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Otago Medical School staff profiles

Dr Rachael McLean

PositionSenior Lecturer and Co-Director of the Cancer Society Social and Behavioural Research Unit
DepartmentsDepartment of Medicine (DSM), Department of Preventive and Social Medicine
QualificationsBA MB ChB MPH PhD(Otago) FNZCPHM
Research summaryPublic health nutrition; dietary sodium; obesity

Research

Rachael is a public health physician with an interest in nutrition. She is interested in the relationship between food, nutrition and chronic disease, particularly obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rachael collaborates with researchers associated with Edgar Diabetes and Obesity Research to investigate how public health approaches can reduce obesity and improve health outcomes for those with type 2 diabetes.

Current research interests include monitoring population dietary sodium intake, public health approaches to dietary sodium reduction, and the relationship between dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

Publications

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), including Mann, J. I., McLean, R. M., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(3), 872-883i. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy016

Eyles, H., Bhana, N., Lee, S. E., McLean, R., Nowson, C., & Wall, C. (2018). Measuring children’s sodium and potassium intakes in NZ: A pilot study. Nutrients, 10, 1198. doi: 10.3390/nu10091198

Williams Erickson, L., Taylor, R. W., Haszard, J. J., Fleming, E. A., Daniels, L., Morison, B. J., Leong, C., Fangupo, L. J., Wheeler, B. J., Taylor, B. J., Te Morenga, L., McLean, R. M., & Heath, A.-L. M. (2018). Impact of a modified version of baby-led weaning on infant food and nutrient intakes: The BLISS randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 10(6), 740. doi: 10.3390/nu10060740

Shearer, D. M., Thomson, W. M., Cameron, C. M., Ramrakha, S., Wilson, G., Wong, T. Y., Williams, M. J. A., McLean, R., Theodore, R., & Poulton, R. (2018). Periodontitis and multiple markers of cardiometabolic risk in the fourth decade: A cohort study. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 46(6), 615-623. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12414

Xie, Z., McLean, R., & Marshall, M. (2018). Dietary sodium and other nutrient intakes among patients undergoing hemodialysis in New Zealand. Nutrients, 10(4), 502. doi: 10.3390/nu10040502

Chapter in Book - Research

Mann, J., & McLean, R. (2017). Cardiovascular diseases. In J. Mann & A. S. Truswell (Eds.), Essentials of human nutrition. (5th ed.) (pp. 381-407). Oxford University Press.

Coppell, K. J., & McLean, R. M. (2015). Risk factors for diabetes type 1 and type 2. In P. Peplow, J. Adams & T. Young (Eds.), Cardiovascular and metabolic disease: Scientific discoveries and new therapies (RSC Drug Discovery Series No. 45). (pp. 254-273). Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. doi: 10.1039/9781782622390-00254

McLean, R. M. (2015). Hypertension. In D. M. Bier, J. Mann, D. H. Alpers, H. H. E. Vorster & M. J. Gibney (Eds.), Nutrition for the primary care provider: World review of nutrition and dietetics (Vol. 111). (pp. 100-103). Basel, Switzerland: Karger. doi: 10.1159/000362306

Hoek, J., & McLean, R. (2010). Changing food environment and obesity: An overview. In J. Pearce & K. Witten (Eds.), Geographies of obesity: Environmental understandings of the obesity epidemic. (pp. 57-78). Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

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Journal - Research Article

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), including Mann, J. I., McLean, R. M., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(3), 872-883i. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy016

Xie, Z., McLean, R., & Marshall, M. (2018). Dietary sodium and other nutrient intakes among patients undergoing hemodialysis in New Zealand. Nutrients, 10(4), 502. doi: 10.3390/nu10040502

Shearer, D. M., Thomson, W. M., Cameron, C. M., Ramrakha, S., Wilson, G., Wong, T. Y., Williams, M. J. A., McLean, R., Theodore, R., & Poulton, R. (2018). Periodontitis and multiple markers of cardiometabolic risk in the fourth decade: A cohort study. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 46(6), 615-623. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12414

Williams Erickson, L., Taylor, R. W., Haszard, J. J., Fleming, E. A., Daniels, L., Morison, B. J., Leong, C., Fangupo, L. J., Wheeler, B. J., Taylor, B. J., Te Morenga, L., McLean, R. M., & Heath, A.-L. M. (2018). Impact of a modified version of baby-led weaning on infant food and nutrient intakes: The BLISS randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 10(6), 740. doi: 10.3390/nu10060740

Eyles, H., Bhana, N., Lee, S. E., McLean, R., Nowson, C., & Wall, C. (2018). Measuring children’s sodium and potassium intakes in NZ: A pilot study. Nutrients, 10, 1198. doi: 10.3390/nu10091198

McLean, R. M., Williams, S. M., Te Morenga, L. A., & Mann, J. I. (2018). Spot urine and 24-h diet recall estimates of dietary sodium intake from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survery: A comparison. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/s41430-018-0176-0

McLean, R. M., Farmer, V. L., Nettleton, A., Cameron, C. M., Cook, N. R., Woodward, M., … TRUE Consortium (International Consortium for Quality Research on Dietary Sodium/Salt). (2018). Twenty-four–hour diet recall and diet records compared with 24-hour urinary excretion to predict an individual’s sodium consumption: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 20(10), 1360-1376. doi: 10.1111/jch.13391

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), including Mann, J. I., McLean, R. M., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2017). Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: A pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants. Lancet, 389(10064), 37-55. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31919-5

McLean, R. M., Farmer, V. L., Nettleson, A., Cameron, C. M., Cook, N. R., Campbell, N. R. C., & TRUE Consortium (International Consortium for Quality Research on Dietary Sodium/Salt). (2017). Assessment of dietary sodium intake using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: A systematic literature review. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 19(12), 1214-1230. doi: 10.1111/jch.13148

Eyles, H., McLean, R., Neal, B., Jiang, Y., Doughty, R. N., McLean, R., & Ni Mhurchu, C. (2017). A salt-reduction smartphone app supports lower-salt food purchases for people with cardiovascular disease: Findings from the SaltSwitch randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(3), 1435-1444. doi: 10.1177/2047487317715713

Ning, S. X., Mainvil, L. A., Thomson, R. K., & McLean, R. M. (2017). Dietary sodium reduction in New Zealand: Influence of the Tick label. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 26(6), 1133-1138. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.032017.06

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), including Mann, J. I., McLean, R. M., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: A pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet, 390(10113), 2627-2642. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(17)32129-3

Kibblewhite, R., Nettleton, A., McLean, R., Haszard, J., Fleming, E., Kruimer, D., & Te Morenga, L. (2017). Estimating free and added sugar intakes in New Zealand. Nutrients, 9(12), 1292. doi: 10.3390/nu9121292

Thomson, R. K., McLean, R. M., Ning, S. X., & Mainvil, L. A. (2016). Tick front-of-pack label has a positive nutritional impact on foods sold in New Zealand. Public Health Nutrition, 19(16), 2949-2958. doi: 10.1017/S1368980016001208

Edmonds, J. C., McLean, R. M., Williams, S. M., & Skeaff, S. A. (2016). Urinary iodine concentration of New Zealand adults improves with mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt but not to predicted levels. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(3), 1201-1212. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0933-y

Shearer, D. M., Thomson, W. M., Broadbent, J. M., McLean, R., Poulton, R., & Mann, J. (2016). High-risk glycated hemoglobin trajectories established by mid-20s: Findings from a birth cohort study. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 4(1), e000243. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000243

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), including Mann, J. I., McLean, R. M., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2016). A century of trends in adult human height. eLIFE, 5, e13410. doi: 10.7554/eLife.13410

Lofthouse, C., Te Morenga, L., & McLean, R. (2016). Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change. Appetite, 105, 721-730. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.006

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), including Mann, J. I., McLean, R. M., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2016). Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: A pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet, 387(10026), 1377-1396. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30054-X

Jones, E., McLean, R., Davies, B., Hawkins, R., Meiklejohn, E., Ma, Z. F., & Skeaff, S. (2016). Adequate iodine status in New Zealand school children post-fortification of bread with iodised salt. Nutrients, 8(5), 298. doi: 10.3390/nu8050298

Huang, L., Crino, M., Wu, J. H. Y., Woodward, M., Barzi, F., Land, M.-A., McLean, R., … Neal, B. (2016). Mean population salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 45(1), 239-250. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyv313

Prentice, C. A., Smith, C., & McLean, R. M. (2016). Sodium in commonly consumed fast foods in New Zealand: A public health opportunity. Public Health Nutrition, 19(6), 958-966. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015001731

McLean, R., Edmonds, J., Williams, S., Mann, J., & Skeaff, S. (2015). Balancing sodium and potassium: Estimates of intake in a New Zealand adult population sample. Nutrients, 7(11), 8930-8938. doi: 10.3390/nu7115439

McLean, R., & Hoek, J. (2014). Sodium and nutrition labelling: A qualitative study exploring New Zealand consumers' food purchasing behaviours. Public Health Nutrition, 17(5), 1138-1146. doi: 10.1017/s1368980013001079

McLean, R., Williams, S., & Mann, J. (2014). Monitoring population sodium intake using spot urine samples: Validation in a New Zealand population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 28, 657-662. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2014.10

McLean, R. M. (2014). Measuring population sodium intake: A review of methods. Nutrients, 6(11), 4651-4662. doi: 10.3390/nu6114651

Smith, M., Jenkin, G., Signal, L., & McLean, R. (2014). Consuming calories and creating cavities: Beverages NZ children associate with sport. Appetite, 81, 209-217. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.06.015

McLean, R. M., Williams, S., Mann, J. I., Miller, J. C., & Parnell, W. R. (2013). Blood pressure and hypertension in New Zealand: Results from the 2008/09 Adult Nutrition Survey. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1372). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

McLean, R., Hoek, J., & Hedderley, D. (2012). Effects of alternative label formats on choice of high- and low-sodium products in a New Zealand population sample. Public Health Nutrition, 15(5), 783-791. doi: 10.1017/s1368980011003508

McLean, R. M., Mann, J. I., & Hoek, J. (2011). World Salt Awareness Week: More action needed in New Zealand [Viewpoint]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1332). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1332/4607/content.pdf

McLean, R. M., Hoek, J. A., Buckley, S., Croxson, B., Cumming, J., Ehau, T. H., Fa'asalele Tanuvasa, A., Johnston, M., Mann, J. I., & Schofield, G. (2009). ″Healthy Eating - Healthy Action″: Evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy. BMC Public Health, 9, 452. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-452

McLean, R., & Connor, J. (2009). Alcohol and injury: A survey in primary care settings. New Zealand Medical Journal, 122(1303). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/122-1303/3798/content.pdf

Palmer, S. E., McLean, R. M., Ellis, P. M., & Harrison-Woolrych, M. (2008). Life-threatening clozapine-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility: An analysis of 102 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(5), 759-768.

McLean, R. M., & Harrison-Woolrych, M. (2007). Alopecia associated with quetiapine. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22(2), 117-119. doi: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e3280117fff

Harrison-Woolrych, M., Herbison, P., McLean, R., Ashton, J., & Slattery, J. (2005). Incidence of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients taking celecoxib compared with those taking rofecoxib. Drug Safety, 28(5), 435-442.

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Journal - Research Other

Mann, J., Meerpohl, J., Nishida, C., McLean, R., & Te Morenga, L. (2018). Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality: PURE and simple? Lancet, 391(10131), 1676. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30804-3

Lucko, A. M., Doktorchik, C., Woodward, M., Cogswell, M., Neal, B., Rabi, D., … McLean, R., … for the TRUE Consortium. (2018). Percentage of ingested sodium excreted in 24-hour urine collections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 20, 1220-1229. doi: 10.1111/jch.13353

McKenzie, B., Santos, J., Trieu, K., Thout, S. R., Johnson, C., Arcand, J., … McLean, R. (2018). The science of salt: A focused review on salt-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/jch.13289

Johnson, C., Santos, J. A., McKenzie, B., Thout, S. R., Trieu, K., McLean, R., … Webster, J. (2017). The science of salt: A regularly updated systematic review of the implementation of salt reduction interventions (September 2016-February 2017). Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 19(10), 928-938. doi: 10.1111/jch.13099

Santos, J. A., Trieu, K., Raj, T. S., Arcand, J., Johnson, C., Webster, J., & McLean, R. (2017). The science of salt: A regularly updated systematic review of the implementation of salt reduction interventions (March-August 2016). Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 19(4), 439-451. doi: 10.1111/jch.12971

TRUE Consortium, including McLean, R. (2017). Recommended standards for assessing blood pressure in human research where blood pressure or hypertension is a major focus. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(8), 487-490. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2017.10

Webster, J., Waqanivalu, T., Arcand, J., Trieu, K., Cappuccio, F. P., Appel, L. J., … McLean, R. (2017). Understanding the science that supports population-wide salt reduction programs. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 196, 569-576. doi: 10.1111/jch.12994

Johnson, C., Raj, T. S., Trieu, K., Arcand, J., Wong, M. M. Y., McLean, R., … Webster, J. (2016). The science of salt: A systematic review of quality clinical salt outcome studies June 2014 to May 2015. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(9), 823-839. doi: 10.1111/jch.12877

Arcand, J., Wong, M. M. Y., Trieu, K., Leung, A. A., Campbell, N. R. C., Webster, J., … McLean, R., & Neal, B. (2016). The science of salt: A regularly updated systematic review of salt and health outcomes (June and July 2015). Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(5), 371-377. doi: 10.1111/jch.12762

Arcand, J., Webster, J., Johnston, C., Raj, T. S., Neal, B., McLean, R., … Campbell, N. R. C. (2016). Announcing "Up to Date in the Science of Sodium". Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(2), 85-88. doi: 10.1111/jch.12732

Trieu, K., McLean, R., Johnson, C., Santos, J. A., Angell, B., Arcand, J., … Webster, J. (2016). The science of salt: A regularly updated systematic review of the implementation of salt reduction interventions (June-October 2015). Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(6), 487-494. doi: 10.1111/jch.12806

Mann, J., Te Morenga, L., McLean, R., Swinburn, B., Ni Mhurchu, C., Jackson, R., Kennedy, J., & Beaglehole, R. (2016). Dietary guidelines on trial: The charges are not evidence based. Lancet, 388(10047), 851-853. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31278-8

Skeaff, M., Mann, J., Te Morenga, L., & McLean, R. (2015). Effects of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(5), 392-393. doi: 10.7326/L15-5192-4

Theodore, R., McLean, R., & Te Morenga, L. (2015). Challenges to addressing obesity for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(6), 509-512. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12418

McLean, R., Skeaff, M., Mann, J., & Te Morenga, L. (2015). Are some diets "mass murder"? Dietary guidelines worldwide advise limiting saturated fat in favour of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. BMJ, 350, h625. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h625

McLean, R., & Mann, J. (2014). Tackling obesity: A call to action. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1406). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Te Morenga, L., McLean, R., Skeaff, M., & Mann, J. (2014). Advice to reduce total and saturated fat, revisited. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1392). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Mann, J., McLean, R., Skeaff, M., & Te Morenga, L. (2014). Low carbohydrate diets: Going against the grain. Lancet, 384(9953), 1479-1480. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61413-6

Mann, J., McLean, R., & Te Morenga, L. (2013). Evidence favours an association between saturated fat intake and coronary heart disease. BMJ, 347, f6851. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f6851

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