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Otago Medical School staff profiles

Professor Frank Griffin

PositionEmeritus Professor
DepartmentDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology
QualificationsBA PhD (Dub)
Research summaryApplied and molecular immunology, animal disease

Research

Professor Frank Griffin is the Director of the Ag@Otago research theme at the University of Otago, a new initiative drawing on the strengths in plant and animal production, food and health, and sustainability. With over 40 years experience in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology he is a consultant to many international committees and consortia, and a member of societies of immunology and microbiology in New Zealand, Australia and the United States.

Professor Frank Griffin was the founding director of DRL, which has been carrying out research on mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis/paratuberculosis) in ruminants and wildlife species for the past 35 years. In the past decade their work has led to the development of improved immunodiagnostics and molecular techniques for the detection of paratuberculosis (Johnes disease). DRL has recently identified deer breeds with polarised phenotypes for resistance and susceptibility to paratuberculosis. DRL is now a part of Otago Innovation Limited.

Publications

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2019). Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection on a New Zealand pastoral dairy farm. BMC Veterinary Research, 15, 266. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-2014-6

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2018). The effect of sub-clinical infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on milk production in a New Zealand dairy herd. BMC Veterinary Research, 14, 93. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1421-4

Gupta, S. K., Haigh, B. J., Seyfert, H.-M., Griffin, F. J., & Wheeler, T. T. (2017). Bovine milk RNases modulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acids in cultured immune and epithelial cells. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 68, 87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.11.015

Busch, F., Bannerman, F., Liggett, S., Griffin, F., Clarke, J., Lyashchenko, K. P., & Rhodes, S. (2017). Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England. Veterinary Record, 180(3), 68. doi: 10.1136/vr.103930

Mackintosh, C. G., Griffin, J. F. T., Scott, I. C., O'Brien, R., Stanton, J. L., Maclean, P., & Brauning, R. (2016). SOLiD SAGE sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (Cervus elaphus) challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 169, 102-110. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.10.009

Authored Book - Research

Griffin, F., & de Lisle, G. (1995). Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. Dunedin: Otago University Press, 377p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. (2010). Paratuberculosis in deer, camelids and other ruminants. In M. A. Behr & D. M. Collins (Eds.), Paratuberculosis: Organism, disease, control. (pp. 179-187). CABI. doi: 10.1079/9781845936136.0179

Bothamley, G. H., Catty, D., Clifton-Hadley, R., Griffin, J. F. T., Hewinson, G., & Pollock, J. M. (1999). Immunodiagnosis of Mycobacterial Infection. In J. Dale & G. Ratledge (Eds.), Mycobacteria: Molecular Biology & Virulence. (pp. 180-197). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Chinn, N., Ragg, J., Mackintosh, C. G., Buchan, G. S., & Griffin, F. (1995). Development of an Elisa for the detection of antibodies to M. bovis in ferrets. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 325-327). Dunedin: University of Otago Press.

Mackintosh, C. G., Waldrup, K., Labes, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). Selection for resistance and susceptibility of deer to tuberculosis using experimental challenge. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 72-75). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Lockhart, E., Slobbe, L., Hook, S., Griffin, F., & Mackintosh, C. G. (1995). The development of a new, multipurpose, animal model of tuberculosis. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 158-160). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Thomsan, A., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). The effect of dexamethasone of the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in deer. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 131-134). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Buchan, G. S., Lockhart, D., Slobbe, L., Chinn, N., Hook, S., Thomson, A., & Griffin, F. (1995). Vaccination: Can it be improved? In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 116-120). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Griffin, F. (1995). TB immunology: from diagnosis to vaccination. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 193-197). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Hook, S., Slobbe, L., Chinn, N., Griffin, J. F. T., & Hesketh, J. B. (1995). Measuring cytokine responses to vaccination with live and killed BCG. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 128-130). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Cross, M., Slobbe, L., Chinn, N., Griffin, F., & Buchan, G. (1995). Cervine mononuclear phagocytes: Cytokine production, phagocytic activity and generation of T cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 155-157). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Mackintosh, C. G., Waldrup, K., Labes, R., Buchan, G. S., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). Intra-tonsil moculation: an experimental model for tuberculosis in deer. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 121-122). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Lugton, I., Morris, R., Wilson, P., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). Natural infection of red deer with tuberculosis. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 280-283). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

Kalmakoff, J., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1995). A pseudovertical transmission model for the epidemiology of tuberculosis in New Zealand possums. In F. Griffin & G. de Lisle (Eds.), Tuberculosis in wildlife and domestic animals. (pp. 225-227). Dunedin: Otago University Press.

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Chapter in Book - Other

Cousins, D. V., Huchzermeyer, H. F. K. A., Griffin, J. F. T., Brückner, G. K., van Rensburg, I. B. J., & Kriek, N. P. J. (2005). Tuberculosis. In J. A. W. Coetzer & R. C. Tustin (Eds.), Infectious diseases in livestock. (2nd ed.) (pp. 1973-1993). Southern Africa: Oxford University Press.

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Journal - Research Article

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2019). Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection on a New Zealand pastoral dairy farm. BMC Veterinary Research, 15, 266. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-2014-6

Bates, A., O'Brien, R., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2018). The effect of sub-clinical infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on milk production in a New Zealand dairy herd. BMC Veterinary Research, 14, 93. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1421-4

Gupta, S. K., Haigh, B. J., Seyfert, H.-M., Griffin, F. J., & Wheeler, T. T. (2017). Bovine milk RNases modulate pro-inflammatory responses induced by nucleic acids in cultured immune and epithelial cells. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 68, 87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2016.11.015

Busch, F., Bannerman, F., Liggett, S., Griffin, F., Clarke, J., Lyashchenko, K. P., & Rhodes, S. (2017). Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England. Veterinary Record, 180(3), 68. doi: 10.1136/vr.103930

Mackintosh, C. G., Griffin, J. F. T., Scott, I. C., O'Brien, R., Stanton, J. L., Maclean, P., & Brauning, R. (2016). SOLiD SAGE sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (Cervus elaphus) challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 169, 102-110. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.10.009

Buddle, B. M., de Lisle, G. W., Griffin, J. F. T., & Hutchings, S. A. (2015). Epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in New Zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 63(Suppl. 1), 19-27. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2014.929518

Griffin, F. (2014). Farmed deer: A veterinary model for chronic mycobacterial diseases that is accessible, appropriate and cost-effective. Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 6(1), 10-15. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.124302

Marfell, B. J., O'Brien, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2013). Global gene expression profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages from red deer (Cervus elaphus) genotypically resistant or susceptible to Myobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 40(2), 210-217. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2013.02.004

Dobson, B., Liggett, S., O'Brien, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2013). Innate immune markers that distinguish red deer (Cervus elaphus) selected for resistant or susceptible genotypes for Johne’s disease. Veterinary Research, 44(1), 5. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-5

O'Brien, R., Hughes, A., Liggett, S., & Griffin, F. (2013). Composite testing for ante-mortem diagnosis of Johne's disease in farmed New Zealand deer: Correlations between bacteriological culture, histopathology, serological reactivity and faecal shedding as determined by quantitative PCR. BMC Veterinary Research, 9, 72. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-72

Gupta, S. K., Haigh, B. J., Griffin, J. F. T., & Wheeler, T. T. (2012). The mammalian secreted RNases: Mechanisms of action in host defence. Innate Immunity, 19(1), 86-97. doi: 10.1177/1753425912446955

Mackintosh, C., Clarke, G., Tolentino, B., Liggett, S., de Lisle, G., & Griffin, F. (2012). Longitudinal pathogenesis study of young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Veterinary Medicine International, 2012, 931948. doi: 10.1155/2012/931948

Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., Clark, R. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2011). Immunoregulatory cytokines are associated with protection from immunopathology following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in red deer. Infection & Immunity, 79(5), 2089-2097. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00779-10

Mackintosh, C. G., Clark, R. G., Tolentino, B., de Lisle, G. W., Liggett, S., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2011). Immunological and pathological responses of red deer resistant or susceptible genotypes, to experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 143(1-2), 131-142. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.06.035

Warren, B., Dovey, S., & Griffin, F. (2011). The evidence behind more than a decade of policy recommending influenza vaccination for young New Zealanders with long term medical conditions. Kai Tiaki Nursing Research, 2(1), 27-32.

Pieterse, M. C., Eisenberg, S. W., Folmer, G. E., Liggett, S., Griffin, J. F., Koets, A. P., & Nielen, M. (2010). Evidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis infection in Dutch farmed red deer. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde, 135(23), 886-890.

Gillan, S., O'Brien, R., Hughes, A. D., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Identification of immune parameters to differentiate disease states among sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 17(1), 108-117. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00359-09

Mackintosh, C. G., Clark, R. G., Thompson, B., Tolentino, B., Griffin, J. F. T., & de Lisle, G. W. (2010). Age susceptibility of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology, 143(2-4), 255-261. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.014

Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell population changes associated with age and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 136(3-4), 211-218. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.03.009

Gillan, S., Hughes, A. D., O'Brien, R., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Ovine immune parameters following immunisation against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis using a lipid-based live cell vaccine. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 137(1-2), 109-119. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.04.020

Clark, R. G., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2010). Johne's disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculusis infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus): An histopathologidal grading system, and comparison of paucibacillary and multibacillary disease. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 58(2), 90-97.

Dobson, B. J., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2010). Development of the thymus and Peyer's patches in the first year of life in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 137, 93-98. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.04.014

Griffin, J. F. T., Hughes, A. D., Liggett, S., Farquhar, P. A., Mackintosh, C. G., & Bakker, D. (2009). Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep. Vaccine, 27(6), 911-918. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.053

Mackintosh, C. G., Labes, R. E., Thompson, B. R., Clark, R. G., de Lisle, G. W., Johnstone, P. D., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2008). Efficacy, immune responses and side-effects of vaccines against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 56(1), 1-9.

Robinson, M., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C., & Griffin, F. (2008). Differential immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) following experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 15(6), 963-969. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00031-08

Bannantine, J. P., Radosevich, T. J., Stabel, J. R., Berger, S., Griffin, J. F. T., & Paustian, M. L. (2007). Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a major membrane protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 14(3), 312-317.

Berger, S., Bannantine, J. P., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2007). Autoreactive antibodies are present in sheep with Johne's disease and cross-react with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens. Microbes & Infection, 9, 963-970.

Mackintosh, C. G., Labes, R. E., Clark, R. G., de Lisle, G. W., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2007). Experimental infections in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) with a bovine and an ovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 55(1), 23-29.

Hines, II, M. E., Stabel, J. R., Sweeney, R. W., Griffin, F., Talaat, A. M., Bakker, D., … Whitlock, R. H. (2007). Experimental challenge models for Johne's disease: A review and proposed international guidelines. Veterinary Microbiology, 122(3-4), 197-222. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.03.009

Griffin, J. F. T., Rodgers, C. R., Liggett, S., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2006). Tuberculosis in ruminants: Characteristics of intra-tonsilar Mycobacterium bovis infection models in cattle and deer. Tuberculosis, 86(6), 404-418.

de Klerk, L., Michel, A. L., Grobler, D. G., Bengis, R. G., Bush, M., Kriek, N. P. J., … Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2006). An experimental intratonsilar infection model for bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 73, 293-303.

Berger, S. T., & Griffin, F. T. (2006). A comparison of ovine monocyte-derived macrophage function following infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Immunology & Cell Biology, 84, 349-356.

Griffin, J. F. T., Mackintosh, C. G., & Rodgers, C. R. (2006). Factors influencing the protective efficacy of a BCG homologous prime-boost vaccination regime against tuberculosis. Vaccine, 24, 835-845.

O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., Bakker, D., Kopecna, M., Pavlik, I., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2006). Immunological and molecular characterization of susceptibility in relationship to bacterial strain differences in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection & Immunity, 74(6), 3530-3537.

Berger, S., Hinz, D., Bannantine, J. P., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2006). Isolation of high-affinity single-chain antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins from sheep with Johne's disease. Clinical & Vaccine Immunology, 13(9), 1022-1029.

Begg, D. J., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2005). Vaccination of sheep against M. paratuberculosis: Immune parameters and protective efficacy. Vaccine, 23, 4999-5008.

Mackintosh, C. G., Labes, R. E., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2005). The effect of Johne's vaccination on tuberculin testing in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 53(4), 216-222.

Begg, D. J., O'Brien, R., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2005). Experimental infection model for Johne's disease in sheep. Infection & Immunity, 73(9), 5603-5611.

Griffin, J. F. T., Spittle, E., Rodgers, C. R., Liggett, S., Cooper, M., Bakker, D., & Bannantine, J. P. (2005). Immunoglobulin G1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Clinical & Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12(12), 1401-1409.

Begg, D., Kemp, R. A., & Griffin, F. (2004). Normal levels of immunocompetence in possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) exposed to different laboratory housing conditions post capture. Immunology & Cell Biology, 82, 253-256. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1711.2004.01219.x

Griffin, J. F. T., Chinn, D. N., & Rodgers, C. R. (2004). Diagnostic strategies and outcomes on three New Zealand farms with severe outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, 84, 293-302.

Mackintosh, C. G., de Lisle, G. W., Collins, D. M., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2004). Mycobacterial diseases of deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 52(4), 163-174.

Peake, J. M., Gerrard, D. F., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2003). Plasma zinc and immune markers in running in response to a moderate increase in training volume. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 212-216.

Mackintosh, C. G., Haig, J. C., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2002). Bacterial diseases of farmed deer and bison. Scientific & Technical Review, 21, 249-264.

Griffin, J. F. T. (2002). A strategic approach to vaccine development: Animal models, monitoring vaccine efficacy, formulation and delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 54, 857-861.

Haig, J. C., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2002). Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison. Scientific & Technical Review, 21, 219-248.

Griffin, J. F. T., Chinn, D. N., Rodgers, C. R., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2001). Optimal models to evaluate the protective efficacy of tuberculosis vaccines. Tuberculosis, 81, 133-139.

Aldwell, F. E., Wedlock, D. N., Slobbe, L. J., Griffin, J. F. T., Buddle, B. M., & Buchan, G. S. (2001). In vitro control of Mycobacterium bovis by macrophages. Tuberculosis, 81(1/2), 115-123.

Mackintosh, C. G., Qureshi, T., Waldrup, K., Labes, R., Dodds, K. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2000). Genetic resistance to experimental infection with Mycobacterium bovis in Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection & Immunity, 68, 1620-1625.

Qureshi, T., Labes, R., Lambeth, M. R., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2000). Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from experimentally infected ferrets to non-infected ferrets. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 48, 99-104.

Griffin, J. F. T. (2000). Veterinary Tb vaccines. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 30, 223-228.

Cross, M. L., Labes, R., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2000). Systemic but not intra-intestinal vaccination with BCG reduces the severity of tuberculosis infection in ferrets (Mustela furo). International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, 4, 473-480.

Aldwell, F. E., Dicker, B. L., da Silva Tatley, F. M., Cross, M. F., Liggett, S., Mackintosh, C. G., & Griffin, J. F. T. (2000). Mycobacterium bovis-infected cervine alveolar macrophages secrete lymphoreactive lipid antigens. Infection & Immunity, 68(12), 7003-7009.

Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (2000). Tuberculosis in deer: Perceptions, problems and progress. Veterinary Journal, 146, 202-219.

Griffin, J. F. T., & Thomson, A. J. J. (1999). Farmed deer: a large animal model for stress. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 15, 445-456.

Cross, M. L., Aldwell, F., Griffin, J. F. T., & Mackintosh, C. G. (1999). Intracellular survival of virulent Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in ferret macrophages. Veterinary Microbiology, 66, 235-243.

Griffin, J. F., Mackintosh, C. G., Slobbe, L., Thomson, A. J., & Buchan, G. S. (1999). Vaccine protocols to optimise the protective efficacy of BCG. Tubercle & Lung Disease, 79(3), 135-143.

Costello, E., O'Grady, D., Flynn, O., O'Brien, R., Rogers, M., Quigley, F., … Griffin, J. (1999). Study of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping for epidemiological investigation of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Journal of Microbiology, 37(10), 3217-3222.

Qureshi, T., Labes, R., Griffin, J. F. T., Cross, M. L., & Mackintosh, C. G. (1999). Partial protection against oral challenge with Mycobacterium bovis in ferrets (Mustela furo), following oral vaccination with BCG. International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, 3, 1025-1032.

Dillon, S. M., Griffin, J. F. T., Hart, D. N. J., Watson, J. D., & Baird, M. A. (1998). A long-lasting interferon-γresponse is induced to a single inoculation of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Immunology, 95(1), 132-140.

Lugton, I. W., Wilson, P. R., Morris, R. S., Griffin, J. F. T., & de Lisle, G. W. (1997). Natural infection of red deer with bovine tuberculosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 45(1), 19-26. doi: 10.1080/00480169.1997.35983

Cross, M. L., Slobbe, L. J., Buchan, G. S., & Griffin, J. F. T. (1996). In vitro responses of cervine macrophages to bacterial stimulants. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 53(3/4), 249-256.

Hook, S., Griffin, F., Mackintosh, C., & Buchan, G. (1996). Activation of an interleukin-4 mRNA-producing population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells after infection with Mycobacterium bovis or vaccination with killed, but not live, BCG. Immunology, 88, 269-274.

Lockhart, E., Griffin, J. F. T., Chinn, N., Lavallie, E., & Buchan, G. (1996). The cloning, expression and purification of cervine interleukin-2. Cytokine, 8(8), 603-612. doi: 10.1006/cyto.1996.0081

Cross, M. L., Chinn, N., Griffin, J. F. T., & Buchan, G. S. (1996). T cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis, in red deer, a large animal model for tuberculosis. Immunology & Cell Biology, 74(1), 32-37. doi: 10.1038/icb.1996.4

Swarbrick, P. A., Schwaiger, F. W., Epplen, J. T., Buchan, G. S., Griffin, J. F., & Crawford, A. M. (1995). Cloning and sequencing of expressed DRB genes of the red deer (Cervus elaphus ) Mhc. Immunogenetics, 42, 1-9.

Griffin, J. F., Mackintosh, C. G., & Buchan, G. S. (1995). Animal models of protective immunity in tuberculosis to evaluate candidate vaccines. Trends in Microbiology, 3, 418-424.

Cross, M. L., Thomson, A. J., Slobbe, L., Griffin, J. F., & Buchan, G. S. (1995). Macrophage function in deer. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 49, 359-373.

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