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Edited books

  • Carr, A.C. and Gombart, A. Vitamins C and D: Global and Population Health Perspectives. 2023, 214p.
  • Carr AC and Lykkesfeldt J. Vitamin C: from Bench to Bedside. 2021, 210p.
  • Natarajan R and Carr AC. Vitamin C: Current concepts in human physiology. 2018. 148p.
  • Carr AC and Lykkesfeldt. Vitamin C in Health and Disease. 2018, 288p.

Critical care and septic shock

  • Vitamin C and COVID-19: should clinical trials be prioritised for low income settings and vitamin C-deficient populations? Carr AC, Rowe S. Crit Care Resusc. 2023 Oct 18;23(1):119-120. doi: 10.51893/2021.1.L1.
  • Effect of intravenous vitamin C on arterial blood gas analyser and Accu-Chek point-of-care glucose monitoring in critically ill patients. Rosengrave PC, Wohlrab C, Spencer E, Williman J, Shaw G, Carr AC. Crit Care Resusc. 2023 Oct 19;24(2):175-182. doi: 10.51893/2022.2.OA7
  • E Vlasiuk, P Rosengrave, E Roberts, J.M. Boden, G Shaw, A.C. Carr. Critically ill septic patients have elevated oxidative stress biomarkers: lack of attenuation by parenteral vitamin C. Nutrition Research, 2022, 108:53-59. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2022.10.010.
  • P Rosengrave, E Spencer, J Williman, J Mehrtens, S Morgan, T Doyle, K Van Der Heyden, A Morris, G Shaw, AC Carr. Intravenous vitamin C administration to patients with septic shock: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Critical Care, 2022;26(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s13054-022-03900-w.
  • P.C. Rosengrave, C Wohlrab, E Spencer, J Williman, G Shaw, AC Carr. Effect of intravenous vitamin C on arterial blood gas analyser and Accu-Chek point-of-care glucose monitoring in critically ill patients. Critical Care & Resuscitation. 2022, 24(2), 175-82.
  • P Holford, A Carr, M Zawari, M.P. Vizcaychipi. Vitamin C intervention for critical COVID-19: A pragmatic review of the current level of evidence. Life. 2021: 11, 1166.
  • E Spencer, P Rosengrave, J Williman, G Shaw, A.C. Carr. Circulating protein carbonyls are specifically elevated in critically ill patients with pneumonia relative to other sources of sepsis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021, 179, 208-202. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.11.029.
  • A.C. Carr, S Bozonet, J Pullar, E Spencer, P Rosengrave, G Shaw. Neutrophils isolated from septic patients exhibit elevated uptake of vitamin C and normal intracellular concentrations despite a low vitamin C milieu. Antioxidants, 2021, 10, 1607.
  • T Fujii, G Salanti, A Belletti, R Bellomo, A Carr, TA Furukawa, N Luethi, Y Luo, A Putzu, C Sartini, Y Tsujimoto, AA Udy, F Yanase, PJ Young. Effect of adjunctive vitamin C, glucocorticoids, and vitamin B1 on longer-term mortality in adults with sepsis or septic shock: a systematic review and a component network meta-analysis. Intensive Care Medicine, 2021.48(1):16-24. doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06558-0.
  • Carr AC. Is "Mega-Dose" IV Vitamin C Required for Septic and Critical Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients? Crit Care Med. 2021 Apr 1;49(4):e477-e478. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004873.
  • A.C. Carr, E Spencer, D Mackle, A Hunt, H Judd, J Mehrtens, K Parker, Z Stockwell, C Gale, M Beaumont, S Kaur, S Bihari, P.J. Young. The effect of conservative oxygen therapy on systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress in critically ill patients. Free Radic Biol Med, 2020, 160:13-18. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.06.018.
  • Yanase, F, Fujii, T, Naorungroj, T, Belletti, A, Luethi, N, Carr, A, Young, P.J, Bellomo, R. Harm of intravenous high dose vitamin C therapy in adult patients: A systematic scoping review. Crit Care Med, 2020, 48(7):e620-e628.
  • Carr, A.C. Is the VITAMINS RCT indicating potential redundancy between corticosteroids and vitamin C? Critical Care. 2020, 24, 129.
  • Carr A. C. Vitamin C in pneumonia and sepsis. In: Vitamin C: New Biochemical and Functional Insights. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. 2020. Chap 7, pp 115-135.
  • Carr AC, Spencer E, Hoskin TS, Rosengrave P, Kettle AJ, Shaw G. Circulating myeloperoxidase is elevated in septic shock and is associated with systemic organ failure and mortality in critically ill patients. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019, S0891-5849(19)31559-X. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.11.004.
  • Carr AC. Duration of intravenous vitamin C therapy is a critical consideration. Crit Care Resusc. 2019 Sep;21(3):220-221. PMID:31462209
  • Carr AC. Vitamin C administration in the critically ill: a summary of recent meta-analyses. Crit Care. 2019 Jul 30;23(1):265. doi: 10.1186/s13054-019-2538-y. PMID: 31362775
  • M.H. Hooper, A. Carr, P.E. Marik. The adrenal-vitamin C axis: from fish to guinea pigs and primate. Critical Care, 2019, 23(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s13054-019-2332-x. [PMID: 30691525]
  • Carr AC. Can a simple chemical help to both prevent and treat sepsis. Crit Care. 2018;22(1):247. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2161-3. [PMID: 30268134]
  • Carr A, Wohlrab C, Young P, Bellomo R. Stability of intravenous vitamin C solutions: a technical report. Crit Care Resusc. 2018;20(3):180-181. [PMID:30153779]
  • Pullar JM, Bayer S, Carr AC. Appropriate handling, processing and analysis of blood samples is essential to avoid oxidation of vitamin C to dehydroascorbic acid. Antioxidants. 2018;7(2). pii: E29. doi: 10.3390/antiox7020029. [PMID:29439480]
  • Carr AC, Rosengrave PC, Bayer S, Chambers S, Mehrtens J, Shaw GM. Hypovitaminosis C and vitamin C deficiency in critically ill patients despite recommended enteral and parenteral intakes. Crit Care. 2017 Dec 11;21(1):300. doi: 10.1186/s13054-017-1891-y. PMID:29228951
  • Carr AC. Symposium on Vitamin C, 15th September 2017; Part of the Linus Pauling Institute's 9th International Conference on Diet and Optimum Health. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Nov 21;6(4). pii: E94. doi: 10.3390/antiox6040094. PMID:29160838
  • Carr AC, Shaw GM, Fowler AA, Natarajan R. Ascorbate-dependent vasopressor synthesis: a rationale for vitamin C administration in severe sepsis and septic shock? Crit Care. 2015 Nov 27;19:418. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-1131-2. PMID:26612352

Infection and immune function

  • Low Vitamin C Concentrations in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Resolved with Pragmatic Administration of Intravenous and Oral Vitamin C. Carr AC, Vlasiuk E, Zawari M, Scott-Thomas A, Storer M, Maze M, Chambers ST. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Aug 14;12(8):1610. doi: 10.3390/antiox12081610.
  • Adjunctive intravenous then oral vitamin C for moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults: feasibility of randomized controlled trial. Chambers ST, Storer M, Scott-Thomas A, Slow S, Williman J, Epton M, Murdoch DR, Metcalf S, Carr A, Isenman H, Maze M. Sci Rep. 2023 Jul 23;13(1):11879. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-37934-z.
  • Carr AC, Gombart AF. Multi-level immune support by vitamins C and D during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Nutrients. 2022, 14(3):689. doi: 10.3390/nu14030689.
  • P Holford, A Carr, M Zawari, M.P. Vizcaychipi. Vitamin C intervention for critical COVID-19: A pragmatic review of the current level of evidence. Life. 2021: 11, 1166.
  • Carr, A.C. and Rowe, S. Vitamin C and COVID-19: should clinical trials be prioritized for low-income settings and vitamin C deficient populations? Critical Care & Resuscitation, 2021, 23(1), 119-120.
  • H Hemilä, A Carr, E Chalker. Vitamin C may increase the recovery rate of outpatient cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 70%: reanalysis of the COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021, 12;674681. Doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.674681 (also Research Square preprint, 2021.
  • Rowe S, Collins PD, Stacey SE, Carr AC. Micronutrients and respiratory infections: the biological rationale and current state of clinical evaluation. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2021 Apr 2;82(4):1-8. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2020.0730.
  • Holford P, Carr AC, Jovic TH, Ali SR, Whitaker IS, Marik PE, Smith AD. Vitamin C-An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 7;12(12):3760. doi: 10.3390/nu12123760.
  • Carr AC, Rowe S. The Emerging Role of Vitamin C in the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020 Oct 27;12(11):3286. doi: 10.3390/nu12113286.
  • AC Carr, E Spencer, A Das, N Meijer, C Lauren, S Macpherson, S Chambers. Patients undergoing myeloablative chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation exhibit depleted vitamin C status in association with febrile neutropenia. Nutrients, 2020, 12, 1879; doi:10.3390/nu12061879.
  • Carr AC, Spencer E, Dixon L, Chambers S. Patients with community acquired pneumonia exhibit depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress. Nutrients. 2020, 12, 1318; doi:10.3390/nu12051318.
  • Calder PC, Carr AC, Gombart AF, Eggersdorfer M. Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections. Nutrients. 2020, 12, 1181; doi:10.3390/nu12041181.
  • Carr A. C. Vitamin C in pneumonia and sepsis. In: Vitamin C: New Biochemical and Functional Insights. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. 2020. Chap 7, pp 115-135.
  • Carr, A.C. Micronutrient status of COVID-19 patients a critical consideration. Critical Care, 2020, 24, 349.
  • Carr, A.C. A new clinical trial to test high dose vitamin C in patients with COVID-19. Critical Care. 2020, 24, 133.
  • Carr A. C. Vitamin C in pneumonia and sepsis. In: Vitamin C: New Biochemical and Functional Insights. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. 2020. Chap 7, pp 115-135.
  • Liugan M and Carr AC. Vitamin C and neutrophil function: findings from randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 2019, 4;11(9). pii: E2102. doi: 10.3390/nu11092102
  • Bozonet SM, Carr AC. The Role of Physiological Vitamin C Concentrations on Key Functions of Neutrophils Isolated from Healthy Individuals. Nutrients. 2019 Jun 17;11(6). pii: E1363. doi: 10.3390/nu11061363
  • Carr, A. Vitamin C Symposium 2019 - 'Vitamin C for Cancer and Infection: from Bench to Bedside'. Proceedings, 2019, 5, E3.
  • Carr AC, Maggini S. oVitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients. 2017 Nov 3;9(11). pii: E1211. doi: 10.3390/nu9111211.

Patient quality of life

  • Carr, A.C., Vlasiuk, E., Zawari, M., Meijer, N., Lauren, C., MacPherson, S., Williman, J., Chambers, S.T. Supplementation with oral vitamin C prior to and during myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A pilot study. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 1949.
  • Pearson AG, Pullar JM, Cook J, Spencer ES, Vissers MC, Carr AC, Hampton MB. Peroxiredoxin 2 oxidation reveals hydrogen peroxide generation within erythrocytes during high-dose vitamin C administration. Redox Biol. 2021 Apr 17;43:101980. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2021.101980.
  • Dachs GU, Gandhi J, Wohlrab C, Carr AC, Morrin HR, Pullar JM, Bayer SB, Eglinton TW, Robinson BA, Vissers MCM. Vitamin C Administration by Intravenous Infusion Increases Tumor Ascorbate Content in Patients With Colon Cancer: A Clinical Intervention Study. Front Oncol. 2021 Jan 11;10:600715. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.600715.
  • Baillie N, Carr AC, Peng S. The Use of Intravenous Vitamin C as a Supportive Therapy for a Patient with Glioblastoma Multiforme. Antioxidants. 2018; 7(9). pii: E115. doi: 10.3390/antiox7090115. [PMID: 30200187]
  • Carr AC, Cook J. Intravenous Vitamin C for Cancer Therapy - Identifying the Current Gaps in Our Knowledge. Front Physiol. 2018 Aug 23;9:1182. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01182. eCollection 2018. Review. [PMID:30190680]
  • Foster MN, Carr AC, Antony A, Peng S, Fitzpatrick MG. Intravenous Vitamin C Administration Improved Blood Cell Counts and Health-Related Quality of Life of Patient with History of Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018 Jul 16;7(7). pii: E92. doi: 10.3390/antiox7070092. [PMID:30012948]
  • Prier M, Carr AC, Baillie N. No Reported Renal Stones with Intravenous Vitamin C Administration: A Prospective Case Series Study. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018 May 21;7(5). pii: E68. doi: 10.3390/antiox7050068. [PMID:29883396]
  • Carr AC, McCall C. The role of vitamin C in the treatment of pain: new insights.J Transl Med. 2017 Apr 14;15(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s12967-017-1179-7. Review. PMID:28410599

Mood and cognitive health

  • AC Carr, HA Bradley, E Vlasiuk, H Pierard, J Beddow, JJ Rucklidge. Inflammation and Vitamin C in Women with Prenatal Depression and Anxiety: Effect of Multinutrient Supplementation. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Apr 17;12(4):941.  doi: 10.3390/antiox12040941.
  • J Boden, N Cant, M Buchanan, A Carr. Cannabis use and patterns of psychotic symptomatology in a longitudinal birth cohort. NZ Medical Journal, 2022, 135 (1562); 25-33.
  • Spencer ES, Pitcher T, Veron G, Hannam T, MacAskill M, Anderson T, Dalrymple-Alford J, Carr AC. Positive Association of Ascorbate and Inverse Association of Urate with Cognitive Function in People with Parkinson's Disease. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Sep 23;9(10):906. doi: 10.3390/antiox9100906.
  • Pullar JM, Carr AC, Bozonet SM, Vissers MCM. High Vitamin C Status Is Associated with Elevated Mood in Male Tertiary Students. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018 Jul 16;7(7). pii: E91. doi: 10.3390/antiox7070091.
  • Pearson JF, Pullar JM, Wilson R, Spittlehouse JK, Vissers MCM, Skidmore PML, Willis J, Cameron VA, Carr AC. Vitamin C Status Correlates with Markers of Metabolic and Cognitive Health in 50-Year-Olds: Findings of the CHALICE Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 3;9(8):831. doi: 10.3390/nu9080831.

Metabolic health

  • Estimating Vitamin C Intake Requirements in Diabetes Mellitus: Analysis of NHANES 2017-2018 and EPIC-Norfolk Cohorts. Carr AC, Lunt H, Wareham NJ, Myint PK. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Oct 15;12(10):1863. doi: 10.3390/antiox12101863.
  • H Lunt, A C Carr, H F Heenan, E Vlasiuk, M Zawari, T Prickett, C Frampton. People with diabetes and hypovitaminosis C fail to conserve urinary vitamin C. J Clinical & Translational Endocrinology, 2023, 31:100316. doi: 10.1016/j.jcte.2023.100316.
  • Carr, A.C. and Lunt, H. Is “renal leak” of vitamin C an issue for people with diabetes? Am J Clin Nutr, 2022. 116(1):3-4. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac088.
  • A.C. Carr, G. Block, J. Lykkesfeldt. Estimation of Vitamin C Intake Requirements Based on Body Weight: Implications for Obesity. Nutrients, 2022. 14, 1460.
  • A.C. Carr, E Spencer, H Heenan, H Lunt, M Vollebregt, T. Prickett. Vitamin C status in people with Types 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus and varying degrees of renal dysfunction: Relationship to body weight. Antioxidants, 2022, 11(2), 245.
  • Wilson R, Willis J, Gearry RB, Hughes A, Lawley B, Skidmore P, Frampton C, Fleming E, Anderson A, Jones L, Tannock GW, Carr AC. SunGold Kiwifruit Supplementation of Individuals with Prediabetes Alters Gut Microbiota and Improves Vitamin C Status, Anthropometric and Clinical Markers. Nutrients. 2018 Jul 12;10(7). pii: E895. doi: 10.3390/nu10070895. [PMID:30002355]
  • Wilson R, Willis J, Gearry R, Skidmore P, Fleming E, Frampton C, Carr A. Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 9;9(9). pii: E997. doi: 10.3390/nu9090997. PMID:28891932
  • Pearson JF, Pullar JM, Wilson R, Spittlehouse JK, Vissers MCM, Skidmore PML, Willis J, Cameron VA, Carr AC. Vitamin C Status Correlates with Markers of Metabolic and Cognitive Health in 50-Year-Olds: Findings of the CHALICE Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 3;9(8):831. doi: 10.3390/nu9080831.
  • Carr AC, Pullar JM, Bozonet SM, Vissers MC. Marginal Ascorbate Status (Hypovitaminosis C) Results in an Attenuated Response to Vitamin C Supplementation. Nutrients. 2016 Jun 3;8(6):341. doi: 10.3390/nu8060341.

Global health and nutrition

  • Vitamin C - a scoping review for Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023. Lykkesfeldt J, Carr AC. Food Nutr Res. 2023 Dec 28;67. doi: 10.29219/fnr.v67.10300.
  • Vitamin C. Lykkesfeldt J, Carr AC. Adv Nutr. 2023 Nov 21;15(1):100155. doi: 10.1016/j.advnut.2023.100155.
  • AC Carr, J Lykkesfeldt. Factors Affecting the Vitamin C Dose-Concentration Relationship: Implications for Global Vitamin C Dietary Recommendations. Nutrients, 2023, 15, 1657, 19 pages.
  • A. C. Carr and J. Lykkesfeldt. Does aging affect vitamin C status relative to intake? Findings from NHANES 2017–2018. Nutrients, 2023, 15, 892, 10 pages.
  • A. C. Carr and M. Zawari. Does Aging Have an Impact on Vitamin C Status and Requirements? A Scoping Review of Comparative Studies of Aging and Institutionalisation. Nutrients, 2023, 15, 915, 11 pages.
  • Carr, A.C. Principles of Nutritional Assessment: Vitamin C. In: Principles of Nutritional Assessment, 3rd Ed. Gibson, R (Editor). 2022; Chapter 19. Open Access:
  • Rowe S. and Carr A.C. Global vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency: A cause for concern? Nutrients, 2020;12(2008):20 pages.
  • Carr A.C. and Rowe S. Factors affecting vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency: a global health perspective. Nutrients, 2020, 12, 1963, 19 pages. doi:10.3390/nu12071963
  • Carr AC and Lykkesfeldt, J. Discrepancies in global vitamin C recommendations: A review of RDA criteria and underlying health perspectives. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2020, 14 pages.

Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics

  • Zawari M, Poller B, Walker G, Pearson A, Hampton M, Carr AC. Formulation of Broccoli Sprout Powder in Gastro-Resistant Capsules Protects against the Acidic pH of the Stomach In Vitro but Does Not Increase Isothiocyanate Bioavailability In Vivo. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Sep 1;8(9). pii: E359. doi: 10.3390/antiox8090359.
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