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Sir John Walsh Research Institute researcher profile

Dr Carolina Loch Santos Da Silva

PositionLecturer
DepartmentDepartment of Oral Sciences
QualificationsBSc MSc PhD
Research summaryOral Biology

Research

My research is focused on evolutionary oral biology and comparative dental morphology, mainly using animal teeth to gather a wide range of information about the biology, evolution and interactions with the environment of fossil and recent species. Comparative dental anatomy and ultrastructure are some of the key components of my research.

I am also interested in dental hard tissues processing and analyses using modern analytical techniques such as electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, geochemical analysis and micro-computed tomography.

Additional details

I am part of the Craniofacial Biology and Biomechanics and Oral Implantology Programmes of the SJWRI. I have worked in collaboration with Prof. Paul Brunton, Dr. Don Schwass, Prof. Warwick Duncan, among others. A few of my recent research projects spanned from the biomechanics of the human jaw and development of dental appliances in the interface of oral and general health, to the laboratory testing and characterisation of new dental materials.

In 2013 I concluded a multidisciplinary PhD on the "Morphology, function and evolution of teeth in fossil and modern Odontocetes (Cetacea)" in the Department of Geology and the Faculty of Dentistry. The research was supervised by Prof Ewan Fordyce (Geology) and the late Prof Jules Kieser (SJWRI), who was one of the most inspiring and influential figures in my academic formation.

Previous to my PhD, I completed a BSc in Biology and a MSc in Zoology in my home country, Brazil. In addition to the joys of science, I am also interested in martial arts, football, Latin American cultures, tramping and travelling.

@LochCarolina

Publications

Werth, A. J., Loch, C., & Fordyce, R. E. (2019). Enamel microstructure in Cetacea: A case study in evolutionary loss of complexity. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10914-019-09484-7

Abd Aziz, S., Kuan, S., Jin, E., Loch, C., & Thomson, W. M. (2019). Do as I say and not as I do? New Zealand dentists’ oral health practices and advice to patients. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 1-11. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/03036758.2019.1656649

Veerasamy, A., Loch, C., Adam, L., & Brunton, P. A. (2019). Graduate mobility: Where do dentistry graduates choose to practice? European Journal of Dental Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/eje.12448

Loch, C., Buono, M. R., Kaithoff, D. C., Mörs, T., & Fernández, M. S. (2019). Enamel microstructure in Eocene cetaceans from Antarctica (Archaeoceti and Mysticeti). Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10914-018-09456-3

Loch, C., Liaw, Y., Pg Metussin, A., Lynch, C., Wilson, N., Blum, I. R., & Brunton, P. A. (2019). The teaching of posterior composites: A survey of dental schools in Oceania. Journal of Dentistry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2019.01.005

Journal - Research Article

Werth, A. J., Loch, C., & Fordyce, R. E. (2019). Enamel microstructure in Cetacea: A case study in evolutionary loss of complexity. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10914-019-09484-7

Loch, C., Liaw, Y., Pg Metussin, A., Lynch, C., Wilson, N., Blum, I. R., & Brunton, P. A. (2019). The teaching of posterior composites: A survey of dental schools in Oceania. Journal of Dentistry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2019.01.005

Loch, C., Buono, M. R., Kaithoff, D. C., Mörs, T., & Fernández, M. S. (2019). Enamel microstructure in Eocene cetaceans from Antarctica (Archaeoceti and Mysticeti). Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10914-018-09456-3

Veerasamy, A., Loch, C., Adam, L., & Brunton, P. A. (2019). Graduate mobility: Where do dentistry graduates choose to practice? European Journal of Dental Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/eje.12448

Abd Aziz, S., Kuan, S., Jin, E., Loch, C., & Thomson, W. M. (2019). Do as I say and not as I do? New Zealand dentists’ oral health practices and advice to patients. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 1-11. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/03036758.2019.1656649

Brunton, P. A., Ratnayake, J., Loch, C., Veerasamy, A., Cathro, P., & Lee, R. (2019). Indirect restorations and fixed prosthodontics: Materials and techniques used by general dentists of New Zealand. International Journal of Dentistry, 2019, 5210162. doi: 10.1155/2019/5210162

Loch, C., Ratnayake, J., Veerasamy, A., Cathro, P., Lee, R., & Brunton, P. A. (2019). Direct restorations, endodontics, and bleaching: Materials and techniques used by general dentists of New Zealand. International Journal of Dentistry, 2019, 6327171. doi: 10.1155/2019/6327171

Bērziņš, K., Sutton, J. J., Loch, C., Beckett, D., Wheeler, B. J., Drummond, B. K., Fraser-Miller, S. J., & Gordon, K. C. (2019). Application of low‐wavenumber Raman spectroscopy to the analysis of human teeth. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/jrs.5648

Duncan, W. J., Greer, P. F. C., Lee, M.-H., Loch, C., & Gay, J. H. A. (2018). Wool-derived keratin hydrogel enhances implant osseointegration in cancellous bone. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, 106(6), 2447-2454. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.34047

Lee, R. J., Ratnayake, J., Veerasamy, A., Loch, C., Cathro, P., & Brunton, P. A. (2018). Demographics, practising arrangements, and standards: Survey among New Zealand dentists. International Journal of Dentistry, 2018, 7675917. doi: 10.1155/2018/7675917

Rovaris, K., Sousa Melo, S. L., Queiroz, P. M., Loch, C., Schwass, D. R., & Haiter-Neto, F. (2018). Beam hardening correction tool improves the diagnosis of incipient caries lesions in Micro-CT images. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1259/dmfr.20180123

Brunton, P. A., Loch, C., Waddell, J. N., Bodansky, H. J., Hall, R., & Gray, A. (2018). Estimation of jaw-opening forces in adults. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, 21(1), 57-62. doi: 10.1111/ocr.12215

Veerasamy, A., Loch, C., Adam, L., Howe, B. J., & Brunton, P. A. (2018). Challenges in clinical teaching investigated: Towards sustainable staff recruitment and retention in dentistry. European Journal of Dental Education, 22(4), 234-242. doi: 10.1111/eje.12336

Loch, C., Grando, L. J., Meurer, M. I., Zastrow, M., Fernandes, A., & Simões-Lopes, P. C. (2017). Radiographic assessment of dental pathology and abnormalities in dolphins. Zoological Science, 34(4), 295-299. doi: 10.2108/zs160151

Jett, J., Visser, I. N., Ventre, J., Waltz, J., & Loch, C. (2017). Tooth damage in captive orcas (Orcinus orca). Archives of Oral Biology, 84, 151-160. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.031

Brunton, P. A., Ghazali, A., Tarif, Z. H., Loch, C., Lynch, C., Wilson, N., & Blum, I. R. (2017). Repair vs replacement of direct composite restorations: A survey of teaching and operative techniques in Oceania. Journal of Dentistry, 59, 62-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.02.010

Kabaliuk, N., Nejati, A., Loch, C., Schwass, D., Cater, J. E., & Jermy, M. C. (2017). Strategies for segmenting the upper airway in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) data. Open Journal of Medical Imaging, 7(4), 196-219. doi: 10.4236/ojmi.2017.74019

Kim, K. H., Loch, C., Waddell, J. N., Tompkins, G., & Schwass, D. (2017). Surface characteristics and biofilm development on selected dental ceramic materials. International Journal of Dentistry, 2017, 7627945. doi: 10.1155/2017/7627945

Vianna, T. D. S., Loch, C., de Castilho, P. V., Gaidzinski, M. C., Cremer, M. J., & Simões-Lopes, P. C. (2016). Review of thirty-two years of toothed whale strandings in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (Cetacea: Odontoceti). Zoologia, 33(5), e20160089. doi: 10.1590/S1984-4689zool-20160089

Loch, C., Boessenecker, R. W., Churchill, M., & Kieser, J. (2016). Enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: Evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos. Science of Nature, 103(5-6), 44. doi: 10.1007/s00114-016-1366-z

Duncan, W. J., Gay, J. H. A., Lee, M.-H., Bae, T.-S., Lee, S.-J., & Loch, C. (2016). The effect of hydrothermal spark discharge anodization in the early integration of implants in sheep sinuses. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 27(8), 975-980. doi: 10.1111/clr.12741

Loch, C., & Jansen van Vuuren, L. (2016). Ultrastructure, biomechanical and chemical properties of the vestigial dentition of a Cuvier's beaked whale. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 43(2), 171-178. doi: 10.1080/03014223.2015.1133666

Costa, A. P. B., Loch, C., & Simões-Lopes, P. C. (2016). Variations and anomalies in the vertebral column of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from southern Brazil. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 11(1-2), 212-219. doi: 10.5597/lajam00230

Loch, C., Kieser, J. A., & Fordyce, R. E. (2015). Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti). PLoS ONE, 10(1), e0116557. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116557

Jansen van Vuuren, L., Loch, C., Kieser, J. A., Gordon, K. C., & Fraser, S. J. (2015). Structure and mechanical properties of normal and anomalous teeth in the sand tiger shark Carharias taurus. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 3(2), 29-36.

Drehmer, C. J., Sanfelice, D., & Loch, C. (2015). Dental anomalies in pinnipeds (Carnivora: Otariidae and Phocidae): Occurrence and evolutionary implications. Zoomorphology, 134(2), 325-338. doi: 10.1007/s00435-015-0255-x

Duncan, W. J., Lee, M.-H., Bae, T.-S., Lee, S.-J., Gay, J., & Loch, C. (2015). Anodisation increases integration of unloaded titanium implants in sheep mandible. BioMed Research International, 2015, 85969. doi: 10.1155/2015/857969

Loch, C., Swain, M. V., Fraser, S. J., Gordon, K. C., Kieser, J. A., & Fordyce, R. E. (2014). Elemental and chemical characterization of dolphin enamel and dentine using X-ray and Raman microanalyses (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea). Journal of Structural Biology, 185(1), 58-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2013.11.006

Loch, C., Grando, L. J., Schwass, D. R., Kieser, J. A., Fordyce, R. E., & Simões-Lopes, P. C. (2013). Dental erosion in South Atlantic dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae): A macro and microscopic approach. Marine Mammal Science, 29(2), 338-347. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00562.x

Loch, C., Duncan, W., Simões-Lopes, P. C., Kieser, J. A., & Fordyce, R. E. (2013). Ultrastructure of enamel and dentine in extant dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea). Zoomorphology, 132(2), 215-225. doi: 10.1007/s00435-012-0180-1

Loch, C., Swain, M. V., Jansen van Vuuren, L., Kieser, J. A., & Fordyce, R. E. (2013). Mechanical properties of dental tissues in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea). Archives of Oral Biology, 58(7), 773-779. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.12.003

Loch, C., Schwass, D. R., Kieser, J. A., & Fordyce, R. E. (2013). Use of micro-computed tomography for dental studies in modern and fossil odontocetes: Potential applications and limitations. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 10. doi: 10.7557/3.2616

Loch, C., & Simões-Lopes, P. C. (2013). Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil. Archives of Oral Biology, 58(2), 134-141. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.08.002

Loch, C., Grando, L. J., Kieser, J. A., & Simões-Lopes, P. (2011). Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 94(3), 225-234. doi: 10.3354/dao02339

Loch, C., Simões-Lopes, P. C., & Drehmer, C. J. (2010). Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae). Zoologia, 27(3), 477-482. doi: 10.1590/S1984-46702010005000001

Loch, C., Marmontel, M., & Simões-Lopes, P. C. (2009). Conflicts with fisheries and intentional killing of freshwater dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti) in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity & Conservation, 18(14), 3979-3988. doi: 10.1007/s10531-009-9693-4

Drehmer, C. J., Dornelles, J. E. F., & Loch, C. (2009). Variações na fórmula dentária de Otaria byronia (Blainville)(Pinnipedia, Otariidae) no Pacífico: registro de um novo tipo de anomalia [Variations in dental formula of Otaria byronia Blainville (Pinnipedia, Otariidae) in the Pacific: Record of a new type of anomaly]. Neotropical Biology & Conservation, 4(1), 28-35.

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Journal - Research Other

Loch, C. (2013). [Review of the book Return to the sea: The life and evolutionary times of marine mammals]. Marine Mammal Science, 29(1), 236-237. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00619.x

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