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christina_mcgrawPhD, MSc (Washington)

Tel +64 3 479 7907
Location Science II, 5c4

For more information about the McGraw Research Group

Professional background

  • 2023–present, Associate Professor, University of Otago
  • 2017–2023, Senior Lecturer, University of Otago
  • 2015–2016, Lecturer, University of New England, Australia
  • 2013–2016, Visiting Lecturer and Biogeochemical Sensor Developer, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Australia
  • 2011–2013, Assistant Professor of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Clark University, USA
  • 2006–2010, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Otago
  • 2005–2006, Postdoctoral Fellow, Dublin City University
  • 1999–2004, PhD (Analytical Chemistry) and MSc, University of Washington, USA
  • 1999–BSc (Chemistry), University of Alaska, USA

Research interests

With broad interests in analytical and marine chemistry, my research revolves around the design of field-deployable instrumentation for marine ecosystems.

Christina is also a member of the Coastal People: Southern Skies collaboration that connects communities with world-leading, cross-discipline research to rebuild coastal ecosystems.

Coastal People: Southern Skies

Current research projects include:

The effect of anthropogenic CO2 on our marine ecosystems

Since the industrial revolution, the oceans have absorbed about 1/3 of the anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere. This decreases both seawater pH and carbonate concentration, significantly altering the chemistry of the world's oceans. Our group is developing new laboratory instruments and field-deployable sensors to measure fine-scale changes in carbonate chemistry and to study the impact of global climate change on the world's oceans.

Deployable environmental sensors

To understand fine-scale spatial and temporal changes, solid-contact fabrication techniques have been used to produce a range of low-cost, disposable ion-selective sensors, including carbonate, pH, lead, cadmium, nitrate, and reference electrodes.

Materials and methods for ion-selective electrodes

New methods for ion-selective electrode (ISE) construction are being used to reduce ion fluxes across the sensor's membrane, leading to 100-to-1000-fold improvements in detection limit. This work is complemented by new Bayesian models of the sensor's response, which further improves the accuracy and precision of the measurement.


Chen, W.-H., Armstrong, E., Dillingham, P. W., Moratti, S. C., Ennis, C., & McGraw, C. M. (2023). Dual-lifetime referencing (t-DLR) optical fiber fluorescent pH sensor for microenvironments. Sensors, 23, 8865. doi: 10.3390/s23218865 Journal - Research Article

Koren, K., & McGraw, C. M. (2023). Let's talk about slime: Or why biofouling needs more attention in sensor science. ACS Sensors. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1021/acssensors.3c00961 Journal - Research Other

Koren, K., Steininger, F., & McGraw, C. M. (2023). Reducing biofouling on optical oxygen sensors: A simple modification enabling sensor cleaning via water splitting [Technical Note]. Analytical Methods. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1039/d3ay00376k Journal - Research Other

McGraw, C. M., Krieger, E. C., del Carmen Bravo Senmache, N., Cornwall, C. E., & Dupont, S. (2023). Developing a multiple driver research strategy using multiple environmental driver design lab for experiments. Limnology & Oceanography Bulletin, 32(1), 37-38. doi: 10.1002/lob.10555 Journal - Research Other

McGraw, C. M., Krieger, E. C., del Carmen Bravo Senmache, N., Cornwall, C. E., & Dupont, S. (2023). Developing a multiple driver research strategy using Multiple Environmental Driver Design Lab for Experiments [Meeting highlights]. Limnology & Oceanography Bulletin, 32(1), 37-38. doi: 10.1002/lob.10535 Journal - Research Other

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