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These links cover research on attitudes, processes and results of smokefree outdoor areas.

International policies

Pacifica Beach Coalition poster

The extent of some smokefree outdoor area policies globally is outlined in a report from the Global Smokefree Partnership - FCTC Article 8-plus Series, The Trend Toward Smokefree Outdoor Areas, December 2009.

Comprehensive outdoor secondhand smoke ordinances in California. Center for Tobacco Policy & Organizing: American Lung Association of California. Sacramento. February 2017.

Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services. Smoke-free malls. Hobart. January 2016.

Sweden: New Rules on Smoking in Public Places and Sale of Tobacco Enter into Force

In July 2019, the law on smokefree outdoor public places was expanded to include:

  • outdoor dining areas such as patios
  • entrance areas to smoke-free public venues
  • areas that are meant to be used by persons using domestic public transportation (i.e., bus stops, train stations)
  • enclosed spaces to be used for sports activities
  • public playgrounds

In practice, this means that smoking is prohibited within 20 meters (66 feet) of any of the places designated above—that is, 20 meters from each outdoor seating area, and 20 meters from bus stations and the like.
Read the full Act on Tobacco and Similar Products here

Case study: Queen Street Mall in Brisbane, Australia

Prior to the introduction of a smokefree Queen Street Mall, smoking in Queensland was already covered by very comprehensive state legislation prohibiting smoking in many public places.

Brisbane City Council chose to regulate smoking in the main city mall - Queen Street Mall after conducting surveys, interviews, observational studies (showing numbers of smokers in an area in a given time), social media research and cigarette butt counts. Very little negative feedback was encountered.

Brisbane City Council, process of policy adoption

Outdoor pedestrian malls' smoking ban

Environmental effects

International policy evaluation

Irvine D, Bailey A. The Public Health Implications of Administrative Policy Responses to E-Cigarette Use: A Content Analysis of Ontario's University Campus Policies. Queen's Science Undergraduate Research Journal 2019;3:21-26.

Sureda X, Bilal U, Fernandez E, et al. Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers. Environ Res 2018;165:220-27.

Evaluations of urban smokefree outdoor area policies are sparse. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted in Queensland and Woodstock, Ontario:

International public opinion on smokefree outdoor policies

North American and Mexican attitudes:

Italian public opinion about smokefree outdoor policies:

Data on public attitudes toward smokefree outdoor laws in the USA and Canada

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