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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology staff profiles

Professor Paul Smith

PositionProfessor
DepartmentDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology
QualificationsBA(Hons) PhD GradDipApplStat MApplStat(Hons) DSc AStat (SSAI)
Research summaryVestibular and Auditory Neuroscience
Teaching
  • Neuropharmacology, Neuroscience
  • Biostatistics

Research

Interests: vestibular and auditory systems; vestibular dysfunction and tinnitus; effects of vestibular damage on the hippocampus; applications of statistics to pharmacology; biostatistics in general.

My major research interest is in the vestibular and auditory systems and how damage to them can result in plastic changes in the brain. We study the effects of vestibular and auditory damage on the brainstem vestibular and cochlear nuclei, and also on other areas of the CNS such as the medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus and striatum.

Additional details

I am appointed to the HRC Standing Committee on Therapeutic Trials (SCOTT), the HRC Emerging Researcher First Grant Science Assessing CommitteeScientific Advisory Committee of the New Zealand Neurological Foundation, and to the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Vestibular Research, Frontiers in NeurologyNeuro-Otology (Associate Editor), Frontiers in Neuroscience, Frontiers in Psychology, Auris Nasus Larynx and the Springer Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Field Editor for Neuropharmacology).

I am an Accredited Statistician (AStat) with the Statistical Society of Australia Inc. (SSAI) and a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, UK. I am also a Principal Investigator with the Brain Research New Zealand Centre of Research Excellence and with the Eisdell Moore Centre for Hearing and Balance Research, University of Auckland.

Publications

Agrawal, Y., Smith, P. F., & Merfeld, D. M. (2020). Dizziness, imbalance and age-related vestibular loss. In J. Stein (Ed.), Reference module in neuroscience and biobehavioral psychology. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23818-2

Logerot, P., Smith, P. F., Wild, M., & Kubke, M. F. (2020). Auditory processing in the zebra finch midbrain: Single unit responses and effect of rearing experience. PeerJ, 8, e9363. doi: 10.7717/peerj.9363

Kumari, N., Taylor, D., Rashid, U., Vandal, A. C., Smith, P. F., & Signal, N. (2020). Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation for learning a novel split-belt treadmill task: a randomised controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 11853. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-68825-2

Hitier, M., Zhang, Y.-F., Sato, G., Besnard, S., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2020). The effects of selective electrical stimulation of the rat cochlea on hippocampal field potentials [Short communication]. Hearing Research, 395, 108023. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2020.108023

Agrawal, Y., Smith, P. F., & Rosenberg, P. B. (2020). Vestibular impairment, cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease: Balancing the evidence. Aging & Mental Health, 24(5), 705-708. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2019.1566813

Authored Book - Research

Smith, P. F. (2002). Cannabis on the Brain. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press, 228p.

Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (1996). Clinical Psychopharmacology: A Primer. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 143p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

Agrawal, Y., Smith, P. F., & Merfeld, D. M. (2020). Dizziness, imbalance and age-related vestibular loss. In J. Stein (Ed.), Reference module in neuroscience and biobehavioral psychology. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23818-2

Smith, P. F. (2019). Vestibular compensation as a distributed process. In J. P. Stein (Ed.), Reference module in neuroscience and biobehavioral psychology. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23820-0

Vidal, P. P., Cullen, K., Curthoys, I. S., Du Lac, S., Holstein, G., Idoux, E., … Smith, P. (2015). The vestibular system. In G. Paxinos (Ed.), The rat nervous system. (4th ed.) (pp. 805-864). London, UK: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0

Smith, P. F. (2011). The endocannabinoid system in the cochlear nucleus and its implications for tinnitus treatment. In A. R. Møller, B. Langguth, D. De Ridder & T. Kleinjung (Eds.), Textbook of tinnitus. (pp. 639-647). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60761-145-5_79

Smith, P. F., Darlington, C. L., & Zheng, Y. (2009). Cognitive deficits following complete bilateral loss of vestibular function and their relationship to the hippocampus. In A. Lindqvist & G. Nyman (Eds.), Dizziness: Vertigo, disequilibrium and lightheadedness. New York: Nova Science.

Darlington, C. L., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Herbal medicinal products for tinnitus: Perspectives and evaluation. In P. Houghton & P. K. Mukherjee (Eds.), Evaluation of herbal medicinal products. (pp. 314-321). London: Pharmaceutical Press.

Smith, P. F., Zheng, Y., Goddard, M., & Darlington, C. L. (2007). Cognitive impairment due to inner ear damage. In H. C. Sentowski (Ed.), Cognitive Disorders Research Trends. (pp. 231-243). New York: Nova Science.

Ashton, J. C., & Smith, P. F. (2007). Bcl-2 and mitochondrial control of apoptosis as a mechanism for regulating neural plasticity. In L. B. Shultz (Ed.), Cell Apoptosis: Regulation and Environmental Factors. (pp. 1-23). New York: Nova Science.

Smith, P. F. (2005). Cannabis and cannabinoids for the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis. In F. Columbus (Ed.), Treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. (pp. 155-167). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Smith, P. F. (2005). Medicinal use of cannabis: Implications for lung cancer. In R. L. Carafaro (Ed.), Focus on lung cancer research. (pp. 193-209). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2000). The contributions of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters to vestibular plasticity. In A. J. Beitz & J. H. Anderson (Eds.), Neurochemistry of the Vestibular System. (pp. 381-401). New York: CRC Press.

Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Maclennan, K. M. (1999). The neuroprotective properties of ginkgo extracts. In T. A. Van Beek (Ed.), Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles: Ginkgo Biloba. (pp. 331-344). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (1998). Neural mechanisms of psychiatric disturbances in patients with epilepsy. In H. McDonnell & P. Snyder (Eds.), Psychiatric co-morbidity in epilepsy: Basic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. (pp. 15-35). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Maclennan, K. M. (1997). Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on recovery from peripheral vestibular deafferentation (vestibular compensation). In V. Papadopoulos, K. Drieu & Y. Christen (Eds.), Advances in Ginkgo biloba Research, Vol. 6. (pp. 47-58). Paris: Elsevier.

Darlington, C., & Smith, P. (1996). What neurotransmitters are important in the vestibular system? In R. Baloh & G. M. Halmagyi (Eds.), Disorders of the Vestibular System. (pp. 140-144). New York: Oxford University Press.

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Journal - Research Article

Logerot, P., Smith, P. F., Wild, M., & Kubke, M. F. (2020). Auditory processing in the zebra finch midbrain: Single unit responses and effect of rearing experience. PeerJ, 8, e9363. doi: 10.7717/peerj.9363

Kumari, N., Taylor, D., Rashid, U., Vandal, A. C., Smith, P. F., & Signal, N. (2020). Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation for learning a novel split-belt treadmill task: a randomised controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 11853. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-68825-2

Truchet, B., Benoit, A., Chaillan, F., Smith, P. F., Philoxene, B., Guillamin, M., … Besnard, S. (2019). Hippocampal LTP modulation and glutamatergic receptors following vestibular loss. Brain Structure & Function, 224, 699-711. doi: 10.1007/s00429-018-1792-0

Martey, O. N. K., Greish, K., Smith, P. F., & Rosengren, R. J. (2019). A multivariate statistical analysis of the effects of styrene maleic acid encapsulated RL71 in a xenograft model of triple negative breast cancer. Journal of Biological Methods, 6(4). doi: 10.14440/jbm.2019.306

Le Gall, A., Hilber, P., Chesneau, C., Bulla, J., Toulouse, J., Machado, M. L., … Smith, P. F., & Besnard, S. (2019). The critical role of vestibular graviception during cognitivo-motor development. Behavioural Brain Research, 372, 112040. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2019.112040

Machado, M. L., Lefèvre, N., Philoxene, B., Le Gall, A., Madeleine, S., Fleury, P., Smith, P. F., & Besnard, S. (2019). New software dedicated to virtual mazes for human neurocognitive investigations. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 327, 108388. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.108388

Benoit, A., Besnard, S., Guillamin, M., Philoxene, B., Sola, B., Le Gall, A., … Smith, P. F. (2018). Differential regulation of NMDA receptor-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus and striatum following bilateral vestibular loss demonstrated using flow cytometry. Neuroscience Letters, 683, 43-47. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.06.035

Smith, P. F. (2018). Vestibular functions and Parkinson’s Disease. Frontiers in Neurology, 9, 1085. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.01085

Stiles, L., Reynolds, J. N., Napper, R., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2018). Single neuron activity and c-Fos expression in the rat striatum following electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system. Physiological Reports, 6(13), e13791. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13791

Hitier, M., Sato, G., Zhang, Y.-F., Zheng, Y., Besnard, S., & Smith, P. F. (2018). Vestibular-related eye movements in the rat following selective electrical stimulation of the vestibular sensors. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 204, 835-847. doi: 10.1007/s00359-018-1286-9

Benoit, A., Guillamin, M., Aitken, P., Smith, P. F., Sola, B., Poulain, L., … Besnard, S. (2018). Flow cytometry for receptor analysis from ex-vivo brain tissue in adult rat. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 304, 11-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2018.04.005

Hitier, M., Sato, G., Zhang, Y.-F., Besnard, S., & Smith, P. F. (2018). Effects of electrical stimulation of the rat vestibular labyrinth on c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Neuroscience Letters, 677, 60-64. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.04.041

Stiles, L., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2018). The effects of electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system on neurochemical release in the rat striatum. PLoS ONE, 13(10), e0205869. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205869

Aitken, P., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2018). The modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm by the vestibular system. Journal of Neurophysiology, 119(2), 548-562. doi: 10.1152/jn.00548.2017

Zheng, Y., Gliddon, C. M., Aitken, P., Stiles, L., Machado, M.-L., Philoxene, B., … Smith, P. F., & Besnard, S. (2017). Effects of acute altered gravity during parabolic flight and/or vestibular loss on cell proliferation in the rat dentate gyrus. Neuroscience Letters, 654, 120-124. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.06.033

Liu, P., Gupta, N., Jing, Y., Collie, N. D., Zhang, H., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Further studies of the effects of aging on arginine metabolites in the rat vestibular nucleus and cerebellum. Neuroscience, 348, 273-287. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.02.033

Smith, P. F. (2017). The vestibular system and cognition. Current Opinion in Neurology, 30(1), 84-89. doi: 10.1097/wco.0000000000000403

Aitken, P., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Effects of bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rat on hippocampal theta response to somatosensory stimulation, acetylcholine release, and cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Brain Structure & Function, 222(7), 3319-3332. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1407-1

Abouzayd, M., Smith, P. F., Moreau, S., & Hitier, M. (2017). What vestibular tests to choose in symptomatic patients after a cochlear implant? A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 274(1), 53-63. doi: 10.1007/s00405-016-4007-4

Smith, P. F. (2017). Is hippocampal neurogenesis modulated by the sensation of self-motion encoded by the vestibular system? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 83, 489-495. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.09.013

He, J., Zhu, Y., Aa, J., Smith, P. F., De Ridder, D., Wang, G., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Brain metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 148. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00148

Smith, P. F. (2017). Bionic balance organs: Progress in the development of vestibular prostheses. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1461), 56-65. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Aitken, P., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2017). Ethovision™ analysis of open field behaviour in rats following bilateral vestibular loss. Journal of Vestibular Research, 27, 89-101. doi: 10.3233/VES-170612

Smith, P. F., Renner, R. M., & Haslett, S. J. (2016). Compositional data in neuroscience: If you've got it, log it! Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 271, 154-159. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.07.008

Hitier, M., Sato, G., Zhang, Y.-f., Zheng, Y., Besnard, S., Smith, P. F., & Curthoys, I. S. (2016). Anatomy and surgical approach of rat’s vestibular sensors and nerves. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 270, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.05.013

Smith, P. F. (2016). Age-related neurochemical changes in the vestibular nuclei. Frontiers in Neurology, 7, 20. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00020

Tranter-Entwistle, I., Dawes, P., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Cutfield, N. (2016). Video head impulse in comparison to caloric testing in unilateral vestibular schwannoma. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 136(11), 1110-1114. doi: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1185540

Balabhadrapatruni, S., Zheng, Y., Napper, R., & Smith, P. F. (2016). Basal dendritic length is reduced in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 131, 56-60. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.03.009

Aitken, P., Benoit, A., Zheng, Y., Philoxene, B., Le Gall, A., Denise, P., … Smith, P. F. (2016). Hippocampal and striatal M1-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are down-regulated following bilateral vestibular loss in rats. Hippocampus, 26(12), 1509-1514. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22651

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2016). Cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and tinnitus. Hearing Research, 332, 210-216. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2015.09.014

Zheng, Y., Reid, P., & Smith, P. F. (2015). Cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists do not decrease, but may increase, acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. Frontiers in Neurology, 6, 60. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00060

Stiles, L., & Smith, P. F. (2015). The vestibular-basal ganglia connection: Balancing motor control. Brain Research, 1597, 180-188. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.11.063

Zheng, Y., McPherson, K., Reid, P., & Smith, P. F. (2015). The anti-inflammatory selective melanocortin receptor subtype 4 agonist, RO27-3225, fails to prevent acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 761, 206-210. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.05.007

Zheng, Y., Smithies, H., Aitken, P., Gliddon, C., Stiles, L., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2015). Cell proliferation in the cochlear nucleus following acoustic trauma in rat. Neuroscience, 303, 524-534. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.033

Zheng, Y., Dixon, S., McPherson, K., & Smith, P. F. (2015). Glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the cochlear nucleus of rats with acoustic trauma-induced chronic tinnitus. Neuroscience Letters, 586, 60-64. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.11.047

Smith, P. F., Darlington, C. L., & Zheng, Y. (2014). The effects of complete vestibular deafferentation on spatial memory and the hippocampus in rat: The Dunedin experience. Multisensory Research, 28(5-6), 461-485. doi: 10.1163/22134808-00002469

Zheng, Y., Stiles, L., Chien, Y.-T., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2014). The effects of acute stress-induced sleep disturbance on acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. BioMed Research International, 2014, 724195. doi: 10.1155/2014/724195

Zheng, Y., Geddes, L., Sato, G., Stiles, L., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2014). Galvanic vestibular stimulation impairs cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the rat hippocampus but not spatial memory. Hippocampus, 24(5), 541-552. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22247

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2014). Cannabis, cannabinoids and tinnitus. Journal of Pharmacology & Drug Metabolism, 1, 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.jscholaronline.org/journals/journal-of-pharmacology-and-drug-metabolism/jhome.php

Hitier, M., Besnard, S., & Smith, P. F. (2014). Vestibular pathways involved in cognition. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8, 59. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2014.00059

Rivers-Auty, J. R., Smith, P. F., & Ashton, J. C. (2014). The cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist GW405833 does not ameliorate brain damage induced by hypoxia-ischemia in rats. Neuroscience Letters, 569, 104-109. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.03.077

Zheng, Y., McPherson, K., & Smith, P. F. (2014). Effects of early and late treatment with L-baclofen on the development and maintenance of tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Neuroscience, 258, 410-421. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.11.032

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2013). Principal component analysis suggests subtle changes in glutamate receptor subunit expression in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neuroscience Letters, 548, 265-268. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.05.036

Smith, P. F., & Zheng, Y. (2013). From ear to uncertainty: Vestibular contributions to cognitive function. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7, 84. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00084

Zheng, Y., Wilson, G., Stiles, L., & Smith, P. F. (2013). Glutamate receptor subunit and calmodulin kinase II expression, with and without T maze training, in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. PLoS ONE, 8(2), e54527. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054527

Baek, J.-H., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Ashton, J. C. (2013). Antibody testing for brain immunohistochemistry: Brain immunolabeling for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 216(2), 87-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.03.021

Smith, P. F., Ganesh, S., & Liu, P. (2013). A comparison of random forest regression and multiple linear regression for prediction in neuroscience. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 220(1). doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.08.024

Smith, P. F., Haslett, S., & Zheng, Y. (2013). A multivariate statistical and data mining analysis of spatial memory–related behaviour following bilateral vestibular loss in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 246, 15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.02.033

Stiles, L., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). The effects of the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, eticlopride, on attention following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 506(2), 193-197. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.11.003

Zheng, Y., McNamara, E., Stiles, L., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). Evidence that memantine reduces chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 127. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00127

Neo, P., Carter, D., Zheng, Y., Smith, P., Darlington, C., & McNaughton, N. (2012). Septal elicitation of hippocampal theta rhythm did not repair cognitive and emotional deficits resulting from vestibular lesions. Hippocampus, 22(5), 1176-1187. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20963

Stiles, L., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). The D2 dopamine receptor and locomotor hyperactivity following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 227(1), 150-158. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.11.006

Zheng, Y., Vagal, S., McNamara, E., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2012). A dose–response analysis of the effects of L-baclofen on chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Neuropharmacology, 62, 940-946. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.09.027

Zheng, Y., Balabhadrapatruni, S., Baek, J. H., Chung, P., Gliddon, C., Zhang, M., Darlington, C. L., Napper, R., … Smith, P. F. (2012). The effects of bilateral vestibular loss on hippocampal volume, neuronal number, and cell proliferation in rats. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 20. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00020

Smith, P. F. (2012). Dyscalculia and vestibular function. Medical Hypotheses, 79(4), 493-496. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.06.032

Zheng, Y., Cheung, I., & Smith, P. F. (2012). Performance in anxiety and spatial memory tests following bilateral vestibular loss in the rat and effects of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. Behavioural Brain Research, 235(1), 21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.07.025

Zheng, Y., Hamilton, E., Begum, S., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2011). The effects of acoustic trauma that can cause tinnitus on spatial performance in rats. Neuroscience, 186, 48-56. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.04.052

Zheng, Y., Hamilton, E., McNamara, E., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2011). The effects of chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma on social behaviour and anxiety in rats. Neuroscience, 193, 143-153. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.07.026

Baek, J. H., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2011). Cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression and affinity in the rat hippocampus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neuroscience Letters, 487(3), 330-334. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.10.050

Zheng, Y., Begum, S., Zhang, C., Fleming, K., Masumura, C., Zhang, M., Smith, P., & Darlington, C. (2011). Increased BrdU incorporation reflecting DNA repair, neuronal de-differentiation or possible neurogenesis in the adult cochlear nucleus following bilateral cochlear lesions in the rat. Experimental Brain Research, 210(3-4), 477-487. doi: 10.1007/s00221-010-2491-0

Zheng, Y., Hamilton, E., Stiles, L., McNamara, E., de Waele, C., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2011). Acoustic trauma that can cause tinnitus impairs impulsive control but not performance accuracy in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Neuroscience, 180, 75-84. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.02.040

Hüfner, K., Strupp, M., Smith, P., Brandt, T., & Jahn, K. (2011). Spatial separation of visual and vestibular processing in the human hippocampal formation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1233, 177-186. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06115.x

Zheng, Y., Balabhadrapatruni, S., Masumura, C., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2011). Effects of the putative cognitive-enhancing ampakine, CX717, on attention and object recognition memory. Current Alzheimer Research, 8(8), 876-882. doi: 10.2174/156720511798192709

Zheng, Y., Masumura, C., Chung, P., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2010). Cell proliferation and survival in the vestibular nucleus following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the adult rat. Neuroscience Letters, 468(1), 85-88. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.070

Goddard, M., Smith, P. F., & Ashton, J. C. (2010). Behavioural effects of co-administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol with fluoxetine in rats. Pharmacology, 86(2), 125-128. doi: 10.1159/000317059

Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2010). A possible explanation for dizziness following SSRI discontinuation. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 130, 981-983. doi: 10.3109/00016481003602082

Zheng, Y., Vagal, S., Zhu, X.-X., de Waele, C., Smith, P. F., Wang, G., Zhang, M., & Darlington, C. L. (2010). The effects of the Chinese herbal medicine EMF01 on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128(2), 545-548. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.053

Zheng, Y., Stiles, L., Hamilton, E., Smith, P. F., & Darlington, C. L. (2010). The effects of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940, on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats. Hearing Research, 268(1-2), 145-150. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2010.05.015

Zheng, Y., Mason-Parker, S. E., Logan, B., Darlington, C. L., Smith, P. F., & Abraham, W. C. (2010). Hippocampal synaptic transmission and LTP in vivo are intact following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in the rat. Hippocampus, 20(4), 461-468. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20645

Smith, P. F. (2010). New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: Role of cannabinoids. Therapeutics & Clinical Risk Management, 6, 59-63.

Baek, J. H., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2010). Evidence that spatial memory deficits following bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rats are probably permanent. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 94(3), 402-413. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2010.08.007

Liu, P., Zhang, H., Devaraj, R., Ganesalingam, G., & Smith, P. F. (2010). A multivariate analysis of the effects of aging on glutamate, GABA and arginine metabolites in the rat vestibular nucleus. Hearing Research, 269(1-2), 122-133. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2010.06.019

Darlington, C. L., Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Anxiety-related behavior and biogenic amine pathways in the rat following bilateral vestibular lesions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1164(1), 134-139. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03725.x

Zheng, Y., Balabhadrapatruni, S., Masumura, C., Munro, O., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Bilateral vestibular deafferentation causes deficits in a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 203, 113-117. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.04.027

Smith, P. F., Brandt, T., Strupp, M., Darlington, C. L., & Zheng, Y. (2009). Balance before reason in rats and humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1164(1), 127-133. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03726.x

Zheng, Y., Goddard, M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2009). Long-term deficits on a foraging task after bilateral vestibular deafferentation in rats. Hippocampus, 19(5), 480-486. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20533

Baek, J. h., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2009). The CB1 receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, dose-dependently disrupts object recognition memory in adult rats. Neuroscience Letters, 464(1), 71-73. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.08.008

Alexander, A., Smith, P. F., & Rosengren, R. J. (2009). Cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer. Cancer Letters, 285(1), 6-12. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.04.005

Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Synaptic protein expression in the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex following chronic bilateral vestibular loss. Hippocampus, 18(5), 440-444. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20416

Goddard, M., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Monoamine transporter and enzyme expression in the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex following chronic bilateral vestibular loss. Neuroscience Letters, 437(2), 107-110. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.03.073

Zheng, Y., Goddard, M., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Effects of bilateral vestibular deafferentation on anxiety-related behaviours in Wistar rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 193(1), 55-62. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.018

Smith, P. F. (2008). Inflammation in Parkinson's disease: An update. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 9(5), 478-484.

Baek, J.-H., Zheng, Y., Darlington, C. L., & Smith, P. F. (2008). Cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in the rat brainstem cochlear and vestibular nuclei. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 128(9), 961-967. doi: 10.1080/00016480701796944

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