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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology staff profiles

Professor Paul Smith

PositionProfessor
DepartmentDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology
QualificationsBA(Hons) PhD GradDipApplStat MApplStat(Hons) DSc
Research summaryVestibular and Auditory Neuroscience
Teaching
  • Neuropharmacology
  • Biostatistics
Memberships

I am appointed to the HRC Standing Committee on Therapeutic Trials (SCOTT), the Scientific Advisory Committee of the New Zealand Neurological Foundation, and to the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Vestibular Research, Frontiers in Neuro-Otology (Associate Editor), Auris Nasus Larynx and the Springer Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Field Editor for Neuropharmacology).

Research

Interests: vestibular and auditory systems; vestibular dysfunction and tinnitus; effects of vestibular damage on the hippocampus; applications of statistics to pharmacology; biostatistics in general. My major research interest is in the vestibular and auditory systems and how damage to them can result in plastic changes in the brain. We study the effects of vestibular and auditory damage on the brainstem vestibular and cochlear nuclei, and also on other areas of the CNS such as the medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus.

Publications

Aitken, P., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Effects of bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rat on hippocampal theta response to somatosensory stimulation, acetylcholine release, and cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Brain Structure & Function, 222(7), 3319-3332. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1407-1

Liu, P., Gupta, N., Jing, Y., Collie, N. D., Zhang, H., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Further studies of the effects of aging on arginine metabolites in the rat vestibular nucleus and cerebellum. Neuroscience, 348, 273-287. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.02.033

He, J., Zhu, Y., Aa, J., Smith, P. F., De Ridder, D., Wang, G., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Brain metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 148. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00148

Smith, P. F. (2017). The vestibular system and cognition. Current Opinion in Neurology, 30(1), 84-89. doi: 10.1097/wco.0000000000000403

Aitken, P., Benoit, A., Zheng, Y., Philoxene, B., Le Gall, A., Denise, P., … Smith, P. F. (2016). Hippocampal and striatal M1-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are down-regulated following bilateral vestibular loss in rats. Hippocampus, 26(12), 1509-1514. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22651

Chapter in Book - Research

Vidal, P. P., Cullen, K., Curthoys, I. S., Du Lac, S., Holstein, G., Idoux, E., … Smith, P. (2015). The vestibular system. In G. Paxinos (Ed.), The rat nervous system. (4th ed.) (pp. 805-864). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0

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Journal - Research Article

Liu, P., Gupta, N., Jing, Y., Collie, N. D., Zhang, H., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Further studies of the effects of aging on arginine metabolites in the rat vestibular nucleus and cerebellum. Neuroscience, 348, 273-287. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.02.033

Smith, P. F. (2017). The vestibular system and cognition. Current Opinion in Neurology, 30(1), 84-89. doi: 10.1097/wco.0000000000000403

Aitken, P., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Effects of bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rat on hippocampal theta response to somatosensory stimulation, acetylcholine release, and cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Brain Structure & Function, 222(7), 3319-3332. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1407-1

Abouzayd, M., Smith, P. F., Moreau, S., & Hitier, M. (2017). What vestibular tests to choose in symptomatic patients after a cochlear implant? A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 274(1), 53-63. doi: 10.1007/s00405-016-4007-4

He, J., Zhu, Y., Aa, J., Smith, P. F., De Ridder, D., Wang, G., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Brain metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 148. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00148

Smith, P. F., Renner, R. M., & Haslett, S. J. (2016). Compositional data in neuroscience: If you've got it, log it! Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 271, 154-159. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.07.008

Hitier, M., Sato, G., Zhang, Y.-f., Zheng, Y., Besnard, S., Smith, P. F., & Curthoys, I. S. (2016). Anatomy and surgical approach of rat’s vestibular sensors and nerves. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 270, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.05.013

Smith, P. F. (2016). Age-related neurochemical changes in the vestibular nuclei. Frontiers in Neurology, 7, 20. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00020

Tranter-Entwistle, I., Dawes, P., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Cutfield, N. (2016). Video head impulse in comparison to caloric testing in unilateral vestibular schwannoma. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 136(11), 1110-1114. doi: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1185540

Balabhadrapatruni, S., Zheng, Y., Napper, R., & Smith, P. F. (2016). Basal dendritic length is reduced in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 131, 56-60. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.03.009

Aitken, P., Benoit, A., Zheng, Y., Philoxene, B., Le Gall, A., Denise, P., … Smith, P. F. (2016). Hippocampal and striatal M1-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are down-regulated following bilateral vestibular loss in rats. Hippocampus, 26(12), 1509-1514. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22651

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2016). Cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and tinnitus. Hearing Research, 332, 210-216. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2015.09.014

Zheng, Y., Reid, P., & Smith, P. F. (2015). Cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists do not decrease, but may increase, acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. Frontiers in Neurology, 6, 60. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00060

Stiles, L., & Smith, P. F. (2015). The vestibular-basal ganglia connection: Balancing motor control. Brain Research, 1597, 180-188. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.11.063

Zheng, Y., McPherson, K., Reid, P., & Smith, P. F. (2015). The anti-inflammatory selective melanocortin receptor subtype 4 agonist, RO27-3225, fails to prevent acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 761, 206-210. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.05.007

Zheng, Y., Smithies, H., Aitken, P., Gliddon, C., Stiles, L., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2015). Cell proliferation in the cochlear nucleus following acoustic trauma in rat. Neuroscience, 303, 524-534. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.033

Zheng, Y., Dixon, S., McPherson, K., & Smith, P. F. (2015). Glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the cochlear nucleus of rats with acoustic trauma-induced chronic tinnitus. Neuroscience Letters, 586, 60-64. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.11.047

Smith, P. F., Darlington, C. L., & Zheng, Y. (2014). The effects of complete vestibular deafferentation on spatial memory and the hippocampus in rat: The Dunedin experience. Multisensory Research, 28(5-6), 461-485. doi: 10.1163/22134808-00002469

Zheng, Y., Stiles, L., Chien, Y.-T., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2014). The effects of acute stress-induced sleep disturbance on acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. BioMed Research International, 2014, 724195. doi: 10.1155/2014/724195

Zheng, Y., Geddes, L., Sato, G., Stiles, L., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2014). Galvanic vestibular stimulation impairs cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the rat hippocampus but not spatial memory. Hippocampus, 24(5), 541-552. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22247

Hitier, M., Besnard, S., & Smith, P. F. (2014). Vestibular pathways involved in cognition. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8, 59. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2014.00059

Rivers-Auty, J. R., Smith, P. F., & Ashton, J. C. (2014). The cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist GW405833 does not ameliorate brain damage induced by hypoxia-ischemia in rats. Neuroscience Letters, 569, 104-109. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.03.077

Zheng, Y., McPherson, K., & Smith, P. F. (2014). Effects of early and late treatment with L-baclofen on the development and maintenance of tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Neuroscience, 258, 410-421. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.11.032

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2013). Principal component analysis suggests subtle changes in glutamate receptor subunit expression in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neuroscience Letters, 548, 265-268. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.05.036

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2013). From ear to uncertainty: Vestibular contributions to cognitive function. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7, 84. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00084

Zheng, Y., Wilson, G., Stiles, L., & Smith, P. F. (2013). Glutamate receptor subunit and calmodulin kinase II expression, with and without T maze training, in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. PLoS ONE, 8(2), e54527. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054527

Baek, J.-H., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Ashton, J. C. (2013). Antibody testing for brain immunohistochemistry: Brain immunolabeling for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 216(2), 87-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.03.021

Smith, P. F., Ganesh, S., & Liu, P. (2013). A comparison of random forest regression and multiple linear regression for prediction in neuroscience. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 220(1). doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.08.024

Smith, P. F., Haslett, S., & Zheng, Y. (2013). A multivariate statistical and data mining analysis of spatial memory–related behaviour following bilateral vestibular loss in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 246, 15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.02.033

Stiles, L., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). The effects of the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, eticlopride, on attention following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 506(2), 193-197. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.11.003

Zheng, Y., McNamara, E., Stiles, L., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). Evidence that memantine reduces chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 127. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00127

Neo, P., Carter, D., Zheng, Y., Smith, P., Darlington, C., & McNaughton, N. (2012). Septal elicitation of hippocampal theta rhythm did not repair cognitive and emotional deficits resulting from vestibular lesions. Hippocampus, 22(5), 1176-1187. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20963

Stiles, L., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). The D2 dopamine receptor and locomotor hyperactivity following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 227(1), 150-158. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.11.006

Zheng, Y., Vagal, S., McNamara, E., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). A dose–response analysis of the effects of L-baclofen on chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Neuropharmacology, 62, 940-946. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.09.027

Zheng, Y., Balabhadrapatruni, S., Baek, J. H., Chung, P., Gliddon, C., Zhang, M., Darlington, C. L., Napper, R., … Smith, P. F. (2012). The effects of bilateral vestibular loss on hippocampal volume, neuronal number, and cell proliferation in rats. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 20. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00020

Smith, P. F. (2012). Dyscalculia and vestibular function. Medical Hypotheses, 79(4), 493-496. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.06.032

Zheng, Y., Cheung, I., & Smith, P. F. (2012). Performance in anxiety and spatial memory tests following bilateral vestibular loss in the rat and effects of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. Behavioural Brain Research, 235(1), 21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.07.025

Zheng, Y., Hamilton, E., Begum, S., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2011). The effects of acoustic trauma that can cause tinnitus on spatial performance in rats. Neuroscience, 186, 48-56. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.04.052

Zheng, Y., Hamilton, E., McNamara, E., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2011). The effects of chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma on social behaviour and anxiety in rats. Neuroscience, 193, 143-153. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.07.026

Baek, J. H., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2011). Cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression and affinity in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neuroscience Letters, 487(3), 330-334. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.10.050

Zheng, Y., Begum, S., Zhang, C., Fleming, K., Masumura, C., Zhang, M., Smith, P., & Darlington, C. (2011). Increased BrdU incorporation reflecting DNA repair, neuronal de-differentiation or possible neurogenesis in the adult cochlear nucleus following bilateral cochlear lesions in the rat. Experimental Brain Research, 210(3-4), 477-487. doi: 10.1007/s00221-010-2491-0

Zheng, Y., Hamilton, E., Stiles, L., McNamara, E., de Waele, C., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2011). Acoustic trauma that can cause tinnitus impairs impulsive control but not performance accuracy in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Neuroscience, 180, 75-84. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.02.040

Hüfner, K., Strupp, M., Smith, P., Brandt, T., & Jahn, K. (2011). Spatial separation of visual and vestibular processing in the human hippocampal formation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1233, 177-186. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06115.x

Zheng, Y., Balabhadrapatruni, S., Masumura, C., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2011). Effects of the putative cognitive-enhancing ampakine, CX717, on attention and object recognition memory. Current Alzheimer Research, 8(8), 876-882. doi: 10.2174/156720511798192709

Zheng, Y., Masumura, C., Chung, P., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2010). Cell proliferation and survival in the vestibular nucleus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the adult rat. Neuroscience Letters, 468(1), 85-88. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.070

Goddard, M., Smith, P. F., & Ashton, J. C. (2010). Behavioural effects of co-administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol with fluoxetine in rats. Pharmacology, 86(2), 125-128. doi: 10.1159/000317059

Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2010). A possible explanation for dizziness following SSRI discontinuation. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 130, 981-983. doi: 10.3109/00016481003602082

Zheng, Y., Vagal, S., Zhu, X.-X., de Waele, C., Smith, P. F., Wang, G., Zhang, M., & Darlington, C. L. (2010). The effects of the Chinese herbal medicine EMF01 on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128(2), 545-548. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.053

Zheng, Y., Stiles, L., Hamilton, E., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2010). The effects of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940, on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats. Hearing Research, 268(1-2), 145-150. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2010.05.015

Zheng, Y., Mason-Parker, S. E., Logan, B., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Abraham, W. C. (2010). Hippocampal synaptic transmission and LTP in vivo are intact following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Hippocampus, 20(4), 461-468. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20645

Smith, P. F. (2010). New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: Role of cannabinoids. Therapeutics & Clinical Risk Management, 6, 59-63.

Baek, J. H., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2010). Evidence that spatial memory deficits following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rats are probably permanent. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 94(3), 402-413. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2010.08.007

Liu, P., Zhang, H., Devaraj, R., Ganesalingam, G., & Smith, P. F. (2010). A multivariate analysis of the effects of aging on glutamate, GABA and arginine metabolites in the rat vestibular nucleus. Hearing Research, 269(1-2), 122-133. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2010.06.019

Darlington, C. L., Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Anxiety-related behavior and biogenic amine pathways in the rat following bilateral vestibular lesions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1164(1), 134-139. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03725.x

Zheng, Y., Balabhadrapatruni, S., Masumura, C., Munro, O., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Bilateral vestibular deafferentation causes deficits in a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 203, 113-117. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.04.027

Smith, P. F., Brandt, T., Strupp, M., Darlington, C. L., & Zheng, Y. (2009). Balance before reason in rats and humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1164(1), 127-133. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03726.x

Zheng, Y., Goddard, M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Long-term deficits on a foraging task after bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rats. Hippocampus, 19(5), 480-486. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20533

Baek, J. h., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2009). The CB1 receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, dose-dependently disrupts object recognition memory in adult rats. Neuroscience Letters, 464(1), 71-73. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.08.008

Alexander, A., Smith, P. F., & Rosengren, R. J. (2009). Cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer. Cancer Letters, 285(1), 6-12. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.04.005

Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Synaptic protein expression in the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex following chronic bilateral vestibular loss. Hippocampus, 18(5), 440-444. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20416

Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Monoamine transporter and enzyme expression in the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex following chronic bilateral vestibular loss. Neuroscience Letters, 437(2), 107-110. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.03.073

Zheng, Y., Goddard, M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Effects of bilateral vestibular deafferentation on anxiety-related behaviours in Wistar rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 193(1), 55-62. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.018

Smith, P. F. (2008). Inflammation in Parkinson's disease: An update. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 9(5), 478-484.

Baek, J.-H., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in the rat brainstem cochlear and vestibular nuclei. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 128(9), 961-967. doi: 10.1080/00016480701796944

Liu, P., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2008). Glutamate receptor subunits expression in memory-associated brain structures: Regional variations and effects of aging. Synapse, 62, 834-841. doi: 10.1002/syn.20563

Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Locomotor and exploratory behavior in the rat following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(2), 448-459. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.122.2.448

Ashton, J. C., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2008). The effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the extinction of an adverse associative memory. Pharmacology, 81(1), 18-20. doi: 10.1159/000107663

Zheng, Y., Hooton, K., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2008). Carbamazepine reduces the behavioural manifestations of tinnitus following salicylate treatments in rats. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 128(1), 48-52. doi: 10.1080/00016480701361939

Liu, P., Chary, S., Devaraj, R., Jing, Y., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., Tucker, I. G., & Zhang, H. (2008). Effects of aging on agmatine levels in memory-associated brain structures. Hippocampus, 18, 853-856. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20448

Ashton, J. C., & Smith, P. F. (2007). Cannabinoids and cardiovascular disease: The outlook for clinical treatments. Current Vascular Pharmacology, 5(3), 175-184.

Smith, P. F. (2007). Will medicinal cannabinoids prove to be useful clinically? Current Drug Therapy, 2(2), 143-150.

Zheng, Y., Goddard, M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2007). Bilateral vestibular deafferentation impairs performance in a spatial forced alternation task in rats. Hippocampus, 17, 253-256.

Zheng, Y., Baek, J.-H., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2007). Cannabinoid receptor down-regulation in the ventral cochlear nucleus in a salicylate model of tinnitus. Hearing Research, 228, 105-111.

Smith, P. F. (2007). Symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis using cannabinoids: Recent advances. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7(9), 1157-1163.

Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2007). Drug treatments for tinnitus. Progress in Brain Research, 166, 249-262. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6123(07)66023-3

Smith, P. F., Ashton, J. C., & Darlington, C. L. (2006). The endocannabinoid system: A new player in the neurochemical control of vestibular function? Audiology & Neurotology, 11, 207-212.

Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2006). Impairment and recovery on a food foraging task following unilateral vestibular deafferentation in rats. Hippocampus, 16, 368-378.

Zheng, Y., Lee, H. S., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2006). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the cochlear nucleus in a salicylate model of tinnitus. Brain Research, 1123, 201-206.

Ashton, J. C., Friberg, D., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2006). Expression of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the rat cerebellum: An immunohistochemical study. Neuroscience Letters, 396, 113-116.

Fergusson, D. M., Poulton, R., Smith, P. F., & Boden, J. M. (2006). Cannabis and psychosis. BMJ, 332, 172-175. doi: 10.1136/bmj.332.7534.172

Russell, N. A., Horii, A., Smith, P. F., Darlington, C. L., & Bilkey, D. K. (2006). Lesions of the vestibular system disrupt hippocampal theta rhythm in the rat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96, 4-14.

Ashton, J. C., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2006). Co-distribution of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and the 5-HT transporter in the rat amygdale. European Journal of Pharmacology, 537, 70-71.

Zhang, R., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Immunocytochemical and stereological study of glucocorticoid receptors in rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons and the effects of unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 125, 1258-1264.

Ashton, J. C., Little, E., Muir, M., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Mitochondrial ultrastructure and apoptotic protein expression in the vestibular nucleus complex following unilateral labyrinthectomy. Brain Research, 1055, 165-170.

Smith, P. F., Zheng, Y., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Ginkgo biloba extracts for tinnitus: More hype than hope? Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100, 95-99.

Gliddon, C. M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2005). GABAA receptor subunit expression in the guinea pig vestibular nucleus complex during the development of vestibular compensation. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 71-77. doi: 10.1007/s00221-005-2344-4

Brandt, T., Schautzer, F., Hamilton, D. A., Brüning, R., Markowitsch, H. J., Kalla, R., Darlington, C., Smith, P., & Strupp, M. (2005). Vestibular loss causes hippocampal atrophy and impaired spatial memory in humans. Brain, 128(11), 2732-2741. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh617

Zhang, R., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Immunocytochemical and stereological studies of the rat vestibular nucleus: Optimal research methods using glucocorticoid receptors as an example. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 144, 99-106.

Smith, P. F., Zheng, Y., Horii, A., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Does vestibular damage cause cognitive dysfunction in humans? [Review]. Journal of Vestibular Research, 15, 1-9.

Smith, P. F., Horii, A., Russell, N., Bilkey, D. K., Zheng, Y., Liu, P., Kerr, D. S., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). The effects of vestibular lesions on hippocampal function in rats. Progress in Neurobiology, 75, 391-405.

Liu, P., Smith, P. F., Appleton, I., Darlington, C. L., & Bilkey, D. K. (2005). Hippocampal nitric oxide synthase and arginase and age-associated behavioral deficits. Hippocampus, 15, 642-655.

Zhang, R., Ashton, J., Horii, A., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2005). Immunocytochemical and stereological analysis of GABAB receptor subunit expression in the rat vestibular nucleus following unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Brain Research, 1037(1-2), 107-113. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.01.018

Gliddon, C. M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2005). GABAergic systems in the vestibular nucleus and their contribution to vestibular compensation. Progress in Neurobiology, 75, 53-81. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2004.11.001

Lindsay, L., Liu, P., Gliddon, C., Zheng, Y., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor expression in the rat vestibular nucleus and hippocampus following unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Experimental Brain Research, 162, 309-314. doi: 10.1007/s00221-004-2168-7

Ashton, J. C., Khalessi, A., Kapoor, M., Clarkson, A., Sammut, I. A., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2005). Characterization of mitochondrial respiratory chain energetics in the vestibular nucleus complex [Short Communication]. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 125, 422-425.

Smith, P. F. (2005). Cannabinoids as potential anti-epileptic drugs. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 6(7), 680-685.

Smith, P. F. (2005). The safety of cannabinoids for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 4(3), 443-456.

Gliddon, C. M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2005). Effects of chronic infusion of a GABAA receptor agonist or antagonist into the vestibular nuclear complex on vestibular compensation in the guinea pig. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 313(3), 1126-1135. doi: 10.1124/jpet.104.082172

Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2005). Drug treatments for subjective tinnitus: Serendipitous discovery versus rational drug design. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 6(7), 712-716.

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