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Dr Alexandra Chisholm

MCApSc PhD DipHSc(Otago)

Alex Chisholm
Tel: 64 3 479 7514
Room: UC G27
Email:alex.chisholm@otago.ac.nz

Alex Chisholm researches in the areas of dietary components and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk; health benefits of nuts, especially hazelnuts; diet in type 2 diabetes / metabolic syndrome; nutrition in the elderly; nutrition in gastrointestinal disorders.

She is a graduate of the University of Otago with a DipHSc, an MCApSc and a PhD in Human Nutrition (1998) and is a registered dietitian. Alex has expertise in clinical nutrition, particularly the effect of diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors and effects of dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity.

This research has investigated the relationship between alteration in dietary components and changes in biochemical and anthropometrical variables in treatment of lipid disorders and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. Targeting both hyperlipidaemic and normolipidaemic persons, the research focuses on diets and the effects of specific food constituents (total fat, fatty acids, folate, carbohydrates, protein) and foods (butter, margarine, coconut fat, dairy products, nuts, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, total dietary fat).

Further areas of research interest include the benefits of diet in addition to medications in FH; nutrition in the elderly; optimal dietary patterns for weight maintenance; nutrition in gastrointestinal disorders; diet in cancer; irritable bowel syndrome and the efficacy of the FODMAPS approach; and, in a series of studies, the health benefits and acceptance of nuts, especially hazelnuts. This latter research involves designing appropriate dietary modifications for specific patient or population subgroups, the most effective methods for information delivery, facilitating dietary adherence and assessment of dietary change.

Teaching

Alex teaches in the areas of cardiovascular disease and diet, lipids, vitamin E and nutrition communication in the following courses:

HUNT221 Macronutrients and Health
HUNT222 Vitamins, diets and health
HUNT453 Community and Public Health Nutrition

Book Chapters

Mann, J., & Chisholm, A. (2007). Cardiovascular diseases. In J. Mann & A. S. Truswell (Eds.), Essentials of human nutrition (3rd ed.) (pp. 282-312),(4th ed. (pp. 326-358). Oxford University Press.
Mann Jim I and Chisholm Alexandra. Dietary management of diabetes mellitus in Europe and North America in International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus 2015 (4th Ed) edited by DeFronzo RA, Alberti K G M M, Ferrannini E, & Zimmet P. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd

Current postgraduate students

Master of Science

Janet Yong. Barriers and facilitators to nut consumption

Master of Dietetics

Shivani Kumari. The effects of soaking on phytic acid and food safety of whole and ground nuts.

Recent Graduates

PhD

Siew Ling Tey. Health and sensory properties of nuts.

Master of Science

Asika Devi. Is nut-enriched bread an acceptable and effective vechicle to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors?

Ruth Harvey: Food for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (FIBS).

Terryn Robinson. Does dry roasting lightly salting nuts influence health outcomes and acceptability?

Master of Dietetics

Katherine Pearson: The effect of nut consumption on dietary intake and nutrient displacement.

Esther Kim. The dietary assessment software requirements of New Zealand Dietitians.

Jasmine Ong. The tailored diet study: The effect of diet in addition to medication in Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Elisse Crawford. The tailored diet study: The effect of diet in addition to medication in Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Jacqueline Yip. Development of a brief heart healthy eating assessment tool for use by Practice Nurses in New Zealand.

Reishma Edwards. Pre-testing a Brief Heart Healthy Eating Assessment tool

Hannah Keddell. Is a heart healthy diet affordable?

Postgraduate Diploma in Dietetics

Desiree Lowe. The perceived barriers to following dietary advice in Pacific Island women with diabetes in pregnancy living in the Waikato District Health Board region.

Emma Millar. An observational audit to compare the satisfaction of nursing staff & patients, along with patient intake between a ward-based hostess food service model and a traditional food service model.

Melanie Archer. Menu Plans and Recipes for Food for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (MrFIBS): Impact on Patients of Low-FODMAPs Treatment Diets for IBS.

Juliet Birch, Hilary Dumbleton, Annie Gibson, Rebecca Jones, Wathsala Kumarasinge, Kim Leng Te, Frances Matthews, Theresa Philpott, Jo Slater. Meeting the Recommended Calcium Intake. (15 homes in 6 locations, with 10 dietitians).

Jessie Pullar, Dietary information for colorectal cancer survivors, an unmet need.

Sarah Bosma, Emma Bennett, Caroline Worth, Lucy Benoit, Ashley Calkin, Julie Hennessy, Danielle Lingard, Tracy Little, Kathryn Loh, Sarah-Jane Westbrooke. Group Rest Home Project (52 homes in 9 locations, with 13 dietitians). The Eating Environment and Nutritional Risk Promoters and Barriers to Achieving Optimum Nutrition in the Residential Care Setting.

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Publications

Kumari, S., Gray, A. R., Webster, K., Bailey, K., Reid, M., Han Kelvin, K. A., Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A., & Brown, R. C. (2020). Does ‘activating’ nuts affect nutrient bioavailability? Food Chemistry, 319, 126529. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126529

Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Yong, L. C., Chisholm, A., Leong, S. L., & Tey, S. L. (2019). What motivates and deters nut consumption among the general public in New Zealand. Proceedings, 8(1), 9. doi: 10.3390/proceedings2019008009

Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Yong, L. C., Chisholm, A., Leong, S. L., & Tey, S. L. (2018). Current nut recommendation practices differ between health professionals in New Zealand. Public Health Nutrition, 21(6), 1065-1074. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017003469

Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Yong, L. C., Chisholm, A., Leong, S. L., & Tey, S. L. (2018). A comparison of perceptions of nuts between the general public, dietitians, general practitioners, and nurses. PeerJ, 6, e5500. doi: 10.7717/peerj.5500

Taylor, H., Webster, K., Gray, A. R., Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A., Bailey, K., Kumari, S., & Brown, R. C. (2018). The effects of 'activating' almonds on consumer acceptance and gastrointestinal tolerance. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(8), 2771-2783. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1543-7

Chapter in Book - Research

Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A. W.-A. H., & Brown, R. C. (2016). Nut consumption and metabolic syndrome. In I. Dichi & A. Name Colado Simão (Eds.), Nutritional intervention in metabolic syndrome. (pp. 289-312). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/b19099-23

Mann, J., & Chisholm, A. (2012). Cardiovascular diseases. In J. Mann & A. S. Truswell (Eds.), Essentials of human nutrition. (4th ed.) (pp. 326-358). Oxford University Press.

Mann, J., & Chisholm, A. (2007). Cardiovascular diseases. In J. Mann & A. S. Truswell (Eds.), Essentials of human nutrition. (3rd ed.) (pp. 282-312). Oxford University Press.

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Journal - Research Article

Kumari, S., Gray, A. R., Webster, K., Bailey, K., Reid, M., Han Kelvin, K. A., Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A., & Brown, R. C. (2020). Does ‘activating’ nuts affect nutrient bioavailability? Food Chemistry, 319, 126529. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126529

Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Yong, L. C., Chisholm, A., Leong, S. L., & Tey, S. L. (2018). Current nut recommendation practices differ between health professionals in New Zealand. Public Health Nutrition, 21(6), 1065-1074. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017003469

Taylor, H., Webster, K., Gray, A. R., Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A., Bailey, K., Kumari, S., & Brown, R. C. (2018). The effects of 'activating' almonds on consumer acceptance and gastrointestinal tolerance. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(8), 2771-2783. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1543-7

Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Yong, L. C., Chisholm, A., Leong, S. L., & Tey, S. L. (2018). A comparison of perceptions of nuts between the general public, dietitians, general practitioners, and nurses. PeerJ, 6, e5500. doi: 10.7717/peerj.5500

Brown, R. C., Yong, L. C., Gray, A. R., Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A., & Leong, S. L. (2017). Perceptions and knowledge of nuts amongst health professionals in New Zealand. Nutrients, 9, 22. doi: 10.3390/nu9030220

Harvie, R. M., Chisholm, A. W., Bisanz, J. E., Burton, J. P., Herbison, P., Schultz, K., & Schultz, M. (2017). Long-term irritable bowel syndrome symptom control with reintroduction of selected FODMAPs. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 23(25), 4632-4643. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i25.4632

Tey, S. L., Robinson, T., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A. W., & Brown, R. C. (2017). Do dry roasting, lightly salting nuts affect their cardioprotective properties and acceptability? European Journal of Nutrition, 56(3), 1025-1036. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1150-4

Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Tey, S. L., Chisholm, A., Burley, V., Greenwood, D. C., & Cade, J. (2017). Associations between nut consumption and health vary between omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans. Nutrients, 9(11), 1219. doi: 10.3390/nu9111219

Yong, L. C., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., Leong, S. L., Tey, S. L., & Brown, R. C. (2017). Barriers to and facilitators and perceptions of nut consumption among the general population in New Zealand. Public Health Nutrition, 20(17), 3166-3182. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017002464

Pearson, K. R., Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., & Brown, R. C. (2017). Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(3), 1255-1267. doi: 10.1007/s00394-016-1176-2

Eyres, L., Eyres, M. F., Chisholm, A., & Brown, R. C. (2016). Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Nutrition Reviews, 74(4), 267-280. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuw002

Brown, R. C., Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., Smith, C., Fleming, E., & Parnell, W. (2016). Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: Results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. British Journal of Nutrition, 115(1), 105-112. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515004122

Devi, A., Chisholm, A., Gray, A., Tey, S. L., Williamson-Poutama, D., Cameron, S. L., & Brown, R. C. (2016). Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption. European Journal of Nutrition, 55, 2281-2293. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1038-3

Tey, S. L., Robinson, T., Davis, H., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A. W., & Brown, R. C. (2015). The effect of regular hazelnut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and acceptance in Māori and European. Journal of Nutrients, 2(2), 39-53.

Brown, R. C., Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., Smith, C., Fleming, E., & Parnell, W. (2015). Association of nut consumption with cardiometabolic risk factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrients, 7(9), 7523-7542. doi: 10.3390/nu7095351

Brown, R. C., Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., Smith, C., Fleming, E., Blakey, C., & Parnell, W. (2014). Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: Results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. British Journal of Nutrition, 112(12), 2028-2040. doi: 10.1017/s0007114514003158

Brown, R. C., McLay-Cooke, R. T., Richardson, S. L., Williams, S. M., Grattan, D. R., & Chisholm, A. W.-A. H. (2014). Appetite response among those susceptible or resistant to obesity. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2014, 512013. doi: 10.1155/2014/512013

Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A. W., Delahunty, C. M., & Brown, R. C. (2013). The dose of hazelnuts influences acceptance and diet quality but not inflammatory markers and body composition in overweight and obese individuals. Journal of Nutrition, 143(8), 1254-1262. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.174714

Richmond, K., Williams, S., Mann, J., Brown, R., & Chisholm, A. (2013). Markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes are improved by the daily consumption of almonds or sunflower kernels: A feeding study. ISRN Nutrition, 2013, 626414. doi: 10.5402/2013/626414

Pullar, J. M., Chisholm, A., & Jackson, C. (2012). Dietary information for colorectal cancer survivors: An unmet need. New Zealand Medical Journal, 125(1356). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Tey, S. L., Brown, R. C., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A. W., & Delahunty, C. M. (2012). Long-term consumption of high energy-dense snack foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95, 1038-1047. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.030882

Tey, S. L., Brown, R., Gray, A., Chisholm, A., & Delahunty, C. (2011). Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight. Journal of Nutrition & Metabolism, 2011, 357350. doi: 10.1155/2011/357350

Tey, S. L., Brown, R., Chisholm, A., Gray, A., Williams, S., & Delahunty, C. (2011). Current guidelines for nut consumption are achievable and sustainable: A hazelnut intervention. British Journal of Nutrition, 105(10), 1503-1511. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510005283

Tey, S. L., Brown, R. C., Chisholm, A. W., Delahunty, C. M., Gray, A. R., & Williams, S. M. (2011). Effects of different forms of hazelnuts on blood lipids and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65, 117-124. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.200

Chisholm, A., Jensen, J., & Field, P. (2011). Eating environment in the aged-care residential setting in New Zealand: Promoters and barriers to achieving optimum nutrition. Observations of the foodservice, menu and meals. Nutrition & Dietetics, 68(2), 161-166. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0080.2011.01510.x

Hardman Fredensborg, M., Perry, T., Mann, J., Chisholm, A., & Rose, M. (2010). Rising methods and leavening agents used in the production of bread do not impact the glycaemic index. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 19(2), 188-194.

Coppell, K. J., Kataoka, M., Williams, S. M., Chisholm, A. W., Vorgers, S. M., & Mann, J. I. (2010). Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimised drug treatment: Lifestyle over and above drugs in diabetes (LOADD) study: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 341, c3337. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c3337

Dale, K. S., McAuley, K. A., Taylor, R. W., Williams, S. M., Farmer, V. L., Hansen, P., Vorgers, S. M., Chisholm, A. W., & Mann, J. I. (2009). Determining optimal approaches for weight maintenance: A randomized controlled trial. CMAJ, 180(10), E39-E46. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.080974

Thomson, C. D., Chisholm, A., McLachlan, S. K., & Campbell, J. M. (2008). Brazil nuts: An effective way to improve selenium status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(2), 379-384.

Aitken, W. A. E., Chisholm, A. W.-A. H., Duncan, A. W., Harper, M. J., Humphries, S. E., Mann, J. I., Skeaff, C. M., Sutherland, W. H. F., Wallace, A. J., & Williams, S. M. (2006). Variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene does not influence individual plasma cholesterol response to changes in the nature of dietary fat. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 16(5), 353-363. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2005.06.007

Field, P., Parnell, W., Chisholm, A., & Moore, N. (2005). Digging deeper: Landscape analysis. Journal of the New Zealand Dietetic Association, 59(2), 29-30.

Skeaff, C. M., Thoma, C., Mann, J., Chisholm, A., Williams, S., & Richmond, K. (2005). Isocaloric substitution of plant sterol-enriched fat spread for carbohydrate-rich foods in a low-fat, fibre-rich diet decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholestrol and increases high-density lipoprotein concentrations. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 15, 337-344.

Chisholm, A., McAuley, K. A., Mann, J., Williams, S., & Skeaff, M. (2005). Cholesterol lowering effects of nuts compared with a Canola oil enriched cereal of similar fat composition. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 15, 284-292.

Field, P., Styles, M., Thomson, R., & Chisholm, A. (2004). Continuing competency in diabetes - innovation in collaboration. Journal of the New Zealand Dietetic Association, 58(2), 41-44.

Skeaff, C. M., Williscroft, K., Mann, J., & Chisholm, A. (2004). Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat lowers plasma cholesterol concentration in participants consuming dairy fat-rich diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 250-257.

Monro, D., Young, L., Wilson, J., & Chisholm, A. (2004). The sodium content of low cost and private label foods; Implications for public health. Journal of the New Zealand Dietetic Association, 58(1), 4-10.

Murphy, E., McAuley, K. A., Bell, D., McLay, R. T., Chisholm, A., Hurley, R., … Mann, J., … Williams, S. M. (2003). A new approach to design and implement a lifestyle intervention programme to prevent type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Maori. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12(4), 419-422.

McAuley, K. A., Murphy, E., McLay, R. T., Chisholm, A., Story, G., Mann, J., … Williams, S. M., Goulding, A., & Wilson, N. C. (2003). Implementation of a successful lifestyle intervention programme for New Zealand Maori to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12(4), 423-426.

Cleghorn, C. L., Skeaff, C. M., Mann, J., & Chisholm, A. (2003). Plant sterol-enriched spread enhances the cholesterol-lowering potential of a fat-reduced diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 170-176. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601531

McAuley, K. A., Williams, S. M., Mann, J., Goulding, A., Chisholm, A., Wilson, N. C., … McLay, R. T., Harper, M. J., & Jones, I. E. (2002). Intensive lifestyle changes are necessary to improve insulin sensitivity: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 25(3), 445-452.

Venn, B. J., Mann, J., Williams, S. M., Riddell, L. J., Chisholm, A., Harper, M. J., Aitken, W., & Rossaak, J. I. (2002). Assessment of three levels of folic acid on serum folate and plasma homocysteine: A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind dietary intervention trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 748-754.

Venn, B. J., Mann, J., Williams, S. M., Riddell, L. J., Chisholm, A., Harper, M. J., & Aitken, W. (2002). Dietary counseling to increase natural folate intake: A randomized placebo-controlled trial in free-living subjects to assess effects on serum folate and plasma total homocysteine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 758-765.

Hodson, L., Skeaff, C. M., & Chisholm, A. (2001). The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55, 908-915.

McGavin, J. K., Mann, J., Skeaff, C. M., & Chisholm, A. (2001). Comparison of a vitamin E-rich diet and supplemental vitamin E on measures of vitamin E status and lipoprotein profile. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55, 555-561.

Bremer, J., & Chisholm, A. (2000). Position paper: Cardiovascular health for New Zealanders: The role of diet. Journal of the New Zealand Dietetic Association, 54, 58-87.

Wallace, A. J., Humphries, S. E., Fisher, R. M., Mann, J., Chisholm, A., & Sutherland, W. H. F. (2000). Genetic factors associated with response of LDL subfractions to change in the nature of dietary fat. Atherosclerosis, 149, 387-394.

Riddell, L. J., Chisholm, A., Williams, S. M., & Mann, J. (2000). Dietary strategies for lowering homocysteine concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1448-1454.

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