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    Evolution, extinction and other principles of paleontology; fossils, paleoecology and ancient environments; New Zealand Cenozoic fossils and stratigraphy.

    Evolution of NZ Biota as revealed by fossils (invertebrates, vertebrates, plants) and some living groups:

    • What's distinctive about the biota from ancient Zealandia to modern NZ
    • Principles and methods of paleontology, evolution and extinction and historical developments
    • Paleoecology and paleoenvironments
    • Biogeographic signals in the NZ biota present and past

    About this paper

    Paper title Evolution of New Zealand Biota
    Subject Geology
    EFTS 0.15
    Points 18 points
    Teaching period Not offered in 2024 (On campus)
    Domestic Tuition Fees ( NZD ) $1,173.30
    International Tuition Fees Tuition Fees for international students are elsewhere on this website.
    EAOS 111 and/or GEOL 112 and/or BIOL and/or BTNY and/or ECOL and/or ZOOL papers, and 72 200-level points from Science Schedule C
    GEOL 272
    Schedule C

    Background requirements: 100-level stratigraphy and paleontology. An interest in the modern NZ biota (plants or animals) would be a significant help, though it is not essential.
    GEOL272 is for students in their second year of a geology or equivalent degree. GEOL372 is for students in their third year of a geology or equivalent degree.


    Teaching staff

    To be confirmed.

    Paper Structure

    The NZ biota, present and past, including:

    • Physiography, climate, ocean circulation
    • Biogeographic signals

    Principles and methods of paleontology, including:

    • Development of historical geology
    • Evolution before and after Darwin, extinction
    • Systematics, phylogeny, cladistics
    • Structure and function

    Paleoecology and paleoenvironment, including:

    • Principles of ecology and paleoecology
    • Environments past and present
    • Fossils and sedimentology
    • Taxonomic uniformitarianism - fossils and paleoenvironments
    • Marine paleoecology
    • Plants
    • Vertebrates
    • Trace fossils

    Biogeographic signals in the NZ biota, including some combination of:

    • Moas
    • Beech trees
    • Land mammals
    • Cretaceous reptiles
    • Triassic ecosystems

    Assessment is approximately an even split between internal (ongoing during the semester) and external (final exam). The final examination for GEOL372 differs from that for GEOL272, to reflect greater background knowledge and higher expectations of students taking the paper at 300-level.

    Teaching Arrangements
    Two lectures and one 3-hour laboratory per week.

    One-day weekend field trip to South Otago (to study Triassic-Jurassic and Paleocene fossils and strata), normally in the first or second weekend of semester;
    One-day weekend field trip to South Canterbury/Waitaki Valley (paleoecology exercise), normally about mid-semester.

    Text books are not required for this paper. Suggested readings will be identified in the peer-reviewed literature. You should also read relevant sections in the Encylopedia of Geology, accessible under E-journals/E-books via the Library web page.

    Graduate Attributes Emphasised
    Communication, Critical thinking, Environmental literacy, Information literacy, Research, Self-motivation, Teamwork.
    View more information about Otago's graduate attributes.
    Learning Outcomes
    Students should gain understanding of the main macrofossil groups found in New Zealand and some key modern groups and their application to biostratigraphy, paleoecology (especially depositional settings, emphasising stratigraphy and outcrop-level sedimentology), paleoclimates, and paleobiogeography (especially related to links with Gondwana and Gondwana breakup).


    Not offered in 2024

    Teaching method
    This paper is taught On Campus
    Learning management system
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