Constructing the future, remembering the past: The emergence of mental time travel during human development
Do you remember your wedding day? The birth of your first child? What about where you left your keys when you came home from the supermarket or what you need to do tomorrow at work? These kinds of memory tasks are universally familiar to us as adults; in order to function effectively in the world, we frequently reflect on events that have happened in the past and plan for events that we know will happen in the future.
Investigating episodic memory skills in children
We accomplish this kind of mental time travel using a special kind of memory that is commonly referred to as Episodic Memory. Although there is little debate among memory researchers about the cognitive value of episodic memory, there is heated debate about when episodic memory might emerge during the course of human development. At what age do children first show signs of episodic memory skill and how do these skills change as a function of age and experience? When do children begin to use what they have learned in the past to make predictions about similar events in the future?
Examining age-related changes in episodic memory
The goal of our research is to examine age-related changes in episodic memory during childhood and adolescence. We test participants of different ages using a series of experimental procedures that have been developed in our lab (and in others) to measure verbal and nonverbal episodic memory. Our findings have important theoretical implications for current views of memory development and childhood amnesia and important practical implications in settings in which children must rely on their memories, including clinical, legal, and educational contexts.
Recent Journal Articles
Hayne, H., & Jack, F. (2011). Childhood amnesia. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews in Cognitive Science 2(2), 136-145.
Tustin, K., & Hayne, H. (2010). Defining the boundary: Age-related changes in childhood amnesia. Developmental Psychology.
Patterson, T., & Hayne, H. (2011). Does drawing facilitate older children’s reports of emotionally laden events? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 46(5) 1049-1061.
Strange, D., Van Papendrecht, H.H., Crawford, E., Candel, I., & Hayne, H. (2010). Size doesn’t matter: Emotional content does not determine the size of objects in children’s drawings. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 16, 459-476 25(1), 119-126.
Candel, I., Hayne, H., Strange, D., & Prevoo, E. (2009). The effect of suggestion on children’s recognition memory for seen and unseen details. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 15, 29-39.
Sugrue, K., Strange, D., & Hayne, H. (2009). False memories in the DRM paradigm: Age-related differences in lure activation and source monitoring. Experimental Psychology, 56, 354-360.
Jack, F., MacDonald, S., Reese, E., & Hayne, H. (2009). Maternal reminiscing style during early childhood predicts the age of adolescents’ earliest memories. Child Development, 80, 496-505.
Gross, J., Hayne, H., & Drury, T. (2009). Drawing facilitates children’s reports of factual and narrative information: Implications for educational contexts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 953-971.
Strange, D., Wade, K., & Hayne, H. (2008). Creating false memories for events that occurred before versus after the offset of childhood amnesia. Memory, 16, 475-484.
Davis, N., Gross, J., & Hayne, H. (2008). Defining the boundary of childhood amnesia. Memory, 16, 465-474.
Strange, D., Hayne, H., & Garry, M. (2008). A photo, a suggestion, a false memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 587-603.
Reese, E., Hayne, H., & MacDonald, S. (2008). Looking back to the future: Maori and Pakeha mother-child birth stories. Child Development, 79, 114-125.
Jack, F., & Hayne, H. (2007). Eliciting adults’ earliest memories: Does it matter how we ask the question? Memory, 15, 647-663.
Morgan, K., & Hayne, H. (2007). Nonspecific verbal cues alleviate forgetting by young children. Developmental Science, 10, 727-733.
Richmond, J., Colombo, M., & Hayne, H. (2007). Interpreting visual preferences in the visual paired-comparison task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 823-831.
Richardson, R., & Hayne, H. (2007). You can’t take it with you: The translation of memory across development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 223-227.
Herbert, H., Gross, J., & Hayne, H. (2007). Crawling is associated with more flexible memory retrieval by 9-month-old infants. Developmental Science, 10, 183-189.
Morgan, K., & Hayne, H. (2006). The effect of encoding time on retention by infants and young children. Infant Behavior & Development, 29, 599-602.
Hayne, H., Garry, M., & Loftus, E.F. (2006). On the continuing lack of scientific evidence for repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 521-522.
Franz, E.A., & Hayne, H. (2006). The preservation of academic freedom: Tenure is not enough. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 576-577.
Herbert, H., Gross, J., & Hayne, H. (2006). Age-related changes in deferred imitation between 6- and 9-months of age. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 136-139.
Sugrue, K., & Hayne, H. (2006). False memories in children and adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 625-631.
Willcock, E., Morgan, K., & Hayne, H. (2006). Body maps do not facilitate children’s reports of touch. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 607-615.
Zajac, R., & Hayne, H. (2006). The negative effect of cross-examination style questioning on children’s accuracy: Older children are not immune. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 3-16.
Morgan, K., & Hayne, H. (2006). Age-related changes in memory reactivation by 1- and 2-year-old human infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 48-57.
Recent Book Chapters
Hayne, H., & Tustin, K. (in press). Infants and young children as sources of information about their own lives. In A. Ben-Arieh, J. Cashmore, G.S. Goodman, & G.B. Melton, (Eds.), Children in childhood: A research handbook. London: Sage.
Reese, E., Chen, Y., Jack, F., & Hayne, H. (2010). Emerging identities: Narrative and self from early childhood to early adolescence. In K. McLean & M. Pasupathi (Eds.), Narrative development in adolescence (pp 23-44). New York: Springer.
Colombo, M., & Hayne, H. (2010). Episodic memory: Comparative and developmental issues. In M.S. Blumberg, J.H. Freeman, & S.R. Robinson (Eds.), Oxford handbook of developmental behavioral neuroscience (pp 617-636). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zajac, R., & Hayne, H. (2009). The impact of cross-examination on eyewitness accounts. In A. Jamieson & A. Moenssens (Eds.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons.
Hayne, H., & Simcock, G. (2009). Memory development in toddlers. In M.L. Courage & N. Cowan (Eds.), The development of memory in infancy and childhood (2nd Edn, pp 43-68). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Hayne, H., & Richmond, J. (2008). Memory. In M.M. Haith & J.B. Benson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of infant and early childhood development (Vol. 2, pp. 290-301). Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.
Loftus, E.F., Garry, M., & Hayne, H. (2008). Repressed and recovered memory. In S.T. Fiske & E. Borgida (Eds.), Psychological science in court: Beyond common knowledge (pp. 177-194). Boston: Blackwell Publishers.
Hayne, H. (2007). Infant memory development: New questions, new answers. In L. Oakes & P. Bauer (Eds.), Short- and long-term memory in infancy and early childhood: Taking the first steps toward remembering (pp. 209-239). New York: Oxford University Press.
Hayne, H. (2007). Verbal recall of preverbal memories. In M. Garry & H. Hayne (Eds.), Do justice and let the sky fall: Elizabeth F. Loftus and her contributions to science, law, and academic freedom (pp. 79-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hayne, H. (2006). The developmental psychology of autobiographical memory. In H. Welzer & H. Markowitsch (Eds.), Gedachtnis interdisziplinar (pp. 206-224). Stuttgart, Germany: Klett-Cotta.
Gross, J., Hayne, H., & Poole, A. (2006). The use of drawing in interviews with children: A potential pitfall. In J.R. Marrow (Ed.), Focus on child psychology research (pp. 119-144). New York: Nova Publishers.
Hayne, H. (2006). Age-related changes in infant memory retrieval: Implications for knowledge acquisition. In Y. Munakata & M.H. Johnson (Eds.), Processes of change in brain and cognitive development. Attention and Performance XXI (pp. 209-231). New York: Oxford University Press.