Viva l'Italia: A Regional Romp through Italy

Italy – what dreams and romantic longings the name conjures up. Florence, Venice, Rome – landmarks of European history and civilization. The country of Caesar, Cicero, Horace, and Virgil: the land which gave birth to Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso. The list would be endless if it also encompassed ‘modern' day celebrities such as Giuseppe Verdi, Enrico Fermi, Sofia Loren, Giorgio Armani, Dino Zoff (considered the best goalkeeper in the history of football), and the controversial Silvio Berlusconi. Renowned for its architecture, its complex historical past, its literature, fashion, and cuisine, Italy is now sub-divided into 20 regions, where most speak Italian (a Florentine variety of Tuscan).

Viva l'Italia. A Regional Romp through Italy is an exhibition constructed around images of Italian cities from a 17th century copy of Pietro Bertelli'sTheatro delle Citta d'Italia (1629). By utilising these images, the viewer ‘romps' through the various regions of the country cabinet by cabinet, from Piedmont in the north, to Puglia in the southeast, Sardinia in the west, and Sicily in the southwest. The Republic (formed in 1946) encompasses some 301,338 kilometres.

Although by necessity selective, the exhibition displays some wonderful books, primarily from the collections of Esmond de Beer and Charles Brasch, who both thoroughly enjoyed what Italy offered to the world. Notable items include: William Thomas' The Historie of Italie (1549);Pietro Bertelli's Theatro delle Citta d'Italia (1629);Thomas Martyn's The Gentleman's Guide in his Tour through Italy (1787);

Alexandre de Rogissart's Les Delices de l'Italie (1706);Henry Kipping's Antiquitatum Romanarum, Libri Quatuor (1713);and Jean-Jacques Boissard's Pars Romanae Urbis Topographiae &Antiquitatum (1597). Modern publications such as D. H. Lawrence's Sea and Sardinia (1921) and Samuel Butler's Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino (1923) also feature. Interspersed are Italian recipes, carnival characters, and works by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (not scanned for the on-line exhibition).

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Introduction

A Picture of Italy: being a Guide to the Antiquities and Curiosities ... to which are prefixed, Directions to Travellers

A Picture of Italy: being a Guide to the Antiquities and Curiosities ... to which are prefixed, Directions to Travellers

From Piedmont in the north, to Puglia in the southeast, Sardinia in the west, and Sicily in the southwest, the area covered by the Italian republic (established 1946) is some 301,338 kilometres. This includes enclaves such as the Vatican City, and Campione d’Italia in Switzerland. In 2012, the population of this European country was 60 million, with Rome registering 2,641,930. Renowned for its architecture, literature, fashion, and cuisine, Italy is now sub-divided into 20 regions, where most speak Italian (a Florentine variety of Tuscan). Although Catholicism is no longer the state religion, a high proportion of Italians identify with the Church. This colourful map from Henry Coxe’s A Picture of Italy (1815) depicts the familiar ‘boot and ball’ of Italy in 1815, the year Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated. The map does not reflect the changes ‘restored’ by the Congress of Vienna (June 1815); Genoa is still separated and not annexed to Sardinia; and Venice is still outside the so-called ‘new kingdom’ of the Austrian Empire.

Henry Coxe, A Picture of Italy: being a Guide to the Antiquities and Curiosities ... to which are prefixed, Directions to Travellers. London: Sherwood, Neeley & Jones, 1815. de Beer Eb 1815 C

Italy: 225 Pictures in Photogravure

Italy: 225 Pictures in Photogravure

Italy – what dreams and romantic longings the name conjures up. Florence, Venice, Rome – landmarks of European history and civilization. The country of Caesar, Cicero, Horace, and Virgil: the land which gave birth to Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso. The list would be endless if it encompassed ‘modern’ day celebrities such as Giuseppe Verdi, Enrico Fermi, Sofia Loren, Giorgio Armani, Dino Zoff (considered the best goalkeeper in the history of football), and the controversial Silvio Berlusconi. The richness of Italy’s past is captured in this work by the award-winning Swiss photographer Martin Hürlimann.

Martin Hürlimann, Italy: 225 Pictures in Photogravure. London: Thames and Hudson, 1953. Brasch DG420 HY67

The Historie of Italie

The Historie of Italie

William Thomas (d. 1544) spent some five years in Italy, a country, according to him, that led Europe in the arts of civility. He praised cities such as Padua, Ferrara, and Pisa, and encouraged others to visit and study there. Not only did Thomas compile the first Italian grammar in English (1550), but he produced his Historie of Italie (1549), which was suppressed and publically burnt after his execution for treason in May 1544. In his account of the then chief Italian states, he praises various ‘Commodities’. Some of the tempters include: fine bread, good wines (both strong and small), flesh (of all sorts wild and tame), fowl (water and land), fish, and delicate fruits, which are seemingly so good that they could turn one into a vegetarian.

William Thomas, The Historie of Italie. London: Thomas Berthelet, 1549. de Beer Eb 1549 T

Theatro delle Citta d’Italia

Theatro delle Citta d’Italia

The borders between countries may change, but the city and its topography remain fixed – a stable point of reference. The Paduan-based copper engraver, etcher and publisher Francesco Bertelli was one of many who produced map books for local and international visitors. This publication contains 78 town-plans of Italian cities, wonderful ‘bird’s-eye’ views of places you might – or might not – visit. This 17th century work retains its usefulness today; the images within the book have provided the internal structure for this exhibition. Pisa is instantly recognisable with its leaning tower.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d’Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

A Tour through Italy

A Tour through Italy

In 1778 Thomas Martyn (1735–1825) travelled to Italy, spending two years there. His diary formed the basis of his successful guide A Tour through Italy (1791). Martyn’s interest was in botany, but he did take time out to offer useful details on currency differences between regions, habitable inns, mileage, and include a colourful map of the then road system. The map excludes all Italy south of Naples, perhaps reflecting the traditional limits of what constituted ‘Italy’; the area outside that consisted of banditti (i.e. outlaws, robbers) and continuous unrest.

Thomas Martyn, A Tour through Italy. London: Printed for C. and G. Kearsley, 1791. de Beer Eb 1791 M

Toscana/Tuscany

The Gems of Tuscany: Being a Fragment for the Invalid and the Tourist in Italy

The Gems of Tuscany: Being a Fragment for the Invalid and the Tourist in Italy

Divided into ten provinces, Tuscany is regarded as the birth-place of the Italian Renaissance, with cities such as Arezzo, Siena, Lucca, Pisa, and Florence dominating the literary-artistic landscape. The region spans some 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 sq mi) and has some 3.7 million inhabitants (Wikipedia, 2012), with Florence (Firenze) the regional capital. In the 1850s, Frederick Harrington Brett, a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, enjoyed a restorative ‘bathing’ holiday in Tuscany. The springs and baths at Lucca and Pisa were called Gems, as was an ‘English lady’, who patronized the waters of Tettuccio at Montecatini. Brett called her ‘the Florentine Iris’.

Frederick Harrington Brett, The Gems of Tuscany: Being a Fragment for the Invalid and the Tourist in Italy. London: Ackermann & Co., 1852. Special Collections DG692 BU38

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Florence/Fiorenza, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Miscellaneous Remarks made on the Spot, in a Late Seven Years Tour through France, Italy, Germany and Holland

Miscellaneous Remarks made on the Spot, in a Late Seven Years Tour through France, Italy, Germany and Holland

The Arno River weaves through Florence, the cultural capital of Tuscany. An engraving from Stevens’ Miscellaneous Remarks [1756] depicts the Ponte Santa Trìnita (Holy Trinity Bridge), the oldest elliptic arch bridge in the world. Peeking over the houses to the right is the Basilica of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito. The city boasts old and new cultures: the 16th century Uffizi and the Pitti Palace (picture the influential Medici Family), and Via de’ Tornabuoni, the city’s top fashion and shopping street, which contains well-known firms such as Cartier, Ferragamo, and Gucci.

Sacheverell Stevens, Miscellaneous Remarks made on the Spot, in a Late Seven Years Tour through France, Italy, Germany and Holland. London: Printed for S. Hooper… and J. Swan, [1756]. de Beer Eb 1756 S

Views in Italy, During a Journey in the Years 1815 and 1816

Views in Italy, During a Journey in the Years 1815 and 1816

Some 30 kilometres south-east of Florence is the abbey of Vallambrosa. From there, in 1096, Pope Urban II addressed the congregation and implored them to support a crusade to the Holy Land. Today, the abbey is a mecca for visitors, especially in the summer. Picnicking is a favourite activity, and those who forget the essentials can purchase local produce, including a brew made by the monks called ‘Elixir Stomachico’. Herr Friedländer travelled to this idyllic spot between 1815 and 1816; other visitors have included William Wordsworth, Mary Shelley and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.

[Ludwig] Hermann Friedländer, Views in Italy, During a Journey in the Years 1815 and 1816. London: Printed for Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1821. de Beer Eb 1821 F

Nouveau Voyage d’Italie. Vol. II

Nouveau Voyage d’Italie. Vol. II

The Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the free-standing bell tower of the Cathedral in Pisa, Tuscany, which began to tilt during construction about 1178. And ever since Galileo Galilei, in an apocryphal tale, dropped two cannonballs off the tower to demonstrate their speed of descent, visitors have no doubt attempted similar experiments. Of course they first have to climb the 296 steps (55.86 metres (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side). This iconic Italian building remains a popular tourist attraction today.

Maximilien Misson, Nouveau Voyage d’Italie. Vol. II. A La Haye: Henry van Bulderen, 1702. de Beer Lb 1702 M

Liguria

Byron: A Self-Portrait. Letters and Diaries, 1798-1824. Vol. II

Byron: A Self-Portrait. Letters and Diaries, 1798-1824. Vol. II

Lord Byron (1788-1824), famous English poet and notorious debauchee, lived in Italy for seven years. He was in residence at his villa in Pisa when he learned of the death by drowning of his dear friend Percy Bysshe Shelley. Shelley and his wife, Mary (author of Frankenstein: or the Modern Prometheus) had been travelling in Italy since 1818 and eventually settled in Pisa. On the 8th July, 1822 Shelley was sailing his boat Don Juan back from a trip to Livorno, in Tuscany, when it was beset by a storm in the Bay of Spezia and Shelley and his two companions perished. Byron talks of the event in his letter to Irish poet, Thomas Moore (1779-1852).

Edited by Peter Quennell, Byron: A Self-Portrait. Letters and Diaries, 1798-1824. Vol. II. London: John Murray, 1950. Brasch PR4381 A31 1950

Ritratti di Cento Capitani Illustri

Ritratti di Cento Capitani Illustri

The Italian explorer and navigator, Cristophoro [Cristoforo] Colombo (Christopher Columbus), was born in Genoa in 1451. According to his own writing, Columbus first went to sea at the age of ten. He was an ambitious man and self-educated, reading widely from the treatises of Ptolemy, Pliny, and Marco Polo on astronomy, history and travel. Columbus made his first of four voyages to what he thought was Asia in 1492. As we know he ‘discovered’ America, beginning the somewhat devastating period of European colonisation and exploitation of the Americas. Columbus Day is celebrated every year in the United States on the second Monday of October.

Aliprando Capriolo, Ritratti di Cento Capitani Illustri. [Rome: Domenico Gigliotti], [1596]. de Beer Itb 1596 C

The Gentleman’s Guide in his Tour through Italy

The Gentleman’s Guide in his Tour through Italy

The capital of Liguria is Genova or Genoa; the largest sea-port in Italy and its sixth largest city. From the beginning of the second millennium Genoa had a strong maritime presence in the Mediterranean and the city prospered as a major trading port in Europe. Thomas Martyn (1735-1825), in his Gentleman’s Guide, writes of his visit to Genoa in the late 18th century. He describes the population as ‘laborious, industrious and brave’ but laments that ‘scarcely any of them are able to speak pure Italian’; Ligurian, a Gallo-Romance language is still widely spoken in Genoa today. In 1884, 50,000 Italian emigrants passed through Genoa on their way to South America; just a fraction of the 7.5 million Italians that emigrated to the Americas from 1876 to 1914.

Thomas Martyn, The Gentleman’s Guide in his Tour through Italy. London: Printed for, and sold by, G. Kearsley, 1787. de Beer Eb 1787 M

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Genova/Genoa, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Liguria. 4th edition

Liguria. 4th edition

Liguria is a region in the north-west of Italy which shares a border with France to the west, and the Italian regions of Piedmont, Emilia Romagna, and Tuscany to the north and east. The Maritime Alps form the top half of the region while the jagged coastline looks out onto the Ligurian Sea (part of the Mediterranean). The region’s coastline is known as the Italian Riviera and is famous for its mild climate, pastel-coloured houses, quaint fishing villages and amazing landscapes. Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) wrote that the town of Portofino was established by the Romans and from the end of the 19th century the little fishing village has been a popular tourist destination, especially for the ‘rich and famous’ of Northern Europe.

[The Touring Club Italiano], Liguria. 4th edition. Milano: Touring Club Italiano, 1952. Special Collections DG975 L68 LQ19 1952

Piedmonte/Piedmont

Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino

Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino

Novelist Samuel Butler (1835-1902) always spent his holidays in Italy, a country he loved passionately. His Alps and Sanctuaries (1881) was written after summer trips to Piedmont and Ticino, before rail traffic increased so much as to ruin tranquil spots, and before the opening of the St Gothard tunnel in 1882. Butler did, however, partake in an hour and half train trip from Turin to Lanzo, in the north-west of Piedmont. While staying at the Hotel de la Poste, he relates an amusing conversation with an elderly Italian gentleman. An able artist, Butler also provided most of the sketches for this work.

Samuel Butler, Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino. London: Jonathan Cape, 1923. Storage YI ButYa S

The Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin

One attraction in the Piedmont area is the famed Shroud of Turin, believed by many to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ.

___, The Shroud of Turin. http://www.mywordswritten.org/ShroudofTurin.html, 2014. ___

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Piedmont, in the northwest, is Italy’s second largest region. It boasts high peaks and glaciers, mountain passes such as Montgenèvre and Great St. Bernard, and Italy’s largest river, the Po. It has eight provinces, with Turin (Torino) as the capital. Piedmont is known for wines (Asti and Barolo), chocolates (Ferrero in Alba), cars (Fiat), spas (Acqui Terme), the Slow Food movement, and its historical past: medieval castles like Ivrea, and architectural masterpieces like the Basilica di Superga. The famed Shroud of Turin was transferred to Turin from France in 1578, and first photographed in 1898. The chapel that houses the Shroud in the Cathedral of Saint John is not visible in this 1629 engraving of ‘Turino’, because it was added to the cathedral between 1668 and 1694.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Guida de’ Forestiei per la Real Città di Torino

Guida de’ Forestiei per la Real Città di Torino

Following Italian national unification in 1861, Turin was briefly the new kingdom’s capital. This topographic map of 1753 shows the solid belt of 16 fortified ramparts and a host of moats within a pentagonal shaped star citadel (no.63) that made the city one of the best defended in Europe. There were four gates (Portas), which were normally closed at sunset and opened at sunrise. Some of the major places of the town are listed: The Cathedral of St John is there (no.1); the Piazza Castello (no.7); and the 17th century Piazza San Carlo (Carlo Felice) with the now famous equestrian statue of Duke Filiberto in the saddle (1838) near two 16th century churches - Santa Cristina (no.40), and San Carlo (no.41). According to legend, Egyptian Prince Fetonte wanted to found a city; he did very well.

G. G. Craveri, Guida de’ Forestiei per la Real Città di Torino. [Turin]: Si vendono in Torino da Gian Domenico Rameletti librajo vicino alla posta, 1753. de Beer Itb 1753 C

Lombardia

Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. III

Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. III

Brother Bonvesin de la Riva (d. circa 1313) describes 13th century Milano or Milan in his The Marvels of Milan. He wrote that among other things Milan had ‘six monasteries, eight nunneries, ninety-four chapels...120 lawyers…twenty-eight doctors…eighty farriers…[and] 440 butchers’ (Dickie, 2007). The Jesuit church San Fedele, built in the 16th century, still stands in the centre of the city today. Milano-born poet and novelist, Alessandro Manzoni (1785-1873), worshipped there regularly. Sadly on the 6th of January 1873, he fell while exiting the church, hit his head and died five months later. Manzoni’s death certificate is held in the atrium of the church and a statue of him now stands in the square outside.

Alexandre de Rogissart, Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. III. [Leiden]: Pierre Vander Aa, 1706. de Beer Lb 1706 R

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

The region of Lombardia or Lombardy is home to one-sixth of Italy’s population: 10 million people; and 1.3 million of them live in the capital city of Milan. The region is described as an ‘economic and industrial powerhouse’ and is home to Italy’s main stock exchange, Borsa Italiana. Leading fashion labels Valentino, Prada and Armani (among others) have their headquarters in Milan and the city hosts Milan Fashion Week twice a year. Six million tourists visit every year and there is no doubt that a large number of them would make their way to the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie to gaze upon Leonardo da Vinci’s now crumbling masterpiece, The Last Supper.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Mantova/Mantua, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci] , [c.1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Some Observations made in Travelling through France, Italy, &c. In the years 1720, 1721, and 1722. [Vol. I]

Some Observations made in Travelling through France, Italy, &c. In the years 1720, 1721, and 1722. [Vol. I]

Edward Wright, in his Observations states that the poet, Virgil (70-19 BC), famous for his Roman epic the Aeneid, was born in a village not far from Mantua, which is 130 kilometres south-east of Milan. Mantua or Mantova is surrounded by three man-made lakes, built in the 13th century as a watery defence for the town. From the 14th to the 18th century the Gonzaga family ruled the city and built an enormous residence there, Palazzo Ducale, second only in size to the Vatican. The Gonzagas were influential in developing and disseminating the new cultures and traditions of the Renaissance, but by 1707 the family had been deposed. Over the next century or so the rule of Mantua changed hands several times between Austria and France until it was incorporated into a united Italy in 1860.

Edward Wright, Some Observations made in Travelling through France, Italy, &c. In the years 1720, 1721, and 1722. [Vol. I]. London: Printed for Tho. Ward and E. Wicksteed, 1730. de Beer Eb 1730 W

Friuli-Venezia Guilia

Friuli Venezia Giulia. 4th edition

Friuli Venezia Giulia. 4th edition

The most north-eastern region of Italy is that of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and its capital, Trieste, is the smallest of the four major cities in the region. To the north lie the Julian Alps and Austria; to the east the region borders Slovenia; and to the south the coast opens up onto the Adriatic Sea, which stretches to the heel of Italy’s boot. Trieste became part of the Hapsburg Empire in the late 1300s and for centuries its busy port provided an important link in the trade route between Eastern and Western Europe and the Middle East. In the 17th century Trieste was one of the crucial ports involved with the introduction of coffee into Central Europe. With its combination of mountain resorts and seaside towns the region is popular with tourists.

[The Touring Club Italiano], Friuli Venezia Giulia. 4th edition. Milano: Touring Club Italiano, 1963. Special Collections DG975 F855 FW86 1963

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

The region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia is sparsely populated with only 1.2 million inhabitants, approximately 100,000 of whom now live in the city of Udine. Legend has it that Attila the Hun (d. 453) encouraged his soldiers to build a hill in the centre of Udine by transporting soil there in their helmets. The marauding Huns held the nearby town of Aquileia (40 kilometres away) under siege and Attila wanted a vantage point in this flat land from which to see the town burning. Could this be the hill that appears in the middle of this 1629 engraving? From 1420 to 1797 Udine was under the control of the Republic of Venice but in 1866 joined the Kingdom of Italy as part of the new unified nation created by the Risorgimento.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

The Hoax

The Hoax

Italo Svevo, pseudonym of businessman and writer Aron Ettore Schmitz (1861-1928), was born in Trieste, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His first novel, Una Vita, was published in 1893, his second, Senilità, in 1898; both were unsuccessful and Svevo subsequently gave up writing. Business dealings in England required Svevo to learn English and in 1908, he procured the services of an English language tutor called James Joyce; so began a ‘notable and long friendship between Svevo and the author of Ulysses’ (Beryl de Zoete, 1929). With Joyce’s encouragement Svevo began writing again and the Irishman was instrumental in the success of Svevo’s novel La Coscienza di Zeno (1923) in France which led him ultimately to be ‘hailed as a literary star of the first magnitude’ (de Zoete, 1929).

Italo Svevo, The Hoax. London: Published by Leonard and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press, 1929. Brasch PQ4841 C482 B8 A22

James Joyce and Trieste

James Joyce and Trieste

James Joyce (1882-1941) arrived in Trieste with Nora Barnacle (1884-1951) in October 1904 and they would spend the next ten years living in the lively commercial port. Joyce taught English, the couple learned to speak Italian, and their children, Giorgio and Lucia, were born in Trieste. During his time in the city, Joyce kept his literary pursuits to himself and seldom confided his ambitions to members of his social circle. However, in Italo Svevo he found a ‘kindred spirit’ (Hartshorn, 1997) and he frequently read stories from Dubliners (1914) to Svevo and his wife, Livia. Hartshorn (1997) believes Joyce ‘matured as a writer’ in Trieste and wrote large portions of Dubliners and Ulysses (1922) in the city.

Peter Hartshorn, James Joyce and Trieste. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1997. Central PR6019 O9 Z5 HA39

Veneto/Venetia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

The Veneto region in Italy’s northeast extends from the Dolomites to the Adriatic Sea, and is divided into 7 provinces: Belluno, Padova, Rovigo, Treviso, Verona, Vicenza, and Venice. The region has Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy, and Marmolada, the highest mountain in the Dolomites, measuring 3343mt/9365ft. Like most Italians, those living in Veneto tend to be bilingual, speaking Italian and Venetian; the subtle difference evident with the word ‘cat’, i.e. el gato in Venetian; il gatto in Italian. During the Fascist period (1922-1945), Venetian was banned. The regional capital is Venetia (Venice), which as depicted in this 1629 engraving, is a city of small islands, bridges, canals, and the ever-present gondolas.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. I

Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. I

Mask-makers (mascherari) must have a field day when carnival time arrives in Venice. After all, there are numerous styles to choose from: the bauta (with an over-prominent nose); the Columbina (a half-mask); the Medico della peste (originally used to prevent the spread of disease); the moretta (a black velvet oval mask for women only); the volto (Italian for face; or larva, meaning ghost in Latin); the Pantalone; and the Zanni (half mask with a reverse curve towards the end). The carnival has had a long and colourful history: established in the 12th century; outlawed in 1797; and rejuvenated in modern times as an event celebrating the history and culture of Venice. Some of the types of masks are clearly visible in this 1706 engraving.

Alexandre de Rogissart, Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. I. [Leiden]: Pierre Vander Aa , 1706. de Beer Lb 1706 R

Venetian Life. Volume 2

Venetian Life. Volume 2

Cover of volume two.

William D. Howells, Venetian Life. Volume 2. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1883. Storage 9MFW VH

Venetian Life. Volume 1

Venetian Life. Volume 1

In the 1850s John Ruskin published his Stones of Venice, a work that extolled the virtues of every architectural crack and crevice in Venice. To Ruskin, Venice epitomized Italian civilization at its height. Author and critic William Dean Howells (1837-1920) was U. S. Consul to Venice from 1861 to 1865. Among other observations, his Venetian Life (1866) reveals something of the Venetians’ culinary customs and their attitude to stoves – ‘The Germans have introduced stoves at Venice, but they are not much in favor with the Italians, who think their heat unwholesome, and endure a degree of cold in their wish to dispense with fire’. This is a reprinted edition of 1883.

William D. Howells, Venetian Life. Volume 1 . Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1883. Storage 9MFW VH

Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. I

Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. I

In the Venetian lagoon is the city of Venice, called affectionately ‘Serenissima’ or ‘Most Serene Republic’. And of course dominating the water-scape are the gondolas, which for centuries were the chief means of transportation. In the 16th century there were some 10,000 gondolas operating the canals. Today, there are 425 licensed gondoliers, including the first and most recently licensed (2010) female gondolier, Giorgia Boscolo. Gondolas are remarkably uniform, each measuring 10.87m long (35ft 6ins) and 1.42m wide (4ft 6ins), and each constructed from the same eight woods. This 1706 engraving depicts smaller vessels and the sleek gondolas, which poet Shelley likened to ‘moths of which a coffin might have been the chrysalis.’

Alexandre de Rogissart, Les Delices de l’Italie. Vol. I. [Leiden]: Pierre Vander Aa , 1706. Shoults Lb 1706 R

Veneto/Venetia

Veronensis Antiqvitatvm Veronensivm Libri VIII

Veronensis Antiqvitatvm Veronensivm Libri VIII

Verona straddles the river Adige in the Veneto region. This ancient city has been awarded a UNESCO World Heritage designation for its urban structure and architecture. One attraction is its Roman amphitheatre, one of Italy’s largest, which is frequently used today for open-air theatre events. As depicted in this engraving, Naumachia, or staged naval battles as mass entertainment once took place. Even though scholars have questioned whether the river Adige could actually supply the much-needed water, it must have been an impressive occasion.

Onofrio Panvinio, Veronensis Antiqvitatvm Veronensivm Libri VIII. [Padua]: Pauli Frambotti, 1648. de Beer Itc 1648 P

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Padova/Padua, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

An Italian Voyage, or, A Compleat Journey through Italy

An Italian Voyage, or, A Compleat Journey through Italy

Roman Catholic priest and travel writer Richard Lassels (c.1608-1668) coined the phrase ‘grand tour’. In his An Italian Voyage, he writes: ‘If they [other writers]… have represented Italy unto us like a naked Image, I may perhaps be allowed to say that I have set her out in all her best Attire and Jewels.’ Of the fifteen ‘jewels’ of Padua, 40 kilometres west of Venice, he lists ‘publick Schools’, the Church of St Anthony, known locally as ‘Il Santo’; the statue of ‘Gatta Mela’, Donatello’s equestrian statue of the Venetian general Gattamelata (Erasmo da Narni), which was cast in 1453; and the Church of St Justina, designed by Padua-born architect Andrea Palladio. His ‘publick Schools’ may include the University of Padua, Italy’s second oldest university, founded in 1222.

Richard Lassels, An Italian Voyage, or, A Compleat Journey through Italy. London: Printed for Richard Wellington, 1698. de Beer Eb 1698 L

Emilia-Romagna

Emilia e Romagna. 4th edition

Emilia e Romagna. 4th edition

A trip on the motorway from Piacenza in the northwest to Rimini on the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region covers about 280 kilometres. The Apennine Mountains border the region to the south with the river Po to the north, running to the Adriatic Sea on the east coast. A region famed for its gastronomy, Emilia-Romagna’s food specialties include balsamic vinegar from Modena, prosciutto from Parma and of course the highly pungent cheese, Parmigiano-Reggiano. The region is home to Italian car manufacturers Ferrari, Lamborghini, and Maserati among others and was the birthplace of composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), fascist leader Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) and fashion designer Giorgio Armani (b. 1934)

[The Touring Club Italiano], Emilia e Romagna. 4th edition. Milano: Touring Club Italiano, 1957. Special Collections DG975 E53 TQ19 1957

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

The capital of the Emilia-Romagna region is the city of Bologna, a place that has been inhabited since the 10th century BC. The city has the honour of having the oldest university in the world, established in 1088; some of the more famous faculty members have included Dante (d. 1321), Albrecht Dürer (d. 1528), and Copernicus (d. 1543). The city has several nicknames – La Dotta (‘the learned’) because of the university; La Grassa (‘the fat one’) for its cuisine; and La Rossa (‘the red’) not only because of the many red roofs of the buildings in the city but also because Bologna became a Communist stronghold after WWII. In the middle of this 17th century map the Two Towers of Bologna, built in the 12th century, are visible and they still stand in the city today, albeit on a lean.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Tutte l’Opere d’Archittetura et Prospetiva

Tutte l’Opere d’Archittetura et Prospetiva

One of Bologna’s most famous, yet relatively unknown, sons is Renaissance architect Sebastiano Serlio (1475-c.1554). Serlio trained as a painter and woodcutter before travelling to Rome in 1514 to work under architect and painter, Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536). Serlio’s seven volume treatise on architecture, Tutte l’Opere d’Archittetura et Prospetiva, was the first such work to be illustrated and written in Italian, not the usual Latin. Serlio’s treatise was hugely influential in disseminating Italian Renaissance architecture to Western Europe. Described as the ‘most important architectural writer and theorist of the 16th century’, it is thought Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) had Serlio’s work in-hand while building St Paul’s Cathedral in London.

Sebastiano Serlio, Tutte l’Opere d’Archittetura et Prospetiva. [Venice]: Giacomo de’Franceschi, 1619. de Beer Itb 1619 S

Umbria

The Story of Assisi

The Story of Assisi

Some 25 kilometres from Perugia is Assisi, located at the northern edge of Mount Subasio. The city is the birthplace of St Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and of St. Clare (Chiara d’Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters. The most popular attraction is the Basilica di San Francesco, begun in 1228, the year of Francis’s canonization. Lina Duff Gordon (1874-1964) knew Italy well. She and her husband Aubrey Waterfield restored and lived in the Fortezza della Brunella at Aulla, Tuscany, and managed a school at Poggio Gherardo in the 1930s. Her Story of Assisi contains numerous sketches by Nelly Erichsen, an English illustrator. Here is Rocca Maggiore, castle of Assisi, from the entrance at Porta Cappuccini. Assisi is a World Heritage site.

Lina Duff Gordon, The Story of Assisi. London: Dent, 1905. Brasch DG975 A8 GM97 1905

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Bordered by Tuscany, Lazio and Marche, Umbria is the one region in Italy that does not have a coastline. Known as il cuor verde d’Italia (the green heart of Italy), the region is well known for tobacco growing, olive oil production, and vineyards, with the white Orvieto a specialty. Umbria is divided into two provinces: Perugia and Terni, with the walled city of Perugia the regional capital. The Griffin – as depicted in this engraving – is the symbol of the city. Visible just under the engraved name of Perugia is the circular, out of proportion Church of Sant’ Angelo, a building that dates back to the 5th and 6th centuries. There were seven gates into the city; ‘Porta Sole’ is readily identifiable.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Narrative of a Three Years’ Residence in Italy, 1819-1822

Narrative of a Three Years’ Residence in Italy, 1819-1822

Although claiming that there was an over-abundance of diaries on Italy, Selina Martin continued her jottings, maintaining that her narrative of her residence there between 1819 and 1822 was different, not containing classical descriptions, or critical account of the arts, or road descriptions, but just everyday details of domestic life. Travelling with her sister Elizabeth, and her husband, Sir Walter Synnot, she passes quickly through Spoleto, calling the town ‘picturesque’. And then to Foligno where she dines at an inn and recounts an improbable scene of a dog turning a spit in the kitchen. Too much wine Ms Martin!

[Selina Martin], Narrative of a Three Years’ Residence in Italy, 1819-1822. London: John Murray, 1838. de Beer Eb 1828 M

The Flavour of Italy in Recipes and Pictures

The Flavour of Italy in Recipes and Pictures

Two main types of truffles (tartufi in Italian) are found in the Spoleto area: the precious black truffle, Tuber melanosporum (also known as the ‘Norcia’, ‘Spoleto’ or ‘Périgord’ truffle), and the summer black truffle, Tuber aestivum. These delicacies are often combined with the traditional Umbrian Strangozzi noodles (a slightly thicker version of spaghetti) or umbricelli pasta. Here is the Chamberlains’ slight 1967 variation, using spaghetti.

Narcissa G. and Narcisse Chamberlain, The Flavour of Italy in Recipes and Pictures. London: Cookery Book Club, 1967. Storage TX723 CE24

Abruzzo

The Metamorphoses of Ovid (Translated by William Caxton. Vol. I)

The Metamorphoses of Ovid (Translated by William Caxton. Vol. I)

Famous Abruzzo people include Latin poet Sallust (1st century BC; L’Aquila), painter Pompeo Cesura (d.1571; L’Aquila), writer Gabriele D’Annunzio (d. 1938; Pescara), philosopher Benedetto Croce (d.1952; Pescasseroli), and for Vespa scooter lovers, General Corradino D’Ascanio (d.1981; Popoli, Pescara). One other important son was Ovid, born in 43BC in Sulmona. A bronze statue commemorates him in Piazza XX Settembre, one of the city’s main squares. This is a facsimile copy of his Metamorphoses, translated by English printer William Caxton. The original translation, which survives only in a single manuscript, is now in Magdalene College, Cambridge.

Ovid, The Metamorphoses of Ovid (Translated by William Caxton. Vol. I). New York: G. Braziller in association with Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1968. Special Collections PA6522 M2 C3 1968

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of L'Aquila, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Italia Meridionale

Italia Meridionale

The city of L’Aquila (meaning ‘the Eagle’) has had its fair share of earthquakes. On 3 December 1315, the city was struck by an earthquake which seriously damaged the San Francesco Church. Another struck on 22 January 1349, killing about 800 people. Other earthquakes have followed: 1452, 1461, 1501, 1646, 1703 (3000 people died and almost all the churches collapsed), 1706, 1786 (6,000 killed), and in modern times, 1958 and April 2009. The last was of 6.3 magnitude and caused damage to between 3,000 and 10,000 buildings in L’Aquila. This 1928 map indicates the Duomo area, which contains the market as well as prominent churches such as those of Saints Massimo and Giorgio. Destroyed by the 2009 earthquake, this area is undergoing restoration today.

L. V. Bertarelli, Italia Meridionale. Milano: Touring Club Italiano, 1926-1928. Special Collections DG416 BH51

The Name of the Rose

The Name of the Rose

The region of Abruzzo is dotted with national parks and nature reserves. Abruzzo’s numerous protected areas have not only ensured the survival of many rare species such as the golden eagle and the Abruzzo chamois, but have aided the preservation of some of Italy’s best medieval and Renaissance hill towns. Castel del Monte and Santo Stefano di Sessanio in the Gran Sasso National Park are but two. Divided into four provinces (L’Aquila, Teramo, Pescara and the Cheti), the region boasts a long coastline in the east, along the Adriatic Sea. Because of the wealth of castles and medieval towns, especially around the capital of L’Aquila, the region has been nicknamed ‘Abruzzoshire’. Film-makers are attracted to the region. In the 1980s, Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose was filmed in the valley of Gran Sasso d’Italia, the highest of the Apennines.

Umberto Eco, The Name of the Rose. London: Picador in association with Secker & Warburg, 1984. Special Collections PQ4865 C6 N6 A29 1984

Puglia

Il Devotissimo Viaggio di Gerusalemme

Il Devotissimo Viaggio di Gerusalemme

The Tremiti archipelago sits in the Adriatic Sea, 36 kilometres off the coast in the northeast of the Puglia region. San Domino (the largest island) and San Nicola are inhabited by about 400 permanent residents; the other three islands, Capraia, Cretaccio and Pianosa, are all uninhabited. The archipelago has always been ideal for the purposes of confinement – an abbey was established on San Nicola in the 9th century; in 1911, 1300 Libyans were imprisoned on the islands because they had resisted the Italian colonisation of their country; and Mussolini interned political prisoners and homosexuals on San Domino as part of his Fascist regime. These days the islands are flooded with around 100,000 tourists in the summer months.

Giovanni Zuallardo, Il Devotissimo Viaggio di Gerusalemme. [Rome]: Domenico Basa, 1595. de Beer Itb 1595 Z

Vase-Painting in Italy: Red-figure and Related Works in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Vase-Painting in Italy: Red-figure and Related Works in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

It is likely that the Greeks settled the region of Puglia or Apulia around the 8th century BC. Red-figure Italian vase painting flourished in the region between 430-300 BC and today, the majority of surviving red-figure vases from this period are from Puglia. The wine jug or oinochoe on the left depicts a battle between the all-female race of Amazons and the Greeks – the Amazon sits atop her white charger preparing to run her lance through the Greek soldier to the left. In the top panel of the water jug to the right, the mythical figure Hippodameia is being abducted by her lover, Pelops, in a chariot pulled by four white horses.

J. Michael Padgett, et al., Vase-Painting in Italy: Red-figure and Related Works in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1993. Central NK4654 MZ51

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

The region of Puglia occupies the heel of Italy’s ‘boot’ and the seaside town of Gallipoli is situated on the west coast of the Salento peninsula, looking out onto the Ionian Sea. The old medieval town was built on a limestone island which is about one and a half kilometres wide and is linked to the mainland by a 16th century arched bridge. Sharing its name with the more famous Gallipoli in Turkey, the Italian Gallipoli, which means ‘beautiful town’, was once a bustling olive oil market but now has an economy based on fishing and tourism.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Calabria

Journals of a Landscape Painter in Southern Calabria

Journals of a Landscape Painter in Southern Calabria

Edward Lear (1812-1888) is remembered as creator of nonsense verse. He was also an artist-illustrator and traveller. Italy was a country he kept returning to; indeed, he died in his ‘Villa Tennyson’ at San Remo in western Liguria, north-western Italy. Lear first visited Rome in 1837, and then Naples in 1838; Florence in 1839; Subiaco in 1840; Naples (again) and Sicily in 1847. His Journals of a Landscape Painter in Southern Calabria, &c. (1852) was the result of his journeys through a country that was both beautiful and harsh. While travelling he sketched, and each night he would write up his journal. This is his lithographed sketch of Angevin Castle, the 16th century fortress that sits above the town of Roccella (also Roccella Ionica).

Edward Lear, Journals of a Landscape Painter in Southern Calabria. London: R. Bentley, 1852. Brasch DG975 C15 LD97

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Calabria, the ‘toe’ of the Italian Peninsula and Reggio Calabria, the most populous city in the region, are just visible in this 1629 engraving of Messina. Because the sea dominates this region, a major part of Calabrian cuisine is fish, especially swordfish and sardines (sardelle rosamarina). Ever since Roman times, there has been talk of connecting Calabria with Sicily, a distance of some 3.1 km across the Straits of Messina. Silvio Berlusconi’s government initiated the building of a suspension bridge, but the idea was scuttled in 2013 by the new Italian government, who deemed it not a priority. Opponents of the project have had two major concerns: safety (the fear of earthquakes and winds), and supporting the economy of the ‘Ndrangheta, the local Mafia syndicate.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Old Calabria

Old Calabria

The British writer Norman Douglas (1868–1952) was a long-time resident in Capri, part of the Campania region. His first travel book, Old Calabria, appeared in 1915, which was the result of his visiting the southern regions at a time when they were isolated, and undeveloped, and certainly with no modern amenities. In typical Douglas style – somewhat curmudgeonly, iconoclastic, and digressive – he evokes a real flavour of the Mezzogiorno, the traditional term for the southern regions of Italy. Here, between extremes of climate, banditti, and bad coachmen, is his amusing account of finding one Luigi.

Norman Douglas, Old Calabria. London: Martin Secker, 1923. Brasch DG975 C15 DQ47 1920

Sicilia

Travels through Sicily and that part of Italy formerly called Magna Graecia

Travels through Sicily and that part of Italy formerly called Magna Graecia

This travel memoir by Johann Hermann von Riedesel (born c. 1741), Baron of Eisenbach, Germany, consists of letters to his friend Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The Baron describes how, upon leaving Palermo on the 30th March 1767, he was accompanied by a guard to protect him from the banditti on the road. Were these banditti the predecessors of the Cosa Nostra or the Sicilian Mafia? John Dickie (2004) describes the Cosa Nostra as ‘an exclusive secret society’ governed by omertà or a code of silence and states that by 1890 ‘the mafia was already a murderous and sophisticated criminal association with powerful political connections and an international reach’.

Johann Hermann von Riedesel, Travels through Sicily and that part of Italy formerly called Magna Graecia. London: Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, 1773. de Beer Eb 1773 R

The Fight for Freedom: Palermo, 1860

The Fight for Freedom: Palermo, 1860

Since Palermo, Sicily’s capital, was inhabited 2700 years ago, it has been ruled by many nations – Romans, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Arabs, Normans, the Spanish and Austria. In May 1860, Palermo found itself under siege from career freedom fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82) and his red-shirt clad Thousand. The battle was just one of many that took place on the island as part of the Risorgimento, a movement launched to unite Italy into a single state. The Risorgimento was a long process which began after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 and did not fully conclude until after WWI. The creation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 made a national hero of Garibaldi.

Francesco Brancaccio di Carpino, The Fight for Freedom: Palermo, 1860. London: Folio Society, 1968. Special Collections DG975 P2 BT29 1968

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Palermo, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Itinerario, o Vero Nova Descrittione de’ Viaggi Principali d’Italia

Itinerario, o Vero Nova Descrittione de’ Viaggi Principali d’Italia

The rugby ball to mainland Italy’s ‘boot’, Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean and is surrounded by three seas – the Tyrrhenian (north), the Mediterranean (south-west) and the Ionian (south-east). Volcanic Mount Etna sits on the east coast of the island, close to the towns of Messina and Catania. In 1669 Catania, 29 kilometres away from Etna, was obliterated by an eruption which killed 20,000 people. Surprisingly there are now two ski resorts and a visitors’ centre on Etna even though the mountain still regularly erupts. There were twenty eruptions in 2013, with fiery ash and noxious fumes spewing forth into the air. It can be quite a spectacular sight at night.

Franciscus Schott, Itinerario, o Vero Nova Descrittione de’ Viaggi Principali d’Italia. [Padua]: Mattio Cadorin, 1670. de Beer Itb 1670 S

Sardegna/Sardinia

A New Atlas, or, a Compleat Set of Maps Representing all the Different Empires, Kingdoms & States of the Known World

A New Atlas, or, a Compleat Set of Maps Representing all the Different Empires, Kingdoms & States of the Known World

This ‘new’ atlas of 1794 by John Ainslie reveals Sardinia’s physical proximity to the mainland of Italy, and to Corsica, its nearest neighbour, 11 kilometres away. Because Sardinia (or Sardegna) was under the control of Spain for some 400 years, many Spanish customs still feature, including the speaking of Catalan and May-day parades in Cagliari. Sardinian (Sardu) is the mostly widely spoken language, alongside Italian. Importantly, Sardinia is constitutionally autonomous, having the right to create its own laws and to carry out its own regional administrative functions. The other four Italian ‘home-rulers’ are: Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

[John Ainslie], A New Atlas, or, a Compleat Set of Maps Representing all the Different Empires, Kingdoms & States of the Known World. London: Sold by M. Ainslie & W Faden, [1794]. Shoults Ec 1794 A

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Cagliari/Caliari, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Southern Italy and Sicily, with Excursions to Sardinia, Malta, and Corfu

Southern Italy and Sicily, with Excursions to Sardinia, Malta, and Corfu

The regional capital of Sardinia is Cagliari. The city – one of the hottest and most arid in Italy – is in the south of the island, on a hill area overlooking the Golfo degli Angeli (‘Bay of Angels’). The Castello, the old part of town, is still there, along with a Roman amphitheatre, a cathedral (completed 1312), and two early 14th-century white limestone towers: the Torre di San Pancrazio and the Torre dell’Elefante, which was constructed by the Pisans in 1307. Both towers are positioned in the Baedeker at C3.

Karl Baedeker, Southern Italy and Sicily, with Excursions to Sardinia, Malta, and Corfu. Leipzig: K. Baedeker, 1912. Special Collections DG416 B353 1912

Sea and Sardinia

Sea and Sardinia

‘This land resembles no other place. Sardinia is something else. Enchanting spaces and distances to travel - nothing finished, nothing definitive. It is like freedom itself.’ So said D. H. Lawrence, as he and his wife Frieda (Queen Bee or ‘q.b’ in the text) travelled through the island in January 1921, visiting Cagliari, Mandas, Sorgono, and Nuoro. This travel book details rural Italy at its best, before industrialization. Lawrence, that grumpy Nottinghamshire writer, is also at his best. Whether hiding under a tarpaulin from the heat, or describing the chanting voices of a procession in Nuoro, he captures the essence of the island and its people. He called Cagliari a ‘white Jerusalem’. The illustrations are by Jan Juta

D. H. Lawrence, Sea and Sardinia. New York: Thomas Seltzer, 1921. Special Collections DG975 S3 L387 1921

Campania

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

From Mondragone in the north and Sapri in the south lies the region of Campania, the second most populous in Italy. It also includes the Phlegraean Islands and Capri. Naples (Napoli) was the capital city of the Kingdom of Naples between 1282 and 1816, and then capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861. Naples is still the capital of the region today and is famous for pizza. No pizza parlours are evident in this 1629 engraving, but two of the city’s many medieval and renaissance buildings are: the Castel Sant’Elmo and the Castel Nuovo, the seat of the medieval kings of Naples. The wooded area far outside the walls (middle right) is close to where Naples International airport is situated today.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

John Evelyn in Naples 1645

John Evelyn in Naples 1645

Some famous Neapolitans include poet Statius (1st century AD), poet Giambattista Marino (d.1625), philosopher Giambattista Vico (d.1744), and more recently tenor Enrico Caruso (d.1921) and Giuliana Rancic of E! TV fame. Visitors to Naples have included artist Caravaggio (d.1610); the German archaeologist Winckelmann (d.1768); Goethe (d.1832); and Alexandre Dumas (d.1870). At the age of 24, diarist John Evelyn (1620-1706) visited Naples and his account – published long after his death – shed light on the art, culture and politics of the city. This passage – with annotations by Evelyn scholar Esmond de Beer – records visits to various churches such as the cathedral and St. Maria Maggiore. Note that Vesuvius is ‘smoaking’.

Edited by H. Maynard Smith, John Evelyn in Naples 1645. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell, 1914. Special Collections DG804 EX6 1914

Gomorrah

Gomorrah

Boccaccio (d.1375), the Tuscan poet, visited Naples on various occasions, and in his Decameron he described it as a dissolute city. Roberto Saviano’s Gomorrah is a modern account of the decline of Naples under the rule of organized crime, the so-called Camorra, a Neapolitan mafia organization. Since its publication in 2006, Saviano – a Naples-based journalist – has been under police protection. For his courageous stand, he has received praise from individuals such as neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, author Günter Grass, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Italian author Umberto Eco; the latter calling Saviano a ‘national hero’.

Roberto Saviano, Gomorrah. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Central HV6453 I83 C42 2007. (Jacket design by Aaron Artessa with photograph by Ed Gifford from Gomorrah by Roberto Saviano, translated by Virginia Jewiss. Jacket design copyright © 2014 by Aaron Artessa. Jacket photograph copyright © 2014 by Ed Gifford/Masterfile. Reprinted by Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC.)

Sketches of Vesuvius with Short Accounts of its Principal Eruptions

Sketches of Vesuvius with Short Accounts of its Principal Eruptions

About 9 kilometres from Naples stands Mount Vesuvius, one of Italy’s most dangerous volcanoes. It is best known for its eruption in AD 79, which led to the destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Since then the volcano has erupted many times, the last being in March 1944, when it destroyed the villages of San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Massa di Somma, Ottaviano, and part of San Giorgio a Cremano. Today some 3 million people live under the shadow of this active volcano, and the area surrounding it is a national park, open to visitors. This 19th century work details the lava flows from eruptions occurring between 1631 and 1831.

John Auldjo, Sketches of Vesuvius with Short Accounts of its Principal Eruptions. Naples: George Glass, 1832. de Beer Itb 1832 A

Roma

Antiquitatum Romanarum, Libri Quatuor

Antiquitatum Romanarum, Libri Quatuor

The ‘Eternal City’ of Rome was established on the banks of the river Tiber in the 8th century BC. At the height of the Roman Empire (2nd century AD) over a million people lived there. Legend has it that the mythical founders of Rome, twins Romulus and Remus, were abandoned at birth and found and suckled by a she-wolf after which a shepherd and his wife adopted the pair. In adulthood, while trying to found a new city, the twins argued and Romulus killed his brother Remus. Romulus went on to found Rome, supposedly in 753 BC; he named it after himself and the rest, as they say, is history.

[Henry Kipping], Antiquitatum Romanarum, Libri Quatuor. [Leiden]: Pierre Vander Aa, 1713. Shoults Lb 1713 K

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

‘All roads lead to Rome’, so the saying goes, and the ancient Romans were certainly excellent road builders. By 200 AD there were 80,000 kilometres of roads throughout the Roman Empire. Rome, or Roma to the Italians, is the capital of both the region of Lazio and of Italy. Lazio is bordered by six other Italian regions and looks out onto the Tyrrhenian Sea. Almost six million people live in Lazio with about three million residing in the city of Rome.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Les Delices de l’Italie

Les Delices de l’Italie

Rome has been an important centre for Christianity since the early years of the first millennium. The Emperor Constantine (272-337), a Christian convert, commissioned the building of the original St Peter’s Basilica in the early 4th century and the replacement building that stands there today was consecrated in 1626. Popes have lived in the Vatican since the late 14th century. This engraving shows the Pope opening a ‘holy door’ in the Basilica in a Jubilee year. Jubilee years have been celebrated since 1300, occurring every 25 years or so since 1450. During this time pilgrims pass through the door and are miraculously absolved of sin and receive a ‘universal pardon’.

Alexandre de Rogissart, Les Delices de l’Italie. [Leiden]: Pierre Vander Aa, 1706. de Beer Lb 1706 R

New Guide of Rome, Naples and their Environs from the Italian of Vasi and Nibby

New Guide of Rome, Naples and their Environs from the Italian of Vasi and Nibby

80,000 cubic metres of water gush out of the Trevi Fountain every day. The Baroque-design fountain is made of travertine, a kind of limestone, and slabs of Carrara marble. The central figure of the fountain, built over a period of 30 years in the 18th century, is Oceanus or Neptune aboard his shell chariot pulled by two winged seahorses with mermaid tails. The seahorses are wrangled by Tritons or mermen. This 19th century guide book outlines an eight-day tour of Rome describing what monuments and buildings to visit. On the fourth day it suggests a trip to the Trevi Fountain where ‘the waters…rush out of a mass of rocks’

Mariano Vasi and Antonio Nibby, New Guide of Rome, Naples and their Environs from the Italian of Vasi and Nibby. Rome: Montaldini, 1841. Special Collections DG804 VA34 1841

Roma

[Engravings of buildings of Rome by Rossi and Falda (1650-1684)]

[Engravings of buildings of Rome by Rossi and Falda (1650-1684)]

Built on the site of a ruined first century athletics venue, the Piazza Navona (a large ship, from the water) is as popular today as a tourist destination as it was in the 17th century. Every weekend in August from 1652 to 1866 the drains of one of the fountains in the Piazza were blocked causing a lake to form. Romans and tourists would drive their carriages and their horses through it or promenade around the edges of the temporary lake. Needless to say the state of the water at the end of the weekend was certainly not suitable for swimming. Note the food stalls set up around the edges of the lake in this 17th century engraving.

[Giovanni Giacomo de' Rossi and Giovanni Battista Falda], [Engravings of buildings of Rome by Rossi and Falda (1650-1684)]. [Rome: Giovanni Giacomo de’ Rossi], [1690]. de Beer Itd 1690 R

Itinerarium Italiae Nov-Antiquae…

Itinerarium Italiae Nov-Antiquae…

This 17th century engraving lays out Rome of that time replete with some still familiar landmarks. The Vatican and St Peter’s Square spread out at the bottom left; the bush-covered ruins of the Baths of the Roman Emperor Diocletian (245-311), top centre-left; the Colosseum, the largest amphitheatre in the world sits top centre-right; Tiber Island floats boat-like in the middle of the river, centre right; and the whole city is surrounded by fortified walls punctuated by gates or porta leading in and out of the city. Today up to ten million tourists visit Rome each year.

[Martin Zeiller], Itinerarium Italiae Nov-Antiquae…. Frankfurt: Matthaei Merians, 1640. de Beer Gc 1640 Z

Ritratto di Roma Moderna…

Ritratto di Roma Moderna…

The Medici, the Borgias, the Sforzas and the Borghese – just a handful of prominent Italian families that rose to power during the Renaissance. Marcantonio Borghese (d. 1574) moved to Rome and worked as a papal lawyer and politician; his son Camillo (1552-1621) became Pope Paul V in 1605. Pope Paul’s nephew Scipione Borghese (1577-1633), a cardinal and art lover, had the Villa Borghese built as his ‘out-of-town party pad’ and a repository for all his collected artworks. The villa and its gardens covered 148 acres. Today the building is known as the Galleria Borghese and houses much of the art work collected by Scipione – works by Caravaggio, Titian, Raphael, Rubens, Bernini, Canova, and others.

Filippo de’Rossi, Ritratto di Roma Moderna…. Roma: Filippo de’Rossi, 1652. Shoults Itb 1652 R

Pars Romanae Urbis Topographiae & Antiquitatum

Pars Romanae Urbis Topographiae & Antiquitatum

Tiber Island or Isola Tiberina is connected to ‘mainland’ Rome by two bridges. It has been an important crossing point over the Tiber since ancient times. Since an outbreak of the plague in 293 BC, the island has been associated with Asclepias, the Greek god of medicine and healing. At this time a temple and a hospital were built there. A church was built on the site of the Temple of Asclepias at the end of the first millennium and was rebuilt in the 17th century. It still stands today. Another hospital, built in the 16th century to minister to and isolate victims of the plague, still operates today as Ospedale San Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli, a 300-bed hospital with its own surgical and emergency departments.

[Jean-Jacques Boissard], Pars Romanae Urbis Topographiae & Antiquitatum. [Frankfurt: Theodori de Bry], 1597. de Beer Gc 1597 B

Walls

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Masks, musicians, street singers, performance artists, food and drink come to the fore at the Carnival of Venice (Carnevale di Venezia), held each year just before Lent. The mask (full or half) provides anonymity and disguise; inhibitions are lowered and assignations begin. There are the traditional stereotypes: Scaramuccia (the clown); Omo Salvadego (the Savage Man); Gnagnas (man disguised as a woman); the Courtesan; the Venetian merchant, and so on. The mask types vary too: the Viloti (Peasant masks); Bauta (the traditional Venetian mask); Moretta (dark); Maschera da Coltra (Blanket Mask); Pantalone (Pantaloon); Brighella, Harlequin, and so on. Here is ‘Doctor’ Grazian, who later becomes Dottor Balanzone (from the word ‘lies’), who supposedly ‘knows it all’, but is riddled with arrogance and ignorance.

Franciscus Schottus, Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute. Vicenza: Francesco Bolzetta libraro in Padoua, 1638. de Beer Itb 1638 S

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

This engraving by Francesco Bertelli is titled Maschare da Ebrei (Mask of Jews). The masks the gentlemen wear have long noses and resemble something of the Zanni or Medico della peste (The Plague Doctor), but in reality caricature the stereotypical image of the Jew. The books they hold also indicate the notion of importance with which the Jews regard education and intellectualism.

Franciscus Schottus, Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute. Vicenza: Francesco Bolzetta libraro in Padoua, 1638. de Beer Itb 1638 S

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

One way of courting women in the carnival was to throw eggs that contained different perfumes such as rose water (Ovi Odoriferi; scented eggs). Masked men would see women they liked and by way of appreciation they threw eggs at the front of the house. However, at carnival time, things always get out of hand with the eggs being ‘slung’ at all and sundry. The egg throwing masks were known as Mattaccino or Frombolatore (from frombola, the sling). For those boisterous sorts this activity was no doubt a winner.

Franciscus Schottus, Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute. Vicenza: Francesco Bolzetta libraro in Padoua, 1638. de Beer Itb 1638 S

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

The guitar playing Mezetino (Mezzetino) can also sing and dance. Another stock carnival type, his name in Medieval Italian means ‘Half-measure’ (of liquor) and by tradition he is an adept schemer and trouble-maker. His brother dancer could well be Brighella, a comic character who is often seen carrying a wooden sword or batocio (slap-stick). The lizards, bats and camels are a fetching addition to his costume

Franciscus Schottus, Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d'Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute. Vicenza: Francesco Bolzetta libraro in Padoua, 1638. de Beer Itb 1638 S

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d’Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d’Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute

Here is Bertelli’s Pulisinella (Polichinelle), who comes to the English as Punch or Punchinello. A stock carnival type, the melancholy dreamer is Harlequin’s main rival. Over time, his costume became the simple white one, with variations such as the sugar loaf (coppolone) hat.

Franciscus Schottus, Itinerario, overo Nova descrittione de’ viaggi principali d’Italia, nellaquale si ha piena notitia di tutte le cose piu notabili, & degne d’esser vedute. Vicenza: Francesco Bolzetta libraro in Padoua, 1638. de Beer Itb 1638 S

Additional images

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Trento, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Siena, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Theatro delle Citta d'Italia

Engraving of Parma, c. 1629.

Pietro Bertelli, Theatro delle Citta d'Italia. [Padua]: Francesco Bertelli, 1629. de Beer Itb 1629 B

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia..

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia..

Engraving of Trajan's Column, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia... [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Constantine's Arch, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of the Colosseum, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Diocletian's Baths, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Fiorenza/Florence, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Trajan's Forum, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d'Italia...

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d'Italia...

Engraving of Padova/Padua, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d'Italia.... [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Urbino, c. 1625

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Venetia/Venice, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Torino/Turin, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci] , [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Tiber Island, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci] , [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of St Peter's Basilica, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Siena, c. 1625

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Roma/Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Palazzo di S Pietro, Vatican, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Palazzo di Borgese, Rome, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci] , [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Pisa, c. 1625

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Parma, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci] , [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Napoli/Naples, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…

Engraving of Genova/Genoa, c. 1625.

[Giacomo Marchucci], Giardin del Mondo dove si vede scolpite le cita principale d’Italia…. [Roma: Giacomo Marchucci], [c. 1625]. de Beer Itc 1625 G

[Engravings of buildings of Rome by Rossi and Falda (1650-1684)]

[Engravings of buildings of Rome by Rossi and Falda (1650-1684)]

This 17th century engraving depicts the canonisation ceremony held in St Peter's Basilica at the Vatican on the 12th April, 1671. Pope Clement X, seated on a throne (no. 1), led the proceedings to canonise five new saints - Gaetan of Thiene, Francis Borgia, Philip Benizi, Louis Beltran and Rose of Lima.

[Giovanni Giacomo de' Rossi and Giovanni Battista Falda], [Engravings of buildings of Rome by Rossi and Falda (1650-1684)]. [Rome: Giovanni Giacomo de’ Rossi], [1690]. de Beer Itd 1690 R

Itinerarium Italiae Nov-Antiquae…

Itinerarium Italiae Nov-Antiquae…

A 17th century engraving of Rome.

[Martin Zeiller], Itinerarium Italiae Nov-Antiquae…. Frankfurt: Matthaei Merians, 1640. de Beer Gc 1640 Z

The Art of Italian Cooking

The Art of Italian Cooking

Recipe for Ossi buchi alla Milanese (Veal Shanks Milanese).

Maria Lo Pinto and Milo Miloradovich, The Art of Italian Cooking. New York: Bantam Books, 1949. Storage TZB UX LCL

The Art of Italian Cooking

The Art of Italian Cooking

Recipe for Torta di Ricotta (Italian Cheese Pie).

Maria Lo Pinto and Milo Miloradovich, The Art of Italian Cooking. New York: Bantam Books, 1949. Storage TZB UX LCL

The Art of Italian Cooking

The Art of Italian Cooking

Recipe for Spaghetti e Finocchio Siciliana (Spaghetti with Fennel Siciliana)

Maria Lo Pinto and Milo Miloradovich, The Art of Italian Cooking. New York: Bantam Books, 1949. Storage TZB UX LCL

The Art of Italian Cooking

The Art of Italian Cooking

Recipe for Baccala Fiorentina (Dry Cod Florentine).

Maria Lo Pinto and Milo Miloradovich, The Art of Italian Cooking. New York: Bantam Books, 1949. Storage TZB UX LCL

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