Accessibility Skip to Global Navigation Skip to Local Navigation Skip to Content Skip to Search Skip to Site Map Menu

Kristie Carter, Department of Public Health

Kristie-Carter

BA, Dip Sci, MSc, PhD

Research Fellow; HIRP

Contact details 

Tel  64 4 385 5541 ext 4617
Fax  64 4 389 5319
Email  kristie.carter@otago.ac.nz

Research interests and activities 

Kristie's main research interests are around the ethnic and socio-economic determinants of health and the implications of epidemiological research on policy decision making. She is also interested in psychological outcomes and longitudinal and epidemiological methods.

Her research focus is as the Principal Investigator of the SoFIE-Health study, a longitudinal Survey of Families, Income and Employment run through Statistics NZ and funded by the Health Research Council.

Kristie's PhD thesis was on trends and ethnic disparities in the incidence and outcome of stroke and was supported by an HRC Pacific Postgraduate Scholarship. The data spanned over 20 years in Auckland. In 2000, she worked as a Biostatistician at the Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Auckland. Consequently, she worked as a research fellow on the Auckland Regional Community Stroke (ARCOS) study, funded by the Health Research Council.

^ Top of page

Publications

Carter, K., Filoche, S., & McKenzie, S. (2017). Alcohol and young people: A descriptive analysis of changes in alcohol use in young New Zealanders from 2004 to 2009. Commissioned by Health Promotion Agency. Wellington, New Zealand. 72p.

Carter, K., Filoche, S., & McKenzie, S. (2017). Alcohol and young people: A review of New Zealand and other international literature. Commissioned by Health Promotion Agency. Wellington, New Zealand. 82p.

Pierse, N., Carter, K., Bierre, S., Law, D., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2016). Examining the role of tenure, household crowding and housing affordability on psychological distress, using longitudinal data. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 70(10), 961-966. doi: 10.1136/jech-2015-206716

Pega, F., Blakely, T., Glymour, M. M., Carter, K. N., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Using marginal structural modeling to estimate the cumulative impact of an unconditional tax credit on self-rated health. American Journal of Epidemiology, 183(4), 315-324. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv211

Breheny, M., Stephens, C., Henricksen, A., Stevenson, B., Carter, K., & Alpass, F. (2016). Measuring living standards of older people using Sen's Capability Approach: Development and validation of the LSCAPE-24 (Living Standards Capabilities for Elders) and LSCAPE-6. Ageing & Society, 36(2), 307-332. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X14001160

Journal - Research Article

Pierse, N., Carter, K., Bierre, S., Law, D., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2016). Examining the role of tenure, household crowding and housing affordability on psychological distress, using longitudinal data. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 70(10), 961-966. doi: 10.1136/jech-2015-206716

Breheny, M., Stephens, C., Henricksen, A., Stevenson, B., Carter, K., & Alpass, F. (2016). Measuring living standards of older people using Sen's Capability Approach: Development and validation of the LSCAPE-24 (Living Standards Capabilities for Elders) and LSCAPE-6. Ageing & Society, 36(2), 307-332. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X14001160

Pega, F., Blakely, T., Glymour, M. M., Carter, K. N., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Using marginal structural modeling to estimate the cumulative impact of an unconditional tax credit on self-rated health. American Journal of Epidemiology, 183(4), 315-324. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv211

Ivory, V. C., Blakely, T., Richardson, K., Thomson, G., & Carter, K. (2015). Do changes in neighborhood and household levels of smoking and deprivation result in changes in individual smoking behavior? A large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 182(5), 431-440. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv097

Ikeda, T., Cobiac, L., Wilson, N., Carter, K., & Blakely, T. (2015). What will it take to get to under 5% smoking prevalence by 2025? Modelling in a country with a smokefree goal. Tobacco Control, 24(2), 139-145. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051196

McKenzie, S. K., Imlach Gunasekara, F., Richardson, K., & Carter, K. (2014). Do changes in socioeconomic factors lead to changes in mental health? Findings from three waves of a population based panel study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 68, 253-260. doi: 10.1136/jech-2013-203013

Blakely, T., van der Deen, F. S., Woodward, A., Kawachi, I., & Carter, K. (2014). Do changes in income, deprivation, labour force status and family status influence smoking behaviour over the short run? Panel study of 15 000 adults. Tobacco Control, 23(e2), e106-e113. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050944

van der Deen, F. S., Carter, K. N., McKenzie, S. K., & Blakely, T. (2014). Do changes in social and economic factors lead to changes in drinking behavior in young adults? Findings from three waves of a population based panel study. BMC Public Health, 14, 928. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-928

Pega, F., Carter, K., Kawachi, I., Davis, P., & Blakely, T. (2014). The impact of an unconditional tax credit for families on self-rated health in adults: Further evidence from the cohort study of 6900 New Zealanders. Social Science & Medicine, 108, 115-119. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.03.002

Gunasekara, F. I., Richardson, K., Carter, K., & Blakely, T. (2014). Fixed effects analysis of repeated measures data. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(1), 264-269. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt221

Carter, K. N., van der Deen, F. S., Wilson, N., & Blakeley, T. (2014). Smoking uptake is associated with increased psychological distress: Results of a national longitudinal study. Tobacco Control, 23(1), 33-38. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050614

Collings, S., Jenkin, G., Carter, K., & Signal, L. (2014). Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(5), 811-821. doi: 10.1007/s00127-013-0796-6

Imlach Gunasekara, F., Carter, K., & McKenzie, S. (2013). Income-related health inequalities in working age men and women in Australia and New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(3), 211-217. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12061

Pega, F., Carter, K., Kawachi, I., Davis, P., Imlach Gunasekara, F., Lundberg, O., & Blakely, T. (2013). The impact of in-work tax credit for families on self-rated health in adults: A cohort study of 6900 New Zealanders. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 67, 682-688. doi: 10.1136/jech-2012-202300

Pega, F., Carter, K., Blakely, T., & Lucas, P. J. (2013). In-work tax credits for families and their impact on health status in adults (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, CD009963. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009963.pub2

Breheny, M., Stephens, C., Alpass, F., Stevenson, B., Carter, K., & Yeung, P. (2013). Development and validation of a measure of living standards for older people. Social Indicators Research, 114(3), 1035-1048. doi: 10.1007/s11205-012-0188-4

Carter, K. N., Imlach Gunasekara, F., Blakely, T., & Richardson, K. (2013). Health shocks adversely impact participation in the labour force in a working age population: A longitudinal analysis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(3), 257-263. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12068

Signal, L. N., Walton, M. D., Ni Mhurchu, C., Maddison, R., Bowers, S. G., Carter, K. N., … Lanumata, T. S., McKerchar, C. W., O'Dea, D., & Pearce, J. (2013). Tackling 'wicked' health promotion problems: A New Zealand case study. Health Promotion International, 28(1), 84-94. doi: 10.1093/heapro/das006

Carter, K., Imlach Gunasekara, F., & Blakely, T. (2013). The relationship between trends in income inequalities and poverty in New Zealand. Policy Quarterly, 9(2), 24-29.

McKenzie, S. K., & Carter, K. (2013). Does transition into parenthood lead to changes in mental health? Findings from three waves of a population based panel study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 67(4), 339-345. doi: 10.1136/jech-2012-201765

Edwards, R., Carter, K., Peace, J., & Blakely, T. (2013). An examination of smoking initiation rates by age: Results from a large longitudinal study in New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(6), 516-519. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12105

Gunasekara, F. I., Carter, K. N., Crampton, P., & Blakely, T. (2013). Income and individual deprivation as predictors of health over time. International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 501-511. doi: 10.1007/s00038-013-0450-9

Blakely, T., McKenzie, S., & Carter, K. (2013). Misclassification of the mediator matters when estimating indirect effects. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 67, 458-466. doi: 10.1136/jech-2012-201813

Gunasekara, F. I., Carter, K., & Blakely, T. (2012). Comparing self-rated health and self-assessed change in health in a longitudinal survey: Which is more valid? Social Science & Medicine, 74(7), 1117-1124. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.038

Pega, F., Blakely, T., Carter, K., & Sjöberg, O. (2012). The explanation of a paradox? A commentary on Mackenbach with perspectives from research on financial credits and risk factor trends. Social Science & Medicine, 75(4), 770-773. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.03.052

Blakely, T., Soeberg, M., Carter, K., Costilla, R., Atkinson, J., & Sarfati, D. (2012). Bias in relative survival methods when using incorrect life-tables: Lung and bladder cancer by smoking status and ethnicity in New Zealand. International Journal of Cancer, 131(6), E974-E982. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27531

Gunasekara, F. I., Carter, K. N., Liu, I., Richardson, K., & Blakely, T. (2012). The relationship between income and health using longitudinal data from New Zealand. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66(6), e12. doi: 10.1136/jech.2010.125021

Carter, K. N., Imlach-Gunasekara, F., McKenzie, S. K., & Blakely, T. (2012). Differential loss of participants does not necessarily cause selection bias. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(3), 218-222. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2012.00867.x

van der Deen, F. S., Carter, K. N., Wilson, N., & Collings, S. (2011). The association between failed quit attempts and increased levels of psychological distress in smokers in a large New Zealand cohort. BMC Public Health, 11, 598. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-598

McNaughton, H., Feigin, V., Kerse, N., Barber, P. A., Weatherall, M., Bennett, D., Carter, K., … on behalf of the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study Group. (2011). Ethnicity and functional outcome after stroke. Stroke, 42(4), 960-964. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.605139

Gunasekara, F. I., Carter, K., & Blakely, T. (2011). Change in income and change in self-rated health: Systematic review of studies using repeated measures to control for confounding bias. Social Science & Medicine, 72(2), 193-201. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.10.029

Carter, K. N., Kruse, K., Blakely, T., & Collings, S. (2011). The association of food security with psychological distress in New Zealand and any gender differences. Social Science & Medicine, 72(9), 1463-1471. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.03.009

Mckenzie, S. K., Carter, K. N., Blakely, T., & Ivory, V. (2011). Effects of childhood socioeconomic position on subjective health and health behaviours in adulthood: How much is mediated by adult socioeconomic position? BMC Public Health, 11, 269. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-269

Carter, K. N., Shaw, C., Collings, S., Blakely, T., & Richardson, K. (2011). The SoFIE-Health study: Are the results comparable to the New Zealand population? Australasian Epidemiologist, 18(1), 26-32.

Heeley, E. L., Wei, J. W., Carter, K., Islam, M. S., Thrift, A. G., Hankey, G. J., … Anderson, C. S. (2011). Socioeconomic disparities in stroke rates and outcome: Pooled analysis of stroke incidence studies in Australia and New Zealand. Medical Journal of Australia, 195(1), 10-14.

Carter, K., Shaw, C., Hayward, M., & Blakely, T. (2010). Understanding the determinants of consent for linkage of administrative health data with a longitudinal survey. Kōtuitui, 5(2), 53-60. doi: 10.1080/1177083X.2010.516440

McKenzie, S., & Carter, K. (2010). Measuring Whānau: A review of longitudinal studies in New Zealand. MAI Review, 3. Retrieved from http://www.review.mai.ac.nz/index.php/MR/issue/view/17

Carter, K. N., Blakely, T., & Soeberg, M. (2010). Trends in survival and life expectancy by ethnicity, income and smoking in New Zealand: 1980s to 2000s. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1320). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1320/4263/content.pdf

Carter, K., Barber, P. A., & Shaw, C. (2010). How does self-reported history of stroke compare to hospitalization data in a population-based survey in New Zealand? Stroke, 41, 2678-2680. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.598268

Blakely, T., Carter, K., Wilson, N., Edwards, R., Woodward, A., Thomson, G., & Sarfati, D. (2010). If nobody smoked tobacco in New Zealand from 2020 onwards, what effect would this have on ethnic inequalities in life expectancy? New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1320). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1320/4264/content.pdf

McKenzie, S. K., Carter, K., Blakely, T., & Collings, S. (2010). The association of childhood socio-economic position and psychological distress in adulthood: Is it mediated by adult socio-economic position? Longitudinal & Life Course Studies, 1(4), 339-358.

Carter, K. N., Lanumata, T., Kruse, K., & Gorton, D. (2010). What are the determinants of food insecurity in New Zealand and does this differ for males and females? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34(6), 602-608. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00615.x

Cunningham, R., Carter, K., Connor, J., & Fawcett, J. (2010). Does health status matter for the risk of injury? New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1327/4479/content.pdf

Carter, K. N., Cronin, M., Blakely, T., Hayward, M., & Richardson, K. (2009). Cohort profile: Survey of Families, Income and Employment (SoFIE) and health extension (SoFIE-health). International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 653-659. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyp215

Carter, K. N., Blakely, T., Collings, S., Gunasekara, F. I., & Richardson, K. (2009). What is the association between wealth and mental health? Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 63(3), 221-226. doi: 10.1136/jech.2008.079483

Carter, K. N., Hayward, M., Blakely, T., & Shaw, C. (2009). How much and for whom does self-identified ethnicity change over time in New Zealand? Results from a longitudinal study. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 36, 32-45.

Islam, M. S., Anderson, C. S., Hankey, G. J., Hardie, K., Carter, K., Broadhurst, R., & Jamrozik, K. (2008). Trends in incidence and outcome of stroke in Perth, Western Australia during 1989 to 2001: The Perth Community Stroke Study. Stroke, 39, 776-782. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.493643

Islam, S., Carter, K., Ni Mhurchu, C., & Anderson, C. S. (2007). Selenium and zinc in hair and toenails in relation to the physical and mental health status of older adults: The Freemasons Health study in New Zealand. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 26(4), 180-186. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-6612.2007.00252.x

Carter, K. N., Anderson, C. S., Hackett, M. L., Barber, P. A., Bonita, R., for the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study Group. (2007). Improved survival after stroke: Is admission to hospital the major explanation? Trend analyses of the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23, 162-168. doi: 10.1159/000097054

Tobias, M., Cheung, J., Carter, K., Anderson, C., & Feigin, V. L. (2007). Stroke surveillance: Population-based estimates and projections for New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 31(6), 520-525. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2007.00136.x

More publications...