

Aldwell, F. E., Dicker, B. L., da Silva Tatley, F. M., Cross, M. F., Liggett, S., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2000). Mycobacterium bovis-infected cervine alveolar macrophages secrete lymphoreactive lipid antigens. Infection & Immunity, 68(12), 7003-7009.

Journal - Research Article

Cross, M. L., Labes, R., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2000). Systemic but not intra-intestinal vaccination with BCG reduces the severity of tuberculosis infection in ferrets (Mustela furo). International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, 4, 473-480.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T. (2000). Veterinary Tb vaccines. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 30, 223-228.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2000). Tuberculosis in deer: Perceptions, problems and progress. Veterinary Journal, 146, 202-219.

Journal - Research Article

Mackintosh, C. G., Qureshi, T., Waldrup, K., Labes, R., Dodds, K. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2000). Genetic resistance to experimental infection with Mycobacterium bovis in Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection & Immunity, 68, 1620-1625.

Journal - Research Article

Qureshi, T., Labes, R., Lambeth, M. R., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2000). Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from experimentally infected ferrets to non-infected ferrets. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 48, 99-104.

Journal - Research Article

Costello, E., O'Grady, D., Flynn, O., O'Brien, R., Rogers, M., Quigley, F., … Griffin, J. (1999). Study of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping for epidemiological investigation of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Journal of Microbiology, 37(10), 3217-3222.

Journal - Research Article

Cross, M. L., Aldwell, F., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (1999). Intracellular survival of virulent Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in ferret macrophages. Veterinary Microbiology, 66, 235-243.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F. T., & Thomson, A. J. J. (1999). Farmed deer: a large animal model for stress. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 15, 445-456.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F., Mackintosh, C. G., Slobbe, L., Thomson, A. J., & Buchan, G. S. (1999). Vaccine protocols to optimise the protective efficacy of BCG. Tubercle & Lung Disease, 79(3), 135-143.

Journal - Research Article

Qureshi, T., Labes, R., Griffin, J. F. T., Cross, M. L., & Mackintosh, C. G. (1999). Partial protection against oral challenge with Mycobacterium bovis in ferrets (Mustela furo), following oral vaccination with BCG. International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, 3, 1025-1032.

Journal - Research Article

Dillon, S. M., Griffin, J. F. T., Hart, D. N. J., Watson, J. D., & Baird, M. A. (1998). A long-lasting interferon-γresponse is induced to a single inoculation of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Immunology, 95(1), 132-140.

Journal - Research Article

Lugton, I. W., Wilson, P. R., Morris, R. S., Griffin, J. F. T., & de Lisle, G. W. (1997). Natural infection of red deer with bovine tuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 45(1), 19-26. doi: 10.1080/00480169.1997.35983

Journal - Research Article

Cross, M. L., Chinn, N., Griffin, J. F. T., & Buchan, G. S. (1996). T cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis, in red deer, a large animal model for tuberculosis. Immunology & Cell Biology, 74(1), 32-37. doi: 10.1038/icb.1996.4

Journal - Research Article

Cross, M. L., Slobbe, L. J., Buchan, G. S., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1996). In vitro responses of cervine macrophages to bacterial stimulants. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 53(3/4), 249-256.

Journal - Research Article

Hook, S., Griffin, F., Mackintosh, C., & Buchan, G. (1996). Activation of an interleukin-4 mRNA-producing population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells after infection with Mycobacterium bovis or vaccination with killed, but not live, BCG. Immunology, 88, 269-274.

Journal - Research Article

Lockhart, E., Griffin, J. F. T., Chinn, N., Lavallie, E., & Buchan, G. (1996). The cloning, expression and purification of cervine interleukin-2. Cytokine, 8(8), 603-612. doi: 10.1006/cyto.1996.0081

Journal - Research Article

Cross, M. L., Thomson, A. J., Slobbe, L., Griffin, J. F., & Buchan, G. S. (1995). Macrophage function in deer. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 49, 359-373.

Journal - Research Article

Griffin, J. F., Mackintosh, C. G., & Buchan, G. S. (1995). Animal models of protective immunity in tuberculosis to evaluate candidate vaccines. Trends in Microbiology, 3, 418-424.

Journal - Research Article

Swarbrick, P. A., Schwaiger, F. W., Epplen, J. T., Buchan, G. S., Griffin, J. F., & Crawford, A. M. (1995). Cloning and sequencing of expressed DRB genes of the red deer (Cervus elaphus ) Mhc. Immunogenetics, 42, 1-9.

Journal - Research Article

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