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This ongoing workstream has included:

  1. Clinician perceptions of clinical risk and patterns of use of interpreters with limited English proficiency patients (2009, Gray, Stubbe, Stanley, Hilder)
  2. Using interpreters in general practice: development of a New Zealand toolkit (2010-11, Gray, Hilder, Stubbe).
  3. Communication in interpreted health encounters: processes and perceptions’ (2012-14, Stubbe, Gray, Hilder, Macdonald, Tester, Dowell)
  4. Working with Interpreters – eLearning module development for undergraduate medical students and post-graduate students/primary care practitioners (2015-17. Gray, Stubbe, Hilder). Funding is being sought to develop versions suitable for other audiences.


  • Lotteries Health Research Fund
  • University of Otago Research Fund
  • RNZCGP Faculty Trust


  • Hilder, J., Gray, B., Dowell, A., Macdonald, L., Tester, R., & Stubbe, M. (2017). ‘It depends on the consultation’: Revisiting use of family members as interpreters for general practice consultations – when and why? Australian Journal of Primary Health, 23, 257-262.
  • Gray, B., Hilder, J., Macdonald, L., Tester, R., Dowell, A., & Stubbe, M. (2017). A New Zealand perspective on providing healthcare for patients with limited English proficiency. In E. A. Jacobs & L. C. Diamond (Eds.), Providing health care in the context of language barriers. (pp. 189-209). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  • Gray, B., Hilder, J., Stubbe, M. (2012). How to use interpreters in General Practice: the Development of a Toolkit. Journal of Primary Health Care. 4(1): 52-61
  • Gray, B., Hilder, J., and Donaldson, H. (2011). “Why don’t we use trained interpreters for all Limited English Proficiency patients? - is there a place for using family members?” Australian Journal of Primary Health, 17(3): 240-249
  • Gray, B., Stanley, J., Stubbe, M. and Hilder, J. (2011) “Communication Difficulties with Limited English Proficiency patients – clinician perceptions of clinical risk and use of interpreters”. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1342): 23-38.


  • Gray, B., Hilder, J., Stubbe, M., Tester, R., Macdonald, L., & Dowell, T. (2014). Communication in interpreted consultations. Proceedings of the Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners (RNZCGP) Conference for General Practice: Making Connections: Are You Plugged In?
  • Stubbe, M., Hilder, J., MacDonald, L., Tester, R., Dowell, T., & Gray, B. (2014). Negotiating role boundaries and shifts in interpreter-mediated consultations. Proceedings of the 9th Australasian Institute of Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis (AIEMCA) Conference., (pp. 21-22).
  • Stubbe, M., MacDonald, L., Gray, B., Hilder, J., Tester, R., & Dowell, A. (2014). Negotiating role boundaries in interpreter-mediated consultations: Processes and perceptions. Proceedings of the European Association for Communication in Healthcare (EACH) International Conference., (pp. 70-71).
  • Gray, B., & Hilder, J. (2013). Interpreter policies vary widely between District Health Boards: Should they develop their own policy? Proceedings of the 8th Health Services & Policy Research Conference., (pp. 78).
  • Stubbe, M., Macdonald, L., Gray, B., Hilder, J., Tester, R., & Dowell, T. (2013). Negotiating role boundaries in interpreter-mediated consultations. Proceedings of the Eleventh Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET) Interdisciplinary Conference.
  • Stubbe, M., MacDonald, L., Hilder, J., Tester, R., Gray, B., & Dowell, T. (2013). Negotiating role boundaries and alignment in interpreter-mediated general practice consultations. Proceedings of the 4th New Zealand Discourse Conference.

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