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Associate Professor Susan Houge Mackenzie

Office OBS 8.04
Tel +64 3 479 4293
Email susan.hougemackenzie@otago.ac.nz

BackgroundSusan Houge Mackenzie webpage photo

Susan joined the department in 2017. Her research integrates psychology and tourism by developing and applying positive psychology theories, such as flow, self-determination theory, and reversal theory, to adventure tourism, sport, recreation, and education contexts.

Her primary research focuses on:

  • Links between nature-based adventure and well-being for tourists, recreationalists, tourism guides, and/or host communities.
  • Links between outdoor adventure and motivation in physical activity and science education.
  • The regenerative tourism movement in Aotearoa, particularly in relation to community well-being
  • Translational research that applies theoretical developments into practical applications for the tourism industry.
  • Mixed methods (e.g. qualitative research, survey research, autoethnography, stimulated recall using head-mounted cameras)

Susan was previously a tourism practitioner in a diverse range of tourism industry roles globally (e.g. adventure guiding, tourism consulting) and she has worked alongside regional tourism organisations seeking to embrace regenerative planning and management processes.

Her applied projects include mental skill training workshops, developing management guidelines for adventure tourism operations, and consulting with government, non-profit, and tourism agencies, such as New Zealand riverboarding, the United States Forest Service, New Zealand Ministry of Tourism, and the History Channel. She serves on advisory boards for Tourism Central Otago, the Adventure Tourism Research Association, and the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, and is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership.

Learn more about Susan's research and projects:

ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Susan_Houge_Mackenzie

Her work currently focuses on: nature-based adventure and well-being for tourists, guides, and hosts; regenerative tourism in Aotearoa; and refining the flow model of optimal experience. Susan’s research seeks to translating theoretical developments into practical applications. Applications include using outdoor adventure to promote physical activity and science education; developing risk management frameworks and guide training for adventure tourism; mental skill training for youth athletes; and consulting with government, non-profit, and tourism agencies. She serves in advisory roles with the Central Otago Tourism Advisory Board, the Adventure Tourism Research Association, and the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, and as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership.

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Publications

Rahmani, Z., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Carr, A. (2022). How virtual wellness retreats may influence psychological well-being. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Council for Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference: Shaping the Next Normal in Tourism, Hospitality and Events. (pp. 63). [Abstract]

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2022). Adventure-based mindsets helped maintain psychological well-being during COVID-19. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 62, 102245. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2022.102245

Jenkins, M., Lee, C., Houge Mackenzie, S., Hargreaves, E. A., Hodge, K., & Calverley, J. (2022). Nature-based physical activity and hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing: The mediating roles of motivational quality and nature relatedness. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 783840. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.783840

Beames, S., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Raymond, E. (2022). How can we adventure sustainably? A systematized review of sustainability guidance for adventure tourism operators. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 50, 223-231. doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2022.01.002

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2022). Optimal psychological states in advanced climbers: Antecedents, characteristics, and consequences of flow and clutch states. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 60, 102155. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2022.102155

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2021). Emerging psychological wellbeing frameworks for adventure recreation, education, and tourism. In E. Brymer, M. Rogerson & J. Barton (Eds.), Nature and health: Physical activity in nature. (pp. 147-159). New York, NY: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781003154419

Chapter in Book - Research

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Raymond, E. (2021). Women's adventure guiding experiences: Challenges and opportunities. In M. Baker, N. Carr & E. J. Stewart (Eds.), Leisure activities in the outdoors: Learning, developing and challenging. (pp. 90-102). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. doi: 10.1079/9781789248203.0008

Chapter in Book - Research

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., Filep, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Subjective well-being and leisure. In W. L. Filho, T. Wall, A. M. Azul, L. Brandli & P. G. Özuyar (Eds.), Good health and well-being: Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. (pp. 678-687). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95681-7

Chapter in Book - Research

Brymer, E., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2017). Psychology and the extreme sport experience. In F. Feletti (Ed.), Extreme sports medicine. (pp. 3-13). Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28265-7_1

Chapter in Book - Research

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. (2017). Co-creation and experience brokering in guided adventure tours. In S. Filep, J. Laing & M. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Positive tourism. (pp. 185-201). Taylor & Francis. doi: 10.4324/9781315707129

Chapter in Book - Research

Boyes, M., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). Concepts of the wilderness experience and adventure mountaineering tourism. In G. Musa, J. Higham & A. Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering tourism. (pp. 66-84). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Chapter in Book - Research

Brymer, E., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). The impact of extreme sports on host communities’ psychological growth and development. In Y. Reisinger (Ed.), Transformational tourism: Host perspectives. (pp. 129-140). CABI.

Chapter in Book - Research

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). Mountaineering tourism experience and the protective frame: A reversal theory perspective. In G. Musa, J. Higham & A. Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering tourism. (pp. 186-197). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315769202

Chapter in Book - Research

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2015). The evolution of adventure tourism in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Current trends & future issues. In R. Black & K. S. Bricker (Eds.), Adventure programming and travel for the 21st century. (pp. 27-34). Venture Publishing.

Chapter in Book - Research

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2022). Adventure-based mindsets helped maintain psychological well-being during COVID-19. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 62, 102245. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2022.102245

Journal - Research Article

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2022). Optimal psychological states in advanced climbers: Antecedents, characteristics, and consequences of flow and clutch states. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 60, 102155. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2022.102155

Journal - Research Article

Cheng, M., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Degarege, G. A. (2022). Airbnb impacts on host communities in a tourism destination: An exploratory study of stakeholder perspectives in Queenstown, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(5), 1122-1140. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1802469

Journal - Research Article

Jenkins, M., Lee, C., Houge Mackenzie, S., Hargreaves, E. A., Hodge, K., & Calverley, J. (2022). Nature-based physical activity and hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing: The mediating roles of motivational quality and nature relatedness. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 783840. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.783840

Journal - Research Article

Hargreaves, E. A., Lee, C., Jenkins, M., Calverley, J. R., Hodge, K., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2021). Changes in physical activity levels pre-, during and post-lockdown COVID-19 restrictions in New Zealand and the explanatory role of daily hassles. Frontiers in Psychology, 642954, 642954. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.642954

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Filep, S. (2021). How does adventure sport tourism enhance well-being? A conceptual model. Tourism Recreation Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2021.1894043

Journal - Research Article

Jenkins, M., Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., Hargreaves, E. A., Calverley, J. R., & Lee, C. (2021). Physical activity and psychological well-being during the COVID-19 lockdown: Relationships with motivational quality and nature contexts. Frontiers in Sports & Active Living, 3, 637576. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2021.637576

Journal - Research Article

Boudreau, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2020). Flow states in adventure recreation: A systematic review and thematic synthesis. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 46, 101611. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101611

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Conceptualizing adventurous nature sport: A positive psychology perspective. Annals of Leisure Research, 23(1), 79-91. doi: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1483733

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2020). Adventure recreation and subjective well-being: A conceptual framework. Leisure Studies, 39(1), 26-40. doi: 10.1080/02614367.2019.1577478

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Raymond, E. (2020). A conceptual model of adventure tour guide well-being. Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102977. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102977

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Boudreau, P., & Raymond, E. (2020). Women’s adventure tour guiding experiences: Implications for well-being. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 45, 410-418. doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.09.006

Journal - Research Article

Kerr, J. H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2020). ‘I don’t want to die. That’s not why I do it at all’: Multifaceted motivation, psychological health, and personal development in BASE jumping. Annals of Leisure Research, 23(2), 223-242. doi: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1483732

Journal - Research Article

Parsons, H., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Filep, S. (2019). Facilitating self-development: How tour guides broker spiritual tourist experiences. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(2), 141-152. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2019.1582159

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., & Eitel, K. (2018). Using outdoor adventure to enhance intrinsic motivation and engagement in science and physical activity: An exploratory study. Journal of Outdoor Recreation & Tourism, 21, 76-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jort.2018.01.008

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2017). Positive motivational experience over a three-day outdoor adventure trek in Peru. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 17(1), 4-17. doi: 10.1080/14729679.2016.1189837

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Schwab, K., Higgins, L., Greenwood, P. B., Goldenberg, M., Greenwood, J., & Hendricks, W. W. (2017). From social media to the outdoors: Exploring messages that connect with underserved urban youth. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 9(2), 137-151. doi: 10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I2-8231

Journal - Research Article

Son, J. S., Houge Mackenzie, S., Eitel, K., & Luvaas, E. (2017). Engaging youth in physical activity and STEM subjects through outdoor adventure education. Journal of Outdoor & Environmental Education, 20(2), 32-44.

Journal - Research Article

Battista, R., West, S. T., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Son, J. (2016). Is this exercise? No, it's geocaching! Exploring factors related to aspects of geocaching participation. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 34(2), 30-48. doi: 10.18666/JPRA-2016-V34-I2-6495

Journal - Research Article

Clough, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., Mallabon, L., & Brymer, E. (2016). Adventurous physical activity environments: A mainstream intervention for mental health. Sports Medicine, 46(7), 963-968. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0503-3

Journal - Research Article

Karp, G. G., Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., Brown, H., & Kern, A. L. (2016). Facilitating collaborative interdisciplinary research: Exploring process and implications for leisure scholars. Leisure/Loisir, 40(2), 201-223. doi: 10.1080/14927713.2016.1220259

Journal - Research Article

Hollenhorst, S. J., Houge-Mackenzie, S., & Ostergren, D. M. (2014). The trouble with tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 39(3), 305-319. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2014.11087003

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2014). The psychological experience of river guiding: Exploring the protective frame and implications for guide well-being. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 19(1), 5-27. doi: 10.1080/14775085.2014.967796

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Son, J. S., & Hollenhorst, S. (2014). Unifying psychology and experiential education: Toward an integrated understanding of why it works. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(1), 75-88. doi: 10.1177/1053825913518894

Journal - Research Article

Kerr, J. H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2014). Confidence frames and the mastery of new challenges in the motivation of an expert skydiver. Sport Psychologist, 28(3), 221-232. doi: 10.1123/tsp.2013-0069

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S. (2013). Beyond thrill-seeking: Exploring multiple motives for adventure participation. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 5(2), 136-139. doi: 10.7768/1948-5123.1212

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2013). Can't we all just get along? Emotions and the team guiding experience in adventure tourism. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(2), 85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2013.03.003

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2013). Stress and emotions at work: An adventure tourism guide's experiences. Tourism Management, 36, 3-14. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.018

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2013). The multiphasic and dynamic nature of flow in adventure experiences. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(2), 214-232.

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). A (mis)guided adventure tourism experience: An autoethnographic analysis of mountaineering in Bolivia. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 17(2), 125-144. doi: 10.1080/14775085.2012.729901

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). Client experiences in mountaineering tourism and implications for outdoor leaders. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 4(2), 112-115. doi: 10.7768/1948-5123.1159

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). Head-mounted cameras and stimulated recall in qualitative sport research. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise & Health, 4(1), 51-61. doi: 10.1080/2159676X.2011.653495

Journal - Research Article

Kerr, J. H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adventure sports. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13(5), 649-657. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.002

Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2011). Expanding the flow model in adventure activities: A reversal theory perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 519-544.

Journal - Research Article

Houge, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2010). The phasic nature of flow in high risk recreation. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 2(2), 159-162.

Journal - Research Article

Beames, S., Houge Mackenzie, S., & Raymond, E. (2022). How can we adventure sustainably? A systematized review of sustainability guidance for adventure tourism operators. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 50, 223-231. doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2022.01.002

Journal - Research Other

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Goodnow, J. (2021). Adventure in the age of COVID-19: Embracing microadventures and locavism in a post-pandemic world. Leisure Sciences, 43(1-2), 62-69. doi: 10.1080/01490400.2020.1773984

Journal - Research Other

Schwab, K., Houge Mackenzie, S., Hendricks, W. W., Higgins, L. M., Goldenberg, M., Greenwood, J., & Greenwood, B. (2016). Stay on your smartphone! Social media messages that connect youths with nature. Parks & Recreation, 51(11), 14-16.

Journal - Professional & Other Non-Research Articles

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. (2013). Toward theoretical understanding of adventure guide experiences through autoethnography. In J. Fountain & K. Moore (Eds.), Proceedings of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Annual Conference: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big. (pp. 357-360). Christchurch, New Zealand: Lincoln University. [Full Paper]

Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Full paper

Houge, S. P., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2010). A positive learning spiral of skill development in high-risk recreation: Reversal theory and flow. Journal of Experiential Education, 32(3), (pp. 285-289). [Full Paper]

Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Full paper

Houge, S. P., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2009). A positive learning spiral of skill development in high risk recreation: Reversal theory and flow. Proceedings of the Symposium on Experiential Education Research (SEER) presented at the 37th Annual International Association for Experiential Education (AEE) Conference. (pp. 21-25). Retrieved from http://www.aee.org/files/en/user/cms/2009_SEER_Program_FINAL.pdf

Conference Contribution - Published proceedings: Full paper

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