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eReserve and what you can copy in hard copy and on Blackboard / Moodle


eReserve is Otago's means for providing course readings to students and works inside Blackboard and Moodle. If you copy book chapters or journal articles for students or provide access to ebooks or journals to which the University subscribes then it's mandatory for staff to use it. Even if you only provide print course materials the University is still obliged to record what we copy for our students.

Go to the dedicated eReserve support site to learn more.

For those staff who wish to know more about the copyright rules that apply to course materials, these are set out in the table below. The rules are the same for either hard-copy coursepacks or electronic distribution: it's the source of the material that determines what you can copy not the medium of distribution.


  • You don't need to read any of the rest of this page if you use eReserve!
  • The permitted uses outlined below only apply to making multiple copies for students enrolled in the relevant course of study (or staff). Once outside the classroom context the limits are more restrictive. So, for example, you can't put all-rights-reserved copied material on the open web for your students because other people can access it and our licences don't cover that.
  • Always include a warning on any material distributed to students that is covered by the CLL, PMCA, APRA/AMCOS or Screenrights licences (see Licences for the recommended warnings).
  • Open access licences, such as creative commons, are becoming more and more prevalent. These signify a willingness to share material for purposes like classroom use, i.e. they mean you do not need to worry about the table below as long as you abide by the terms set out by the licence in question. See Creative Commons Aotearoa NZ for more.
  • Linking to or embedding material can eliminate copyright issues because you are not actually copying anything but pointing to the source (though make sure the source is legitimate).
  • Acknowledge your sources. Remember that images on slides and like should be referenced too, not just scholarly work. If you received special permission to use material acknowledge that too (e.g. 'Used with permission of XYZ').
Material Use
Printed works ('real' books, journals, & other printed work)Can be used, up to 10% or a chapter/article, whichever is greater, provided the material was copied from a hard-copy source.(1) If the source is electronic, check the terms of use for the publication concerned, which may permit copying for educational purposes (see ‘PDF' below for more information). If no such use is allowed, permission must be sought from the copyright holder, unless the total amount is less than 3% or 3 pages of the whole, whichever is greater.(4)
Short works Poems, short stories etc. can be reproduced from a hard-copy collection, up to 15 pages.(1) If the source was electronic, permission must be sought, unless the terms of use state otherwise or unless the total amount is less than 3% or 3 pages of the whole (whichever is greater). (4)
Diagrams, graphs, illustrations, artworks, photographs Can be copied from a print-published work,(1) i.e. you can copy something that appears in a larger work. The 3% rule would apply here if using a number of items from a single work.(4) Any diagram/graph/illustration/artwork/photograph published separately from a work cannot be copied without permission, unless the source indicates that such a use is permitted.
E-books or PDFs from on-line database or University library Material taken from such sources must be used in accordance with the terms of use set out in each case, usually part of the terms and conditions when you downloaded the material or viewable on the page from which you can download the material, unless the total amount is less than 3% or 3 pages of the whole (whichever is greater). (4)
Web sites Text or images can be used if (i) displayed under a separate frame/identifier, (ii) the author is identified (if known), (iii) the source is acknowledged and (iv) the date of storage and name of the University is stated.(3) Once the material is no longer relevant to a course, it must be deleted.
Broadcast web, radio and TV You can use any recorded broadcast intended for a NZ audience and make multiple copies.(2) The University of Otago Library has an extensive collection of resources copied under this licence.
NZ Government material Bills, Acts, regulations, bylaws, parliamentary debates, select committee/Royal commission reports, inquiries and judgments of NZ courts and tribunals are not copyright and may be used. Other NZ Government material may subject to copyright.
Newspapers and other print publications

You can copy from most major NZ print publications.(1)

Printed music Up to 3% may be copied, including the words. (4) No more may be copied without permission from the copyright holder.
Commercial video recordings (DVD, VHS, etc.) May be shown in class, but you cannot copy unless used in teaching how to make films or film sound-tracks(3) (cf. broadcast materials above). The 3% rule (see note (4)) does not apply to this type of material.
Commercial audio recordings You can copy audio recordings and distribute them to students either on electronic media (CD or flash drive) or via Blackboard, provided the terms of the licence with APRA are satisfied.(5)
Theses, dissertations and student papers Up to 3% may be copied.(4) No more may be copied without permission from the copyright holder, unless the author died more than 50 years ago or the work has had a creative commons licence applied.
Materials designed for delivery at an institution overseas May not be copied without permission from the copyright holder - unless you are the copyright holder or the author died more than 50 years ago or the work has had a creative commons licence applied.
Loose maps and charts May not be copied without permission from the copyright holder, though maps from Land Transport NZ may be copied.
Unpublished religious orders of service Up to 3% may be copied. (4) No more may be copied without permission from the copyright holder.
  • (1) Allowed under the licence with Copyright Licensing Limited  (see Licences for more).
  • (2) Allowed under the Screenrights licence (see Licences for more).
  • (3) Allowed by the Copyright Act.
  • (4) Section 44(3) of the Copyright Act allows small parts of certain works ("literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works or the typographical arrangement of a published edition") to be copied for educational purposes: 3% or 3 pages (whichever is greater) may be copied, unless that constitutes the whole work, in which case the limit is 50%. The 3% is generally interpreted as meaning 3% of a part, not a whole, i.e. 3% of a journal article, not the whole journal. Also the work may not be re-copied within 14 days of copies being made.
  • (5) Allowed under the licence with APRA/AMCOS (see Licences for more).