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Otago Medical School staff profiles

Dr Christopher Gale

PositionSenior Lecturer
DepartmentDepartment of Psychological Medicine (DSM)
QualificationsBHB MB ChB(Auck) MPH(Hon) FRANZCP
Research summaryThe interface of clinical epidemiology and evidence based medicine with clinical psychiatry and service delivery.
Teaching
  • Otago Regional Psychiatry Training Scheme: IV year Medicine (Psychiatry Module)
  • Pharmacy School
Memberships
  • Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists: examiner
  • Australasian Psychiatry Society for Research: executive
  • Contributor: Clinical Evidence, Cochrane Anxiety and Neurosis group (CCDAN), American College of Physicians Information and Educational Resource (PIER)
Clinical
  • Anxiety and mood disorders

Research

Clinical epidemiology, including survey design, the latent structure of psychotic like experiences, measurement of recovery in chronic patients, clinical trial design and implementation.

Evidence based medicine: involvement in systematic reviews for Clinical Evidence and in meta analysis for Cochrane.

Psychiatry: clinical audit of acute psychiatric wards; clinical trials involving novel applications of compounds, description of recovery among people with psychosis.

Service delivery: safety of health care workers, description of risk factors for patient initiated aggression; development and testing of interventions for service workers and non governmental organizations.

Publications

Gale, C., Glue, P., Guaiana, G., Coverdale, J., McMurdo, M., & Wilkinson, S. (2019). Influence of covariates on heterogeneity in Hamilton Anxiety Scale ratings in placebo-controlled trials of benzodiazepines in generalized anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(5), 543-547. doi: 10.1177/0269881118822146

Baby, M., Gale, C., & Swain, N. (2018). Communication skills training in the management of patient aggression and violence in healthcare. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 39, 67-82. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.004

Baby, M., Gale, C., & Swain, N. (2018). A communication skills intervention to minimise patient perpetrated aggression for healthcare support workers in New Zealand: A cluster randomised controlled trial. Health & Social Care in the Community. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12636

Menkes, D. B., Glue, P., Gale, C., Lam, F., Hung, C.-T., & Hung, N. (2018). Steady-state clozapine and norclozapine pharmacokinetics in Maori and European patients. EBioMedicine, 27, 134-137. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.11.030

Cheung, G., Gale, C., & Menkes, D. B. (2018). What affects completion of the scholarly project? A survey of RANZCP trainees. Australasian Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1039856218772250

Chapter in Book - Other

Gale, C. K., & Millichamp, J. (2012). Generalised anxiety disorder. In R. Minhas (Ed.), Clinical evidence handbook: The international source of the best available evidence for effective health care. (pp. 361-363). London: BMJ Group.

Gale, C., & Shue, L. (2006). Progress on generalized anxiety disorder research: Are we reliably missing the clinical issues? In C. M. Velotis (Ed.), New developments in anxiety disorder research. (pp. 113-130). New York: Nova Science.

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Journal - Research Article

Gale, C., Glue, P., Guaiana, G., Coverdale, J., McMurdo, M., & Wilkinson, S. (2019). Influence of covariates on heterogeneity in Hamilton Anxiety Scale ratings in placebo-controlled trials of benzodiazepines in generalized anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(5), 543-547. doi: 10.1177/0269881118822146

Baby, M., Gale, C., & Swain, N. (2018). Communication skills training in the management of patient aggression and violence in healthcare. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 39, 67-82. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.004

Cheung, G., Gale, C., & Menkes, D. B. (2018). What affects completion of the scholarly project? A survey of RANZCP trainees. Australasian Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1039856218772250

Menkes, D. B., Glue, P., Gale, C., Lam, F., Hung, C.-T., & Hung, N. (2018). Steady-state clozapine and norclozapine pharmacokinetics in Maori and European patients. EBioMedicine, 27, 134-137. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.11.030

Baby, M., Gale, C., & Swain, N. (2018). A communication skills intervention to minimise patient perpetrated aggression for healthcare support workers in New Zealand: A cluster randomised controlled trial. Health & Social Care in the Community. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12636

Baby, M., Swain, N., & Gale, C. (2016). Healthcare managers' perceptions of patient perpetrated aggression and prevention strategies: A cross sectional survey. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 37(7), 507-516. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2016.1166300

Glue, P., Courts, J., Gale, C., & Mason, E. (2015). Implementation of the 2013 Psychoactive Substances Act and mental health harms from synthetic cannabinoids. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1414). Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Swain, N., & Gale, C. (2014). A communication skills intervention for community healthcare workers: A pretest-postest study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51, 1241-1245. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.01.016

Swain, N., Gale, C., & Greenwood, R. (2014). Patient aggression experienced by staff in a public hospital setting. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1394). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Gale, C. K., & Millichamp, J. (2013). Generalized anxiety disorder. American Family Physician, 87(2), 122-124.

Ang, W. C., Swain, N., & Gale, C. (2013). Evaluating communication in healthcare: Systematic review and analysis of suitable communication scales. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 6(4), 216-222. doi: 10.1179/1753807613Y.0000000041

Chai, Y. K., Wheeler, Z., Herbison, P., Gale, C., & Glue, P. (2013). Factors associated with hospitalization of adult psychiatric patients: Cluster analysis. Australasian Psychiatry, 21(2), 141-146. doi: 10.1177/1039856213475682

Glue, P., Al-Shaqsi, S., Hancock, D., Gale, C., Strong, B., & Schep, L. (2013). Hospitalisation associated with use of the synthetic cannabinoid K2. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1377). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Gale, C., Skegg, K., Mullen, R., Patterson, T., & Gray, A. (2012). Thoughts of suicide and stage of recovery in patients with schizophrenia in community mental health care. Australasian Psychiatry, 20(4), 313-317. doi: 10.1177/1039856212449669

Glue, P., Gale, C., Menkes, D. B., & Hung, N. (2012). Evaluation of bioequivalence between clozapine suspension and tablet formulations : A multiple-dose, fed and fasted Study. Clinical Drug Investigation, 32(11), 723-727. doi: 10.1007/s40261-012-0004-6

Patterson, T., Mullen, R., Gale, C., & Gray, A. (2011). Compulsory community treatment and patients' perception of recovery in schizophrenia. Australasian Psychiatry, 19(5), 431-433. doi: 10.3109/10398562.2011.603330

Gale, C. K., Wells, J. E., McGee, M. A., & Oakley Browne, M. A. (2011). A latent class analysis of psychosis-like experiences in the New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124(3), 205-213. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01707.x

Glue, P., Loan, A., & Gale, C. (2010). New prospects for the drug treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A systematic review. Current Drug Therapy, 5(2), 86-94.

Gale, C., Hannah, A., Swain, N., Gray, A., Coverdale, J., & Oud, N. (2009). Patient aggression perceived by community support workers. Australasian Psychiatry, 17(6), 497-501. doi: 10.1080/10398560903287516

Gale, C., Arroll, B., & Coverdale, J. (2009). The 12-month prevalence of patient-initiated aggression against psychiatrists: A New Zealand national Survey. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 39(1), 79-87. doi: 10.2190/PM.39.1.f

Gale, C., Arroll, B., & Coverdale, J. (2006). Aggressive acts by patients against general practitioners in New Zealand: One year prevalence. New Zealand Medical Journal, 119(1237). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1237/2050/content.pdf

McKenna, B. G., Poole, S. J., Smith, N. A., Coverdale, J. H., & Gale, C. K. (2003). A survey of threats and violent behaviour by patients against registered nurses in their first year of practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 12(1), 56-63.

Gale, C., Pellett, O., Coverdale, J., & Paton Simpson, G. (2002). Management of violence in the workplace: A New Zealand survey. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106(Suppl. 412), 41-43.

Coverdale, J., Gale, C., Weeks, S., & Turbott, S. (2001). A survey of threats and violent acts by patients against training physicians. Medical Education, 35, 154-159.

Gale, C., & Oakley-Browne, M. (2000). Extracts from ″Clinical evidence″: Anxiety disorder. BMJ, 321, 1204-1207.

Gale, C. K., Simpson, A. I. F., McKenna, B., & Coverdale, J. H. (2000). Implications for training of violent acts by patients against psychiatry registrars. Australasian Psychiatry, 8(4), 345-348.

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Journal - Research Other

Andrews, G., Bell, C., Boyce, P., Gale, C., Lampe, L., Marwat, O., … Wilkins, G. (2018). Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52(12), 1109-1172. [Professional Guidelines].

Gale, C., Glue, P., & Barak, Y. (2018). Low-risk and high-risk groups matter in suicide risk. Psychological Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/S0033291718003422

Gale, C., & Glue, P. (2018). How comprehensive is suicide risk assessment in the emergency department? New Zealand Medical Journal, 131(1470), 11-13. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Gale, C. K., & Millichamp, J. (2016). Generalised anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Clinical Evidence, 1, 1002. Retrieved from http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com/x/systematic-review/1002/overview.html

Mellsop, G., Ellis, P. M., Glue, P., Gale, C., Mulder, R., & Menkes, D. B. (2015). Risk management and clinical practice. New Zealand Medical Journal, 128(1424). Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Glue, P., Gale, C., & Parnell, W. (2014). Impact of dietary benzoic acid on treatment response in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(11), 1298-1299. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.673

Glue, P., & Gale, C. (2013). Do all antidepressants cause QT prolongation: How good is the evidence? New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1369). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Gale, C., Glue, P., & Gallagher, S. (2013). Bayesian analysis of posttest predictive value of screening instruments for the psychosis high-risk state. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(8), 880-881. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1320

Gale, C., Mullen, R., & Patterson, T. (2012). Letter to the editor. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(4), 449-450. doi: 10.1177/0020764010394522

Gale, C., Herbison, G. P., Glue, P., Coverdale, J., & Guaiana, G. (2012). Benzodizepines for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11, CD001846. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001846.pub3

Glue, P., & Gale, C. (2011). [Response to the letter to the editor Off-label treatment]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1338). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1338/4774/content.pdf

Glue, P., & Gale, C. (2011). Off-label use of quetiapine in New Zealand: A cause for concern? [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1336). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1336/4703/content.pdf

Gale, C. K., & Millichamp, J. (2011). Generalised anxiety disorder. Clinical Evidence, 10, 1002.

Gale, C. (2007). Generalised anxiety disorder [Handbook]. Clinical Evidence, 340-341.

Gale, C., & Millichamp, J. (2007). Generalised anxiety disorder. Clinical Evidence, 11, 1002.

Gale, C., & Davidson, O. (2007). Generalised anxiety disorder [Clinical Review]. BMJ, 334, 579-581. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39133.559282.BE

Gale, C. (2006). Generalised anxiety disorder. Clinical Evidence.

Gale, C., & Oakley-Browne, M. (2004). Generalised anxiety disorder. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 7, 32-33.

Gale, C. K., & Oakley-Browne, M. (2003). Generalized anxiety disorder. American Family Physician, 67(1), 135-138.

Gale, C. K. (2002). The treatment of generalised anxiety disorder: A systematic review. Panminerva Medica, 44(4), 283-286.

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