Accessibility Skip to Global Navigation Skip to Local Navigation Skip to Content Skip to Search Skip to Site Map Menu

Otago Medical School staff profiles

Dr Steven Soule

PositionClinical Senior Lecturer
DepartmentDepartment of Medicine (Christchurch)
QualificationsMB ChB(Cape Town) DCH(SA) FCP(SA)
Research summaryEndocrinology/diabetes

Research

  • The utility of salivary cortisol as an indicator of the adequacy of glucocorticoid replacement in patients with hypoadrenalism.
  • Measurement of C-terminal ghrelin in a variety of disease states
  • Zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone
  • Salivary cortisol measurement in Synacthen testing

Publications

Goh, Z., Phillips, I., Hunt, P. J., Soule, S., & Cawood, T. J. (2019). Three-year follow up of adrenal incidentalomas in a New Zealand centre. Internal Medicine Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/imj.14332

Goh, Z., Phillips, I., Hunt, P. J., Soule, S., & Cawood, T. J. (2018). Characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas in a New Zealand centre. Internal Medicine Journal, 48(2), 173-178. doi: 10.1111/imj.13651

Thompson, H., Lunt, H., Fleckney, C., & Soule, S. (2018). Insulin degludec overdose in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes: Proactive management including monitoring using the Freestyle Libre flash glucose monitoring system. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports, 18-0044. doi: 10.1530/edm-18-0044

Stevenson, J. S., Soule, S., Parkin, P., & O'Neill-Kerr, D. (2015). Bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a patient with Turner Syndrome following manipulation of the cervical spine. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1424). Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Yong, K. W., Soule, S., & Hunt, P. (2014). Endocrine encephalopathy. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1394). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Goh, Z., Phillips, I., Hunt, P. J., Soule, S., & Cawood, T. J. (2019). Three-year follow up of adrenal incidentalomas in a New Zealand centre. Internal Medicine Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/imj.14332

Goh, Z., Phillips, I., Hunt, P. J., Soule, S., & Cawood, T. J. (2018). Characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas in a New Zealand centre. Internal Medicine Journal, 48(2), 173-178. doi: 10.1111/imj.13651

Ellis, E., Chin, P. K. L., Hunt, P. J., Lunt, H., Lewis, J. G., & Soule, S. G. (2012). Is late-night salivary cortisol a better screening test for possible cortisol excess than standard screening tests in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes? New Zealand Medical Journal, 125(1353). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Schouten, B. J., Raizis, A. M., Soule, S. G., Cole, D. R., Frengley, P. A., George, P. M., & Florkowski, C. M. (2011). Four cases of autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia with hypercalciuria including two with novel mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 48(3), 286-290. doi: 10.1258/acb.2010.010139

Ross, I., Boulle, A., Soule, S., Levitt, N., Pirie, F., Karlsson, A., … Schatz, D. (2010). Autoimmunity predominates in a large South African cohort with addison’s disease of mainly European descent despite long-standing disease and is associated with HLA DQB*0201. Clinical Endocrinology, 73(3), 291-298. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03807.x

Schouten, B. J., Doogue, M. P., Soule, S. G., & Hunt, P. J. (2009). Iron polymaltose-induced FGF23 elevation complicated by hypophosphataemic osteomalacia. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 46(2), 167-169. doi: 10.1258/acb.2008.008151

Schouten, B. J., Hunt, P. J., Livesey, J. H., Frampton, C. M., & Soule, S. G. (2009). FGF23 elevation and hypophosphataemia after intravenous iron polymaltose: A prospective study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 94, 2332-2337. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-2396

Cawood, T. J., Hunt, P. J., O'Shea, D., Cole, D., & Soule, S. (2009). Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant: Time for a rethink? European Journal of Endocrinology, 161(4), 513-527. doi: 10.1530/EJE-09-0234

Soule, S., Florkowski, C., Potter, H., Pattison, D., Swan, M., Hunt, P., & George, P. (2008). Intermittent severe, symptomatic hyponatraemia due to the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 45(5), 520-523. doi: 10.1258/acb.2007.007211

Kazlauskaite, R., Evans, A. T., Villabona, C. V., Abdu, T. A. M., Ambrosi, B., Atkinson, A. B., … Soule, S. G., … Consortium for Evaluation of Corticotropin Test in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Insufficiency. (2008). Corticotropin tests for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal insufficiency: A metaanalysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93(11), 4245-4253. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-0710

Ellis, M. J., Livesey, J. H., & Soule, S. G. (2008). Prolactin immunoreactivity in rheumatoid factor-containing specimens: Is it prolactin, macroprolactin or assay interference? Open Clinical Chemistry Journal, 1, 38-41.

Bang, A. S., Soule, S. G., Yandle, T. G., Richards, A. M., & Pemberton, C. J. (2007). Characterisation of proghrelin peptides in mammalian tissue and plasma. Journal of Endocrinology, 192, 313-323.

Lewis, J. G., möpert, B., Shand, B. I., Doogue, M. P., Soule, S. G., Frampton, C. M., & Elder, P. A. (2006). Plasma variation of corticosteroid-binding globulin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Hormone & Metabolic Research, 38, 241-245.

Ellis, M. J., Livesey, J. H., & Soule, S. G. (2006). Macroprolactin, big-prolactin and potential effects on the misdiagnosis of hyperprolactinemia using the Beckman Coulter Access Prolactin assay. Clinical Biochemistry, 39, 1028-1034.

Soule, S., Pemberton, C., Hunt, P., Cole, D., Raudsepp, S., & Inder, W. (2005). Prandial regulation of ghrelin secretion in humans: Does glucagon contribute to the preprandial increase in circulating ghrelin? Clinical Endocrinology, 63(4), 412-417. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02357.x

MacFarlane, M. R., Soule, S., & Hunt, P. J. (2005). Intraosseous lipoma of the body of the sphenoid bone. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 12(1), 105-108.

Harraway, J. R., Sheard, J. M., Soule, S. G., Florkowski, C. M., & George, P. M. (2005). Autosomal recessive adult-onset hypophosphatasia. Pathology, 37(6), 563-565. doi: 10.1080/00313020500368329

Ross, I. L., Marais, S., Raubenheimer, P. J., Abratt, R., Isaacs, S., & Soule, S. G. (2003). Overt hypoadrenalism is uncommon in patients with stage 3 and 4 bronchogenic carcinoma. South African Medical Journal, 93, 695-699.

Pemberton, C. J., Wimalasena, P., Yandle, T. G., Soule, S. G., & Richards, A. M. (2003). C-terminal pro-ghrelin peptides are present in the human circulation. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications, 310(2), 567-573.

Rayner, B. L., Owen, E. P., King, J. A., Soule, S. G., Vreede, H., Opie, L. H., … Davidson, J. S. (2003). A new mutation, R563Q, of the beta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel associated with low-renin, low-aldosterone hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 21, 1-6.

Raubenheimer, P. J., Taylor, A., & Soule, S. G. (2002). A case of Paget's disease complicated by hydrocephalus and syringomyelia. British Journal of Neurosurgery, 16(5), 513-516.

Kaplan, F. J. L., Levitt, N. S., de Villiers, J. C., & Soule, S. G. (2001). Acromegaly in the developing world: A 20 year teaching hospital experience. British Journal of Neurosurgery, 15, 22-27.

Soule, S. G., MacFarlane, P. M., Levitt, N. S., & Millar, R. P. (2001). Contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin to decreased growth hormone secretion in elderly men. South African Medical Journal, 91, 254-260.

Rayner, B. L., Soule, S. G., & Davidson, J. S. (2001). Primary aldosteronism: A new perspective in South Africa. Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, 12, 69-72.

Soule, S. G., Davidson, J., & Rayner, B. L. (2000). The evaluation of primary hyperaldosteronism. SAMJ, 90, 387-394.

Kaplan, F. J. L., Levitt, N. S., & Soule, S. G. (2000). Primary hypoadrenalism assessed by the 1g ACTH stimulation test in hospitalised patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. QJM, 93, 603-609.

Soule, S. G., Van Zyl, S. C., Parolis, G., Attenborough, S., Peter, D., Kinvig, S., … Coetzer, E. (2000). The low dose ACTH stimulation test is less sensitive than the overnight metyrapone test for the diagnosis of secondary hypoadrenalism. Clinical Endocrinology, 53, 221-227.

Raubenheimer, P. J., & Soule, S. G. (2000). Hypothyroidism: A reversible cause of cardiac tamponade with an atypical presentation. SAMJ, 5, 130-132.

Hislop, M. S., Ratanjee, B. D., & Soule, S. G. (1999). Effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use or gonadal testosterone supplementation on serum leptin concentration in men. European Journal of Endocrinology, 141, 40-46.

Soule, S. G., & Jacobs, H. S. (1998). Recent advances in the assessment and management of the hyperprolactinaemic patient. Specialist Medicine, (March), 52-59.

Fahie-Wilson, M., & Soule, S. G. (1997). Macroprolactinaemia: Contribution to hyperprolactinaemia in a District General Hospital and evaluation of a screening test based on precipitation with polyethylene glycol. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 34, 252-258.

Soule, S. G. (1997). Evaluation and management of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. SAMJ, 87, 380-383.

Fahie-Wilson, M., Ahlquist, J. A. O., & Soule, S. G. (1997). Screening for macroprolactinaemia [Letter]. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 34, 703-704.

^ Top of page

Journal - Research Other

Thompson, H., Lunt, H., Fleckney, C., & Soule, S. (2018). Insulin degludec overdose in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes: Proactive management including monitoring using the Freestyle Libre flash glucose monitoring system. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports, 18-0044. doi: 10.1530/edm-18-0044

Stevenson, J. S., Soule, S., Parkin, P., & O'Neill-Kerr, D. (2015). Bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a patient with Turner Syndrome following manipulation of the cervical spine. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1424). Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Yong, K. W., Soule, S., & Hunt, P. (2014). Endocrine encephalopathy. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1394). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Alamri, Y., Soule, S., & Lim, G. (2013). Ethanol-related ecchymosis. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1387). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Badami, K. G., Chalmers, I., Soule, S., & Walkden, D. (2012). Difficult venepuncture: It was all in the head! Transfusion Medicine, 22(6), 448-449. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2012.01203.x

Prescott, H., Ellis, E., & Soule, S. (2011). Pituitary infarction: A potentially fatal cause of postoperative hyponatraemia and ocular palsy [Case report]. BMJ, 342, d1221. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d1221

Huelsen-Katz, A. M., Schouten, B. J., Jardine, D. L., Soule, S. G., & Liu, H. (2010). Pictorial evolution of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage [Letter to the editor]. Internal Medicine Journal, 40(1), 87-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2009.02117.x

Doogue, M., Soule, S., & Hunt, P. (2007). Another cause of 'pseudophaeochromocytoma': Quetiapine associated with a false positive normetanephrine result. Clinical Endocrinology, 67, 472-476.

Soule, S. G. (2000). The low dose ACTH stimulation test is less sensitive than the overnight metyrapone test for the diagnosis of secondary hypoadrenalism [Letter]. Clinical Endocrinology, 53, 759-761.

Soule, S. G., & Berman, P. (1997). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and the RET receptor: A disease spectrum comes of age [Editorial]. SAMJ, 87, 380-383.

More publications...