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Co-ordinator: Professor Alaa El-Din Bekhit

Teaching staff: Professor Alaa El-Din Bekhit

Eligibility: Food Science (FOSC) students only

Module description

The use of heat during processing of foods is commonly done to improve the product's sensory attributes (e.g. texture, flavour), stabilise the product and improve its shelf life and safety. Often there is a balance between gaining maximum safety without compromising desirable food attributes, which is the optimal operating condition for food processors. This module will examine the thermal processing of food (heating and cooling) and their calculations with the aim of having optimal processing conditions that prevent excessive use of energy and avoid negative impact on food quality.


1. PRESERVATION BY HEAT (Mechanisms and calculations)

  • Heat Transfer mechanisms & theory
  • Calculate kinetics of cell death
  • Describe the concepts of D, Z, and Lethality
  • identify practical considerations for in-process sterilisation
  • introducing heat preservation of free-flowing liquid foods and process optimisation

2. PRESERVATION BY COLD (Mechanisms and calculations)

  • Identify major components of refrigeration system
  • Factors influencing heat load
  • Physical changes and quality in frozen foods
  • Chilling equipment for liquids
  • Cold storage of food
  • Factors that influence the quality of chilled foods
  • Estimating Evaporative Weight Loss
  • Calculations of freezing time


4 week intensive course, Semester TBC

4 Lectures of 2 hours

plus Tutorials


This module is worth 50% of a 20 credit paper, as follows;

  • 2 written assignments – 25%
  • Exam (1 hour) – 25%

Further information

Postgraduate courses available in the department

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