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Associate Professor Susan Houge Mackenzie

Office OBS 2.36
Tel +64 3 479 9196
Email susan.hougemackenzie@otago.ac.nz

BackgroundSusan Houge Mackenzie webpage photo

Susan joined the department in 2017. Her research integrates psychology and tourism by developing and applying positive psychology theories, such as flow, self-determination theory, and reversal theory, to adventure tourism, sport, recreation, and education contexts. Her primary research focuses on links between nature-based adventure and well-being for tourists, recreationalists, tourism guides, and host communities. Her research also focuses on translating theoretical developments into practical applications for tourism guides and the tourism industry. Susan employs a range of methodologies to study how adventure experiences unfold and their long-term impacts, including survey research, autoethnography, and stimulated recall using head-mounted cameras. Additional projects include investigations of how outdoor adventure can promote engagement and intrinsic motivation in physical activity and science education.

Susan’s interests in outdoor adventure, sport, and psychological well-being stem from ten years of whitewater riversurfing guiding in New Zealand, the US and Chile, and competitive soccer experiences in the US, New Zealand, Australia and Spain. She has applied these experiences to develop risk management guidelines for adventure operations; conduct mental skill training workshops for elite youth athletes; and to provide consulting for: government and tourism agencies, the New Zealand riverboarding industry, tour operators in the Galapagos Islands, the History Channel, and the United States Forest Service.

Learn more about Susan's research and projects:

ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Susan_Houge_Mackenzie
Academia.edu: https://otago.academia.edu/SusanHougeMackenzie

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Publications

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., Filep, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Subjective well-being and leisure. In W. L. Filho, T. Wall, A. M. Azul, L. Brandli & P. G. Özuyar (Eds.), Good health and well-being: Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. (pp. 678-687). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95681-7

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Raymond, E. (2020). A conceptual model of adventure tour guide well-being. Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102977. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102977

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2020). Adventure recreation and subjective well-being: A conceptual framework. Leisure Studies, 39(1), 26-40. doi: 10.1080/02614367.2019.1577478

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Conceptualizing adventurous nature sport: A positive psychology perspective. Annals of Leisure Research, 23(1), 79-91. doi: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1483733

Cheng, M., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Degarege, G. A. (2020). Airbnb impacts on host communities in a tourism destination: An exploratory study of stakeholder perspectives in Queenstown, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1802469

Chapter in Book - Research

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., Filep, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Subjective well-being and leisure. In W. L. Filho, T. Wall, A. M. Azul, L. Brandli & P. G. Özuyar (Eds.), Good health and well-being: Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. (pp. 678-687). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95681-7

Brymer, E., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2017). Psychology and the extreme sport experience. In F. Feletti (Ed.), Extreme sports medicine. (pp. 3-13). Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28265-7_1

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. (2017). Co-creation and experience brokering in guided adventure tours. In S. Filep, J. Laing & M. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Positive tourism. (pp. 185-201). Taylor & Francis. doi: 10.4324/9781315707129

Brymer, E., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). The impact of extreme sports on host communities’ psychological growth and development. In Y. Reisinger (Ed.), Transformational tourism: Host perspectives. (pp. 129-140). CABI.

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). The evolution of adventure tourism in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Current trends & future issues. In R. Black & K. S. Bricker (Eds.), Adventure programming and travel for the 21st century. (pp. 27-34). Venture Publishing.

Boyes, M., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). Concepts of the wilderness experience and adventure mountaineering tourism. In G. Musa, J. Higham & A. Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering tourism. (pp. 66-84). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). Mountaineering tourism experience and the protective frame: A reversal theory perspective. In G. Musa, J. Higham & A. Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering tourism. (pp. 186-197). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315769202

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Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Raymond, E. (2020). A conceptual model of adventure tour guide well-being. Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102977. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102977

Cheng, M., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Degarege, G. A. (2020). Airbnb impacts on host communities in a tourism destination: An exploratory study of stakeholder perspectives in Queenstown, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1802469

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Conceptualizing adventurous nature sport: A positive psychology perspective. Annals of Leisure Research, 23(1), 79-91. doi: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1483733

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2020). Adventure recreation and subjective well-being: A conceptual framework. Leisure Studies, 39(1), 26-40. doi: 10.1080/02614367.2019.1577478

Kerr, J. H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2020). ‘I don’t want to die. That’s not why I do it at all’: Multifaceted motivation, psychological health, and personal development in BASE jumping. Annals of Leisure Research, 23(2), 223-242. doi: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1483732

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Filep, S. (2019). Facilitating self-development: How tour guides broker spiritual tourist experiences. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(2), 141-152. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2019.1582159

Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., & Eitel, K. (2018). Using outdoor adventure to enhance intrinsic motivation and engagement in science and physical activity: An exploratory study. Journal of Outdoor Recreation & Tourism, 21, 76-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jort.2018.01.008

Houge Mackenzie, S., Schwab, K., Higgins, L., Greenwood, P. B., Goldenberg, M., Greenwood, J., & Hendricks, W. W. (2017). From social media to the outdoors: Exploring messages that connect with underserved urban youth. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 9(2), 137-151. doi: 10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I2-8231

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2017). Positive motivational experience over a three-day outdoor adventure trek in Peru. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 17(1), 4-17. doi: 10.1080/14729679.2016.1189837

Son, J. S., Houge Mackenzie, S., Eitel, K., & Luvaas, E. (2017). Engaging youth in physical activity and STEM subjects through outdoor adventure education. Journal of Outdoor & Environmental Education, 20(2), 32-44.

Battista, R., West, S. T., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Son, J. (2016). Is this exercise? No, it's geocaching! Exploring factors related to aspects of geocaching participation. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 34(2), 30-48. doi: 10.18666/JPRA-2016-V34-I2-6495

Karp, G. G., Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., Brown, H., & Kern, A. L. (2016). Facilitating collaborative interdisciplinary research: Exploring process and implications for leisure scholars. Leisure/Loisir, 40(2), 201-223. doi: 10.1080/14927713.2016.1220259

Clough, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., Mallabon, L., & Brymer, E. (2016). Adventurous physical activity environments: A mainstream intervention for mental health. Sports Medicine, 46(7), 963-968. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0503-3

Hollenhorst, S. J., Houge-Mackenzie, S., & Ostergren, D. M. (2014). The trouble with tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 39(3), 305-319. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2014.11087003

Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., & Hollenhorst, S. (2014). Unifying psychology and experiential education: Toward an integrated understanding of why it works. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(1), 75-88. doi: 10.1177/1053825913518894

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2014). The psychological experience of river guiding: Exploring the protective frame and implications for guide well-being. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 19(1), 5-27. doi: 10.1080/14775085.2014.967796

Kerr, J. H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2014). Confidence frames and the mastery of new challenges in the motivation of an expert skydiver. Sport Psychologist, 28(3), 221-232. doi: 10.1123/tsp.2013-0069

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2013). The multiphasic and dynamic nature of flow in adventure experiences. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(2), 214-232.

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2013). Can't we all just get along? Emotions and the team guiding experience in adventure tourism. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(2), 85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2013.03.003

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2013). Stress and emotions at work: An adventure tourism guide's experiences. Tourism Management, 36, 3-14. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.018

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2013). Beyond thrill-seeking: Exploring multiple motives for adventure participation. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 5(2), 136-139. doi: 10.7768/1948-5123.1212

Kerr, J. H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adventure sports. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13(5), 649-657. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.002

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). A (mis)guided adventure tourism experience: An autoethnographic analysis of mountaineering in Bolivia. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 17(2), 125-144. doi: 10.1080/14775085.2012.729901

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). Client experiences in mountaineering tourism and implications for outdoor leaders. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 4(2), 112-115. doi: 10.7768/1948-5123.1159

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). Head-mounted cameras and stimulated recall in qualitative sport research. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise & Health, 4(1), 51-61. doi: 10.1080/2159676X.2011.653495

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2011). Expanding the flow model in adventure activities: A reversal theory perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 519-544.

Houge, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2010). The phasic nature of flow in high risk recreation. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 2(2), 159-162.

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Journal - Research Other

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Goodnow, J. (2020). Adventure in the age of COVID-19: Embracing microadventures and locavism in a post-pandemic world. Leisure Sciences. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/01490400.2020.1773984

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2020). Flow states in adventure recreation: A systematic review and thematic synthesis. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 46, 101611. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101611

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Journal - Professional & Other Non-Research Articles

Schwab, K., Houge Mackenzie, S., Hendricks, W. W., Higgins, L. M., Goldenberg, M., Greenwood, J., & Greenwood, B. (2016). Stay on your smartphone! Social media messages that connect youths with nature. Parks & Recreation, 51(11), 14-16.

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Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Full paper

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. (2013). Toward theoretical understanding of adventure guide experiences through autoethnography. In J. Fountain & K. Moore (Eds.), Proceedings of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Annual Conference: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big. (pp. 357-360). Christchurch, New Zealand: Lincoln University. [Full Paper]

Houge, S. P., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2010). A positive learning spiral of skill development in high-risk recreation: Reversal theory and flow. Journal of Experiential Education, 32(3), (pp. 285-289). [Full Paper]

Houge, S. P., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2009). A positive learning spiral of skill development in high risk recreation: Reversal theory and flow. Proceedings of the Symposium on Experiential Education Research (SEER) presented at the 37th Annual International Association for Experiential Education (AEE) Conference. (pp. 21-25). Retrieved from http://www.aee.org/files/en/user/cms/2009_SEER_Program_FINAL.pdf

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Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Abstract

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Filep, S. (2020). New perspectives on tour guiding: Mediating spiritual tourist experiences. Proceedins of 30th Annual Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference: 20:20 Vision: New Perspectives on the Diversity of Hospitality, Tourism and Events. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University of Technology. [Abstract]

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Filep, S. (2019). Facilitating self-development: How tour guides broker spiritual tourism experiences. In T. Walters, R. Kerr & E. J. Stewart (Eds.), The Diversity of Leisure: Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies (ANZALS) 14th Biennial Conference. (pp. 93-94). Dunedin, New Zealand: Department of Tourism, University of Otago. Retrieved from https://www.otago.ac.nz/anzals2019

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2019). Women's outdoor leadership experiences: A psychological well-being perspective. In T. Walters, R. Kerr & E. J. Stewart (Eds.), The Diversity of Leisure: Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies (ANZALS) 14th Biennial Conference. (pp. 72). Dunedin, New Zealand: Department of Tourism, University of Otago. Retrieved from https://www.otago.ac.nz/anzals2019

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2019). A systematic review of the optimal state of flow in adventure recreation. In T. Walters, R. Kerr & E. J. Stewart (Eds.), The Diversity of Leisure: Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies (ANZALS) 14th Biennial Conference. (pp. 50-51). Dunedin, New Zealand: Department of Tourism, University of Otago. Retrieved from https://www.otago.ac.nz/anzals2019

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2019). Well-being and adventure: Women's experiences of adventure guiding. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society with IBG (RGS-IBG) Annual International Conference: Geographies of Trouble / Geographies of Hope. Retrieved from http://conference.rgs.org/AC2019

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). Using emerging methodologies to examine adventure recreation and tourism experiences: A critical analysis. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 7(2), (pp. 173-175). doi: 10.18666/JOREL-2015-V7-I2-7013

Son, J., West, S., Battista, R., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). Exploring factors related to geocaching participation. Proceedings of the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA): Congress & Exposition. Ashburn, USA: National Recreation and Park Association. [Abstract]

Houge Mackenzie, S., Schwab, K., Higgins, L., Greenwood, B., Goldenberg, M., Greenwood, J., & Hendricks, W. W. (2015). Engaging urban youth with natural areas: Messaging that resonates. Proceedings of the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA): Congress & Exposition. Ashburn, USA: National Recreation and Park Association. [Abstract]

Hougham, R. J., Miller, B., Eitel, K., Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., & Thompson, G. (2013). Adventure learning to promote greenSTEM education and physical activity in schools [Extended abstract]. Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on Experimental Education Research (SEER) at the 41st Annual International Association for Experiential Education (AEE) Conference. (pp. 74-77). Retrieved from http://www.aee.org/seer

Houge, S. (2010). Optimal experiences in adventure tourism: Reversal theory and flow. In A. Reis, C. Jellum, B. Lovelock & A. Thompson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Centre for Recreation Research Symposium: Recreation Values and Natural Areas. (pp. 92). Dunedin, New Zealand: Centre for Recreation Research, School of Business, University of Otago. [Abstract]

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