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Otago Medical School staff profiles

Professor Justin Roake

PositionProfessor
DepartmentDepartment of Surgery (UOC)
QualificationsMBChB (Otago) DPhil (Oxon) FRCS FRACS
Research summaryVascular and transplant surgery

Research

Justin Roake is Professor of Surgery and a specialist in vascular surgery and transplantation surgery. He is Clinical Director of the Department of Vascular Endovascular and Transplant Surgery at Christchurch Hospital. He has a DPhil in transplantation immunology focused upon the biology of dendritic cells.

Professor Roake has research interests in the biology of vascular disease, clinical prioritisation for surgery, medical education and modelling of clinical assessments of risks and benefits in surgery.

Publications

Nair, N., Kvizhinadze, G., Jones, G. T., Rush, R., Khashram, M., Roake, J., & Blakely, A. (2019). Health gains, costs and cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysms. British Journal of Surgery. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/bjs.11169

Prebble, H., Cross, S., Marks, E., Healy, J. L., Searle, E., Aamir, R., Butler, A., Roake, J., Hock, B., Anderson, N., & Gieseg, S. P. (2018). Induced macrophage activation in live excised atherosclerotic plaque. Immunobiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2018.03.002

Khashram, M., Kvizhinadze, G., Khashram, Z., Williman, J. A., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2018). Development and validation of a predictive model to aid in the management of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 56(1), 48-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.03.013

Roake, J., & Morton, J. (2018). Live kidney donation: Managing the "tyranny of the gift". New Zealand Medical Journal, 131(1474), 7-9. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Khashram, M., Pitama, S., Williman, J. A., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2017). Survival disparity following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair highlights Inequality in ethnic and socio-economic status. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 54(6), 689-696. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.08.018

Chapter in Book - Research

Roake, J. A. (2003). Managing waiting lists. In R. D. C. Gauld (Ed.), Continuity amid chaos: Health care management and delivery in New Zealand. (pp. 103-121). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Roake, J. A. (2000). The adrenal gland. In P. J. Morris & W. Wood (Eds.), The Oxford Textbook of Surgery (2nd Edition) Vol 2. (pp. 1143-1165). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Austyn, J. M., Chao, D., Lin, C.-L., Roake, J. A., & Suri, R. M. (2000). Dendritic cells. In M. J. Dallman & J. R. Lamb (Eds.), Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Cell Culture. (pp. 23-49). Cambridge University Press.

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Journal - Research Article

Nair, N., Kvizhinadze, G., Jones, G. T., Rush, R., Khashram, M., Roake, J., & Blakely, A. (2019). Health gains, costs and cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysms. British Journal of Surgery. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/bjs.11169

Prebble, H., Cross, S., Marks, E., Healy, J. L., Searle, E., Aamir, R., Butler, A., Roake, J., Hock, B., Anderson, N., & Gieseg, S. P. (2018). Induced macrophage activation in live excised atherosclerotic plaque. Immunobiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2018.03.002

Khashram, M., Kvizhinadze, G., Khashram, Z., Williman, J. A., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2018). Development and validation of a predictive model to aid in the management of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 56(1), 48-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.03.013

Khashram, M., Pitama, S., Williman, J. A., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2017). Survival disparity following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair highlights Inequality in ethnic and socio-economic status. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 54(6), 689-696. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.08.018

Khashram, M., Williman, J. A., Hider, P. N., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2017). Management of modifiable vascular risk factors improves late survival following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 39, 301-311. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2016.07.066

Khashram, M., Thomson, I. A., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2017). Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in New Zealand: A validation of the Australasian Vascular Audit. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 87(5), 394-398. doi: 10.1111/ans.13702

Jones, G. T., Tromp, G., Kuivaniemi, H., Gretarsdottir, S., Baas, A. F., Giusti, B., … Phillips, L. V., Williams, M. J. A., Wei, W., … Thomson, I. A., Krysa, J., Hill, G. B., Roake, J., Merriman, T. R., … van Rij, A., … Bown, M. J. (2017). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for abdominal aortic aneurysm identifies four new disease-specific risk loci. Circulation Research, 120, 341-353. doi: 10.1161/circresaha.116.308765

Khashram, M., Tiong, L. C., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2017). The impact of CT colonography on abdominal aortic aneurysm referrals in a tertiary hospital. Journal of Medical Imaging & Radiation Oncology, 61(2), 180-184. doi: 10.1111/1754-9485.12535

Khashram, M., Hider, P. N., Williman, J. A., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2016). Does the diameter of abdominal aortic aneurysm influence late survival following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vascular, 24(6), 658-667. doi: 10.1177/1708538116650580

Khashram, M., Williman, J. A., Hider, P. N., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2016). Systematic review and meta-analysis of factors influencing survival following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 51(2), 203-215. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.09.007

Khashram, M., Falconer, R., Mahmud, A., Khanafer, A., Laws, P., Beresford, T., & Roake, J. (2016). Rapid access carotid endarterectomy: Winning the RACE following a natural disaster. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1443), 53-60. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Peek, K. N., Khashram, M., Wells, J. E., & Roake, J. A. (2016). The costs of elective and emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: A comparative single centre study. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1433), 55-65. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

INSITE Collaborators (INternational Study group for Identification and Treatment of Endofibrosis), including Roake, J. (2016). Diagnosis and management of iliac artery endofibrosis: Results of a Delphi consensus study. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 52(1), 90-98. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.04.004

Khashram, M., He, Q., Oh, T. H., Khanafer, A., Wright, I. A., Vasudevan, T. M., … Roake, J. A., & Civil, I. (2016). Late radiological and clinical outcomes of traumatic thoracic aortic injury managed with thoracic endovascular aortic repair. World Journal of Surgery, 40, 1763-1770. doi: 10.1007/s00268-016-3457-6

Griffin, J. L., Clarke, G. A., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2015). A nurse-run clinic for patients with incidentally discovered small abdominal aortic aneurysms is feasible and cost-effective. Vascular, 23(2), 138-143. doi: 10.1177/1708538114537049

Janmale, T., Genet, R., Crone, E., Flavall, E., Firth, C., Pirker, J., Roake, J. A., & Gieseg, S. P. (2015). Neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin are generated within atherosclerotic plaques. Pteridines, 26(3), 93-103. doi: 10.1515/pterid-2015-0004

Khashram, M., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2015). Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a population undergoing computed tomography colonography in Canterbury, New Zealand. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 50(2), 199-205. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.04.023

Maze, M. J., Laws, P., Buckenham, T., Pithie, A., Gallagher, K., Metcalf, S., Roake, J., & Chambers, S. T. (2013). Outcomes of infected abdominal aortic grafts managed with antimicrobial therapy and graft retention in an unselected cohort. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 45(4), 373-380. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.01.019

Graham, P., Martin, G., Fraser, J., Cumming, J., Williams, H., Davidson, A., … Roake, J., & van Rij, A. (2012). Equity of access and variation in general surgeons' clinical judgements of patient priority. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 2(4), 883-898. doi: 10.5750/ijpcm.v2i4.298

Zainon, R., Ronaldson, J. P., Janmale, T., Scott, N. J., Buckenham, T. M., Butler, A. P. H., … Gieseg, S. P., Roake, J. A., & Anderson, N. G. (2012). Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: Comparison with histology. European Radiology, 22(12), 2581-2588. doi: 10.1007/s00330-012-2538-7

Kieser, D. C., Roake, J. A., Hammond, C., & Lewis, D. R. (2011). Negative pressure wound therapy as an adjunct to compression for healing chronic venous ulcers. Journal of Wound Care, 20(1), 35-37.

MacKenzie, K. A., Miller, A. P., Hock, B. D., Gardner, J., Simcock, J. W., Roake, J. A., Dachs, G. U., Robinson, B. A., & Currie, M. J. (2011). Angiogenesis and host immune response contribute to the aggressive character of non-melanoma skin cancers in renal transplant recipients. Histopathology, 58(6), 875-885. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.03845.x

Khashram, M., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2010). Patient flow to carotid endarterectomy: Hastening the patient journey. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 80(6), 406-410. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2010.05308.x

Ching, T., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2010). Net-based information on varicose vein treatments: A tangled web. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1323). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1323/4355/content.pdf

Edirimanne, S., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2010). Delays in discharge of vascular surgical patients: A prospective audit. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 80(6), 443-446. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2009.05130.x

Mackenzie, K. A., Wells, J. E., Lynn, K. L., Simcock, J. W., Robinson, B. A., Roake, J. A., & Currie, M. J. (2010). First and subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancers: Incidence and predictors in a population of New Zealand renal transplant recipients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 25, 300-306. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfp482

Moesbergen, T., Law, A., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. R. (2009). Diastasis recti and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Vascular, 17(6), 325-329. doi: 10.2310/6670.2009.00047

Buckenham, T., McKewen, M., Laing, A., Roake, J., Lewis, D., & Gordon, M. K. (2009). Cyanoacrylate embolization of endoleaks after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 79(11), 841-843. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2009.05113.x

Suh, J., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2009). Quality of clinical notes for vascular surgery admissions: A CRABEL score review. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 79(7-8), 539-543. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2009.04986.x

Laney, J., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. R. (2009). Topical negative pressure wound therapy (TNPWT): Current practice in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 122(1295). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Khashram, M., Huggan, P., Ikram, R., Chambers, S., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2009). Effect of TNP on the microbiology of venous leg ulcers: A pilot study. Journal of Wound Care, 18(4), 164-167.

Khashram, M., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2009). The effect of vacuum-assisted closure on the tissue oxygenation of venous ulcers: A pilot study. Wounds, 21(9), 249-253.

Firth, C. A., Crone, E. M., Flavall, E. A., Roake, J. A., & Gieseg, S. P. (2008). Macrophage mediated protein hydroperoxide formation and lipid oxidatiojn in low density lipoprotein are inhibited by the inflammation marker 7,8-dihydroneopterin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Cell Reserch, 1783(6), 1095-1101. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.02.010

Carter, K., Roake, J. A., Buckenham, T., Frampton, C. M., & Lewis, D. R. (2008). Informed consent for vascular intervention: Completing one audit loop. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1269). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1269/2928/content.pdf

Horrocks, E., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. (2008). Best practice for assessment of patients with varicose veins. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1274). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1274/3065/content.pdf

Oram, B. J., Buckenham, T. M., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2008). Treatment delays for patients exiting an aortic aneurysm surveillance programme. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 78, 148-150.

Buckenham, T., Roake, J., Lewis, D., Gordon, M., & Wright, I. (2007). Abdominal aortic aneurysm surveillance: Application of the UK Small Aneurysm Trial to a New Zealand tertiary hospital. New Zealand Medical Journal, 120(1251). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1251/2472/content.pdf

Kang, A., Buckenham, T., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. (2007). Computed tomography arteriography to assess greater saphenous vein as a conduit for peripheral bypass. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77, 870-872.

Nakka, P., Chu, J. J., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. (2007). Variability in counselling patients regarding the hereditary nature of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA): Lack of evidence or resources? New Zealand Medical Journal, 120(1251). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1251/2460/content.pdf

Moot, A. R., Ledingham, K. M., Wilson, P. F., Senthilmohan, S. T., Lewis, D. R., Roake, J., & Allardyce, R. (2007). Composition of volatile organic compounds in diathermy plume as detected by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77, 20-23.

Muthu, C., Chu, J. J., Le Heron, C., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2007). Patient awareness of risk factors for perpheral vascular disease. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 21(4), 433-437.

Kandula, T., Roake, J. A., & Lewis, D. R. (2007). Vacuum assisted closure devices in the elderly: A word of caution. New Zealand Medical Journal, 120(1263). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1263/2752/content.pdf

Mandhan, P., Beasley, S., Hale, T., Ellmers, L., Roake, J., & Sullivan, M. (2006). Sonic hedgehog expression in the development of hindgut in ETU-exposed fetal rats. Pediatric Surgery International, 22, 31-36.

Kuiper, N., Gordon, M., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. (2006). Treating claudication in 5 words (stop smoking and keep walking) is no longer enough: An audit of risk factor management in patients prescribed exercise therapy in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 119(1231). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1231/1918/content.pdf

Su, H., Gordon, M., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. (2006). Management of risk factors: A survey of New Zealand vascular surgeons. New Zealand Medical Journal, 119(1231). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1231/1905/content.pdf

Doughty, C., MacCormick, A., Roake, J., Fraser, J., Hider, P., Kirk, R., … van Rij, A., & Theis, J.-C. (2005). Prioritisation of elective surgery in New Zealand: The reliability study. New Zealand Medical Journal, 118(1219). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/118-1219/1590/content.pdf

Temple-Doig, L., Gordon, M., Buckenham, T., Roake, J., & Lewis, D. (2005). Informed consent for vascular intervention. New Zealand Medical Journal, 118(1221). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/118-1221/1630/content.pdf

Hock, B. D., Roberts, G., McKenzie, J. L., Gokhale, P., Salm, N., McLellan, A. D., Patton, N. W., & Roake, J. A. (2005). Exposure to the electrofusion process can increase the immunogenicity of human cells. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, 54, 880-890.

Keenan, J. I., Peterson, R. A., Fraser, R., Frampton, C. M., Walmsley, T. A., Allardyce, R. A., & Roake, J. A. (2004). The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency on host iron homeostasis: A study in mice. Helicobacter, 9(6), 643-650.

Lynn, K. L., Buttimore, A. L., Wells, J. E., Inkster, J. A., Roake, J. A., & Morton, J. B. (2004). Long-term survival of arteriovenous fistulas in home hemodialysis patients. Kidney International, 65(5), 1890-1896.

Keenan, J. I., Rijpkema, S., Durrani, Z., & Roake, J. A. (2003). Differences in immunogenicity and protection in mice and guinea pigs following intranasal immunization with Helicoba pylori outer membrane antigens. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 36(3), 199-205.

Briggs, D., Dudley, C. R. K., Pattison, J., Pfeffer, P., Salmela, K., Rowe, P., … for the European Tacrolimus Renal Rejection Study Group, including Roake, J. (2003). Effects of immediate switch from cyclosporine microemulsion tacrolimus at first acute rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation, 75(12), 2058-2063. doi: 10.1097/01.TP.0000069041.48226.DD

Frizelle, F. A., Beasley, S. W., Roake, J. A., & Sykes, P. (2002). Specialisation within the specialty of general surgery; can the potential advantages be realised? New Zealand Medical Journal, 115, 295-298.

Lynch, A. C., Palmer, C., Lynch, A. C., Anthony, A., Roake, J. A., & Frizelle, F. A. (2002). Nutritional and immune status following spinal cord injury: A case controlled study. Spinal Cord, 40(12), 627-630. doi: 10.1038/sj.sc.3101382

Keenan, J. I., Neal, S., Allardyce, R. A., & Roake, J. A. (2002). Serum-derived IgG1-mediated immune exclusion as a mechanism of protection against H.pylori infection. Vaccine, 20, 2981-2988.

Randell, N., Lynch, A., Anthony, A., Dobbs, B. R., Roake, J. A., & Frizelle, F. A. (2001). Does a colostomy alter quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury? : A controlled study. Spinal Cord, 39, 279-282.

Koo, D. D., Welsh, K., West, N. E., Channon, K. M., Penington, A. J., Roake, J. A., … Fuggle, S. V. (2001). Endothelial cell protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by lecithinized superoxide dismutase. Kidney International, 60(2), 786-796.

Still, A., Gordon, M., Mercer, J. C., & Roake, J. A. (2001). Ritalin: Drug of abuse. Two case reports of intra-arterial injection. New Zealand Medical Journal, 114, 521-522.

Dittmer, I. D., & Roake, J. A. (2000). The New Zealand national kidney allocation system. New Zealand Medical Journal, 113, 253-255.

Keenan, J., Oliaro, J., Domigan, N., Potter, H., Aitken, G., Allardyce, R., & Roake, J. (2000). Immune response to an 18-kilodalton outer membrane antigen identifies lipoprotein 20 as a Helicobacter pylori vaccine candidate. Infection & Immunity, 68(6), 3337-3343. doi: 10.1128/IAI.68.6.3337-3343.2000

Jose, M. D., Roake, J. A., & Robson, R. A. (2000). The role of mycophenolate mofetil in chickenpox after renal transplantation. Transplantation, 70(1), 242-243.

Hughes, D. A., Davies, D. R., Young, R., Toogood, G. J., Roake, J. A., Gray, D. W., & Morris, P. J. (1999). Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) detection of early renal allograft infection with Candida glabrata - a case report. Cytopathology, 10(5), 349-353.

Koo, D. D., Welsh, K. I., McLaren, A., Roake, J. A., Morris, P. J., & Fuggle, S. V. (1999). Cadaver versus living donor kidneys: impact of donor factors on antigen induction before transplantation. Kidney International, 56(4), 1551-1559.

Fox, A. D., Whitely, M. S., Phillips-Hughes, J., & Roake, J. A. (1999). Acute upper limb ischaemia: A complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 67, 535-537.

Jassem, W., & Roake, J. A. (1998). The molecular and cellular basis of reperfusion injury following organ transplantation. Transplantation Reviews, 12(1), 14-33.

Koo, D., Welsh, K., Roake, J. A., Morris, P. J., & Fuggle, S. (1998). Ischaemia/reperfusion injury in human kidney transplantation: an immunohistochemical analysis of changes after reperfusion. American Journal of Pathology, 153(2), 557-566.

Lin, C.-L., Suri, R. M., Rahdon, R. A., Morris, P. J., Austyn, J. M., & Roake, J. A. (1998). Dendritic cell chemotaxis and transendothelial migration are induced by distinct chemokines and are regulated on maturation. European Journal of Immunology, 28(12), 4114-4122.

Young, N. T., Roelen, D. L., Iggo, N., Gray, D. W. R., Roake, J. A., Graham, V., … Morris, P. J. (1997). The effect of HLA one-haplotype matched or HLA-mismatched blood transfusions on recipient T lymphocyte allorepertoires. Transplantation, 63(8), 1160-1165.

Slakey, D. P., Johnson, C. P., Cziperle, D. J., Roza, A. M., Wittmann, D. H., Gray, D. W. R., Roake, J. A., … Adams, M. B. (1997). Management of severe pancreatitis in renal transplantation. Annals of Surgery, 225(2), 217-222.

Maclean, A. G., Hughes, D. A., Welsh, K. I., Gray, D., Roake, J. A., Fuggle, S., … Dallman, M. J. (1997). Patterns of graft infiltration and cytokine gene expression in the first ten days of kidney transplantation. Transplantation, 63(3), 374-380.

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Journal - Research Other

Roake, J., & Morton, J. (2018). Live kidney donation: Managing the "tyranny of the gift". New Zealand Medical Journal, 131(1474), 7-9. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Khashram, M., Jones, G. T., & Roake, J. A. (2016). Re: 'Self-referral to the NHS Abdominal Aortic Screening Programme'. European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, 52(2), 270-271. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.05.023

Irvine, J., Cross, N., Lynn, K., Robson, R., Searle, M., Morton, J., … Roake, J. (2012). IaG nephropathy in identical twins: An excellent donor and recipient outcome 11 years after transplantation. Clinical Kidney Journal, 58, 232-233. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfs022

Roake, J. (2008). Academic surgery in New Zealand: Dodo or phoenix? ANZ Journal of Surgery, 78(5), 343-344.

Yong, D., Roake, J. A., Buckenham, T., & Lewis, D. R. (2008). Endovascular repair of mycotic aortic aneurysms [Case report]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1269). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1269/2932/content.pdf

Roake, J. A. (2007). Mirizzi syndrome: DéjÀ vu again. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77(12), 1037. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2007.04320.x

Roake, J. (2004). Dialysis in the elderly [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 117(1195). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/117-1195/904/content.pdf

Roake, J. (2003). Withholding and withdrawing therapy: Humanity, human rights and access to renal dialysis [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 116(1175). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/116-1175/454/content.pdf

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