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khodgeProfessor
MS(Montana) PhD(Ill)
Tel +64 3 479 8945
Email ken.hodge@otago.ac.nz

Background

Dr Hodge is a Professor in sport and exercise psychology at the School of Physical Education, Sport & Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, New Zealand (NZ). He joined the School in 1988, after completing his PhD at the University of Illinois (USA). His research focuses primarily on the psycho-social effects of participation in sport. In particular, he has investigated issues such as motivational orientations in sport, prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport, athlete burnout and athlete engagement, lifeskill development through sport, and self-esteem and moral development in sport.

Dr Hodge served as Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology (USA) from 2005-2012 and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology (USA), Psychology of Sport & Exercise (Europe), Journal of Applied Sport Psychology (USA), and The Sport Psychologist (USA). In addition, he regularly serves as a reviewer for a number of international journals such as the Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (USA), and Journal of Sports Sciences (UK).

Ken served on the Executive Board for Sport & Exercise Science NZ from 2008-2012, and is a former President of the NZ Sport Psychology Association (having served as President from 1992-1996). He also served as Deputy-Chairman of the NZ Federation of Sports Medicine from 1993-1995; and as a board member for Sport Otago (1998-2004). 

In addition, Ken has extensive experience working with elite NZ athletes as a Mental Skills Trainer (e.g., 1990, 1994, 1998 Commonwealth Games, 1992 Summer Olympics; 2006 Winter Olympics; NZ Colts Rugby, 2002-2005; Highlanders Super 14 Rugby Team, 2010; Silver Ferns Netball, 2006-2007; NZ Academy of Sport athletes, 2002-2010; MotorSport NZ Academy, 2002-2014; IRB Sevens Elite Referees Squad, 2014). 

Teaching

Research

  • Motivational Indices of Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport
  • Motivational Climates in Elite Sports teams
  • Sport Psychology Consultant (SPC) Effectiveness
  • Athlete Burnout & Engagement
  • Motivational Orientations in Sport
  • Sport and LifeSkill Development

Motivational Indices of Prosocial and Antisocial behaviour in Sport. Along with my colleague, Dr Chris Lonsdale (University of Western Sydney), I have been involved in research employing Self Determination Theory (SDT) to examine a range of psychological variables in sport. Despite the substantial increase in the use of SDT in sport, this theory has not been used to date to examine prosocial and antisocial behaviour. We planned a series of studies to investigate ‘Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport’ (a key aspect of morality in sport).  We published one paper in 2011; and a related study with another colleague, Dr Elaine Hargreaves, regarding ‘drugs in sport’ (as another indicator of antisocial behaviour in sport) in 2013.

Motivational Climates in Elite Sports Teams. In 2012-2013 I was involved in a research project with two coaches (Head Coach, Graham Henry; Assistant Coach, Wayne Smith) from the World Champion NZ All Blacks Rugby Team. We examined two related issues: (i) coach-created motivational climate, and (ii) coach-led practices for coping with pressure and ‘avoiding-the-choke’. One paper is currently ‘in press’ and another is ‘under review’.

Sport Psychology Consultant (SPC) Effectiveness. Since 2010 I have been involved, along with Dr Lee-Ann Sharp (University of Ulster, N. Ireland), in a series of studies examining what makes an ‘effective’ Sport Psychology Consultant (SPC). We have examined SPC effectiveness from the perspectives of the athlete, the coach, pre-elite SPCs, and elite-level (e.g., Olympics) SPCs. Four publications, and one in press.

Athlete Burnout & Engagement.  In conjunction with Dr Chris Lonsdale (University of Western Sydney, Australia) and Dr Tom Raedeke (E. Carolina University, USA) we have examined motivational issues (self-determination theory) related to ‘athlete burnout’. I also worked with Drs Lonsdale and Raedeke on a related project examining motivational issues (self-determination theory) related to ‘athlete engagement’. Finally along with Dr Lonsdale, I worked on a project with Dr Sue Jackson (University of Queensland) investigating the relationship between ‘athlete engagement’ and ‘flow’’ in sport. We have published a number of papers.

Sport and LifeSkill Development in NZ.  In conjunction with Prof Steve Danish (Virginia Commonwealth University, USA) I have been involved in the development of a NZ version of the ‘GOAL LifeSkills Programme’ and a line of research investigating the effects of the GOAL Programme on psycho-social development. In addition, I was involved with Prof Danish in the design and development of a new lifeskills programme -- SUPER (Sports United for the Promotion of Education and Recreation).  Prof Danish and I have published a number of papers and book chapters.

PE and LifeSkill Development in Japan.  In conjunction with Prof Tamotsu Nishida (Nagoya University, Japan) I was involved as the ‘Foreign Cooperating Investigator’ in the development of a Japanese version of a ‘PE LifeSkills Programme’ and a line of research investigating the effects of the School PE LifeSkills Programme on psycho-social development for adolescent children in Japan.

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Publications

Hodge, K., Beauchamp, M., & Fletcher, D. (2019). Group and team dynamics. In A. Mugford & J. G. Cremades (Eds.), Sport, exercise, and performance psychology: Theories and applications. (pp. 342-363). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780429438851

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2019). Adventure recreation and subjective well-being: A conceptual framework. Leisure Studies, 1. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02614367.2019.1577478

Jenkins, M., Hargreaves, E. A., & Hodge, K. (2019). The role of psychological flexibility in physical activity maintenance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2018-0311

O'Neil, L., & Hodge, K. (2019). Commitment in sport: The role of coaching style and autonomous vs. controlled motivation. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2019.1581302

Pierce, S., Hodge, K., Taylor, M., & Button, A. (2017). Tall poppy syndrome: Perceptions and experiences of elite New Zealand athletes. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15(4), 351-369. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2017.1280834

Authored Book - Research

Hodge, K. P., & McKenzie, A. D. (1999). Thinking Rugby: Training Your Mind for Peak Performance. Auckland, NZ: Reed Books, 236p.

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Authored Book - Other

Hodge, K. P. (2000). Sports Thoughts: Inspiration and Motivation for Sport. Auckland: Reed Books, 87p.

Hodge, K. P. (1997). GOAL Studet Activity Book (Going for Goal [GOAL]: A sport-based life skills programme for adolescents). 76p.

Dugdale, J., & Hodge, K. P. (1997). Psychological Skills Training: Practical Guidelines for Athletes, Coaches, & Officials. Wellington: Sport Science New Zealand, 45p.

Hodge, K. P. (1997). GOAL Leader Manual (Going for Goal [GOAL]: A sport-based life skills programme for adolscents). 110p.

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Edited Book - Research

McKenzie, A. D., Hodge, K. P., & Sleivert, G. G. (Eds.). (2000). Smart Training for Rugby: A Complete Training Guide for Rugby Players and Coaches. Auckland: Reed, 247p.

Hodge, K. P., Sleivert, G. G., & McKenzie, A. D. (Eds.). (1996). Smart Training for Peak Performance. Auckland: Reed Books, 176p.

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Chapter in Book - Research

Hodge, K., Beauchamp, M., & Fletcher, D. (2019). Group and team dynamics. In A. Mugford & J. G. Cremades (Eds.), Sport, exercise, and performance psychology: Theories and applications. (pp. 342-363). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780429438851

Hodge, K. (2010). Working at the Olympics. In S. J. Hanrahan & M. B. Andersen (Eds.), Routledge handbook of applied sport psychology: A comprehensive guide for students and practitioners. (pp. 405-413). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Hodge, K., & Hermansson, G. (2009). Psychological preparation of athletes for the Olympic context: Team culture and team-building. In R. Schinke (Ed.), Contemporary sport psychology. (pp. 55-70). New York: Nova Science.

Theokas, C., Danish, S., Hodge, K., Heke, I., & Forneris, T. (2008). Enhancing life skills through sport for children and youth. In N. L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport. (pp. 71-81). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Hodge, K. (2004). Team dynamics. In T. Morris & J. Summers (Eds.), Sport psychology: Theory, applications and issues. (2nd ed.) (pp. 210-233). Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.

Danish, S., Hodge, K. P., Heke, J. I. C., & Taylor, T. (2003). Promoting healthy development of youth through physical activity and sport. In T. Gullota & M. Bloom (Eds.), The American Enyclopedia of Primary Prevention. (pp. 1033-1040). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic / Plenum.

Hodge, K. P., & McKenzie, A. D. (2002). Motivation and confidence. In B. Hale & D. Collins (Eds.), Rugby Tough. (pp. 35-59). Champaign, Ilinois: Human Kinetics.

Hodge, K. P., McKenzie, A. D., & Hermansson, G. (2001). Sport Psychology in New Zealand. In J. Salmela & T. Morris (Eds.), World Sport Psychology Sourcebook. (pp. 20-30). Morganstown, VA, USA: Fitness Information.

Hodge, K. P., McKenzie, A. D., & Hermansson, G. (2001). Chapter 7: Sport Psychology in New Zealand. In R. Lidor, T. Morris, N. Bardaxoglu & B. Becker (Eds.), World Sport Psychology Sourcebook. (Third ed.) (pp. 208-211). Morganstown, VA, USA: Fitness Information.

Hodge, K. P. (2000). Mental toughness training for rugby. In NZRFU, Advanced Coaching Course Manual. Wellington: Rugby Football Union Coaching Publications.

Hodge, K. P., & McKenzie, A. D. (2000). Peak performance profile. In A. McKenzie, K. Hodge & G. Sleivert (Eds.), Smart Training for Rugby: A Complete Rugby Training Guide. (pp. 13-23). Auckland: Reed.

McKenzie, A. D., Hodge, K. P., & Sleivert, G. G. (2000). Introduction. In A. McKenzie, K. Hodge & G. Sleivert (Eds.), Smart Training for Rugby: A Complete Rugby Training Guide. (pp. 7-12). Auckland: Reed.

McKenzie, A. D., & Hodge, K. P. (2000). Mental toughness training. In A. McKenzie, K. Hodge & G. Sleivert (Eds.), Smart Training for Rugby: A Complete Rugby Training Guide for Rugby Players and Coaches. (pp. 94-131). Auckland: Reed.

Hodge, K. P., & McKenzie, A. D. (2000). Goal setting. In A. McKenzie, K. Hodge & G. Sleivert (Eds.), Smart Training for Rugby: A Complete Training Guide for Rugby Players and Coaches. (pp. 24-36). Auckland: Reed.

Hodge, K. P., & Danish, S. (1999). Promoting life skills for adolescent males through sport. In A. Horne & M. Kiselica (Eds.), Handbook of counselling boys and adolescent males. (pp. 55-71). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hodge, K. P. (1995). Team dynamics. In T. Morris & J. Summers (Eds.), Sport Psychology: Theory, Applications and Issues. (pp. 190-212). Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons.

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Chapter in Book - Other

Danish, S., Heke, I. C., Hodge, K. P., & Taylor, F. (2002). Promoting healthy development of youth through physical activity and sport. In T. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), The American Encyclopaedia of Primary Prevention. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic / Plenum publishers.

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Journal - Research Article

Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2019). Adventure recreation and subjective well-being: A conceptual framework. Leisure Studies, 1. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02614367.2019.1577478

Jenkins, M., Hargreaves, E. A., & Hodge, K. (2019). The role of psychological flexibility in physical activity maintenance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2018-0311

Pierce, S., Hodge, K., Taylor, M., & Button, A. (2017). Tall poppy syndrome: Perceptions and experiences of elite New Zealand athletes. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15(4), 351-369. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2017.1280834

Langan, E., Hodge, K., McGowan, S., Carney, S., Saunders, V., & Lonsdale, C. (2016). The influence of controlled motivation alongside autonomous motivation: Maladaptive, buffering, or additive effects? International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 57-71. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2015.1016084

Hodge, K., & Gucciardi, D. F. (2015). Antisocial and prosocial behavior in sport: The role of motivational climate, basic psychological needs, and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37(3), 257-273. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2014-0225

Sharp, L.-A., Hodge, K., & Danish, S. (2015). Ultimately it comes down to the relationship: Experienced consultants' views of effective sport psychology consulting. Sport Psychologist, 29(4), 358-370. doi: 10.1123/tsp.2014-0130

Gucciardi, D. F., Jackson, B., Hodge, K., Anthony, D. R., & Brooke, L. E. (2015). Implicit theories of mental toughness: Relations with cognitive, motivational, and behavioral correlates. Sport, Exercise, & Performance Psychology, 4(2), 100-112. doi: 10.1037/spy0000024

Sheehy, T., & Hodge, K. (2015). Motivation and morality in Masters athletes: A self-determination theory perspective. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13(3), 273-285. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2014.956326

Hodge, K., Henry, G., & Smith, W. (2014). A case study of excellence in elite sport: Motivational climate in a world champion team. Sport Psychologist, 28, 60-74. doi: 10.1123/tsp.2013-0037

Sharp, L.-A., & Hodge, K. (2014). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The athlete's perspective. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12(2), 91-105. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2013.804285

Sharp, L.-A., Hodge, K., & Danish, S. (2014). Sport psychology consulting at elite sport competitions. Sport, Exercise, & Performance Psychology, 3(2), 75-88. doi: 10.1037/spy0000011

Lonsdale, C., Hodge, K., Hargreaves, E. A., & Ng, J. Y. Y. (2014). Comparing sport motivation scales: A response to Pelletier et al. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 15(5), 446-452. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.006

Hodge, K., & Smith, W. (2014). Public expectation, pressure, and avoiding the choke: A case study from elite sport. Sport Psychologist, 28(4), 375-389. doi: 10.1123/tsp.2014-0005

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2013). The multiphasic and dynamic nature of flow in adventure experiences. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(2), 214-232.

Hodge, K., Hargreaves, E. A., Gerrard, D., & Lonsdale, C. (2013). Psychological mechanisms underlying doping attitudes in sport: Motivation and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35(4), 419-432.

Hodge, K., Danish, S., & Martin, J. (2013). Developing a conceptual framework for life skills interventions. Counseling Psychologist, 41(8), 1125-1152. doi: 10.1177/0011000012462073

Sharp, L.-A., & Hodge, K. (2013). Effective sport psychology consulting relationships: Two coach case studies. Sport Psychologist, 27(4), 313-324.

Croft, J. L., Button, C., Hodge, K., Lucas, S. J. E., Barwood, M. J., & Cotter, J. D. (2013). Responses to sudden cold-water immersion in inexperienced swimmers following training. Aviation, Space, & Environmental Medicine, 84(8), 850-855. doi: 10.3357/ASEM.3522.2013

Hermansson, G., & Hodge, K. (2012). Uncontrollable outcomes: Managing expectations at the Olympics. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3(2), 127-138. doi: 10.1080/21520704.2012.683086

Ng, J. Y. Y., Lonsdale, C., & Hodge, K. (2011). The Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS): Instrument development and initial validity evidence. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 12(3), 257-264. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.10.006

Lonsdale, C. S., & Hodge, K. (2011). Temporal ordering of motivational quality and athlete burnout in elite sport. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(5), 913-921. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ff56c6

Hodge, K., Sharp, L.-A., & Heke, J. I. (2011). Sport psychology consulting with indigenous athletes: The case of New Zealand Māori. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(4), 350-360.

Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(4), 527-547.

Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2011). Expanding the flow model in adventure activities: A reversal theory perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 519-544.

Sharp, L.-A., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant's perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23(3), 360-376. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2011.583619

Houge, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2010). The phasic nature of flow in high risk recreation. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 2(2), 159-162.

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