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Ben GrayAssociate Professor and PDE Module Convenor 

Department of Primary Health Care and General Practice 

Background and Interests

Ben Gray joined the Department in 2006 as a senior lecturer in General Practice. He is an Otago graduate from the first class at the Wellington Clinical School. He has worked as a GP for more than 30 years first in Waitara Taranaki and most recently at Newtown Union Health Service (NUHS). Waitara had a significant Māori population and NUHS has a very diverse population with significant numbers of refugees from many parts of the world. The practice has developed significant strengths in long term condition management, cross cultural care and interprofessional practice. He completed a Masters in Bioethics and Health Law May 2014 with a dissertation titled “How does the concept of cultural competence affect the practice of bioethics and health law”. He is active in the Australasian Association of Bioethics and Health Law and convened the AABHL conference in Wellington in 2015 “Working with Diversity”.

Teaching Activities

Undergraduate Medical Education

  • Module Convener for Professional Development and Ethics (PDE) for years 4, 5 and Trainee Interns
  • Teaching lectures and tutorials on professionalism and ethics
  • Teaching in the 4th year General Practice Module on long term conditions
  • Teaching in the 5th year General Practice Module on teamwork and interprofessionalism.

Postgraduate Education

  • Teaching in postgraduate courses on cultural competence
  • Convenor of the the Pacific Health paper

Research Activities

Ben’s research interests are diverse. Current main focus is around the use of interpreters in medical consultations and Cultural Competence. Other interests are Long Term Condition management, interprofessional practice and reflective practice in undergraduate education.

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Publications

Gray, B. (2021). How should we respond to the global pandemic: The need for cultural change. Challenges, 12(1), 8. doi: 10.3390/challe12010008

Gray, B., & Hilder, J. (2021). The ethics of interpreter use. Clinical Ethics. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1477750921994276

Lukey, R., Gray, B., & Morris, C. (2020). 'We're just seen as people that give out the methadone...': Exploring the role of community pharmacists in the opioid substitution treatment team. Journal of Primary Health Care, 12(4), 358-367. doi: 10.1071/HC20108

Gray, B. (2020). COVID-19 from Wellington New Zealand. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17, 633-638. doi: 10.1007/s11673-020-10038-3

Gray, B. (2020). The relevance of cultural competence to resolving disputes in relation to medical decisions for children. In I. Goold, C. Auckland & J. Herring (Eds.), Medical decision-making on behalf of young children: A comparative perspective. (pp. 325-339). Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing.

Gray, B. (2020). Cultural diversity and the role of interpreters. In A. Douglass, G. Young & J. McMillan (Eds.), Assessment of mental capacity: A New Zealand guide for doctors and lawyers. (pp. 139-141). Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington Press. [Contribution].

Chapter in Book - Research

Gray, B. (2020). The relevance of cultural competence to resolving disputes in relation to medical decisions for children. In I. Goold, C. Auckland & J. Herring (Eds.), Medical decision-making on behalf of young children: A comparative perspective. (pp. 325-339). Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing.

Chapter in Book - Research

Gray, B., Hilder, J., Macdonald, L., Tester, R., Dowell, A., & Stubbe, M. (2017). A New Zealand perspective on providing healthcare for patients with limited English proficiency. In E. A. Jacobs & L. C. Diamond (Eds.), Providing health care in the context of language barriers. (pp. 189-209). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Chapter in Book - Research

Gray, B. (2015). A case study of complexity and health policy: Planning for a pandemic. In R. Geyer & P. Cairney (Eds.), Handbook on complexity and public policy. (pp. 384-398). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. doi: 10.4337/9781782549529.00031

Chapter in Book - Research

Gray, B. (2017). Working with interpreters. In K. A. Morris (Ed.), Cole's medical practice in New Zealand. (13th ed.) (pp. 303-314). Wellington, New Zealand: Medical Council of New Zealand.

Chapter in Book - Other

McKinlay, E., Bycroft, J., Darlow, B., Gray, B., Morris, C., & Pullon, S. (2017). Interdisciplinary collaboration: Working in teams for patient care. In K. A. Morris (Ed.), Cole's medical practice in New Zealand. (13th ed.) (pp. 81-99). Wellington, New Zealand: Medical Council of New Zealand.

Chapter in Book - Other

Gray, B. (2013). The use of interpreters. In I. St George (Ed.), Cole's medical practice in New Zealand. (12th ed.) (pp. 83-89). Wellington, New Zealand: Medical Council of New Zealand.

Chapter in Book - Other

McKinlay, E., Gray, B., & Pullon, S. (2013). Interdisciplinary collaboration: Working in teams for patient care. In I. St George (Ed.), Cole's medical practice in New Zealand. (12th ed.) (pp. 143-149). Wellington, New Zealand: Medical Council of New Zealand.

Chapter in Book - Other

Gray, B., & Hilder, J. (2021). The ethics of interpreter use. Clinical Ethics. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1477750921994276

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2020). COVID-19 from Wellington New Zealand. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17, 633-638. doi: 10.1007/s11673-020-10038-3

Journal - Research Article

Lukey, R., Gray, B., & Morris, C. (2020). 'We're just seen as people that give out the methadone...': Exploring the role of community pharmacists in the opioid substitution treatment team. Journal of Primary Health Care, 12(4), 358-367. doi: 10.1071/HC20108

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2019). (Bio)ethics in a pluralistic society. Challenges, 10, 12. doi: 10.3390/challe10010012

Journal - Research Article

Hilder, J., Gray, B., & Stubbe, M. (2019). Health navigation and interpreting services for patients with limited English proficiency: A narrative literature review. Journal of Primary Health Care, 11(3), 217-226. doi: 10.1071/HC18067

Journal - Research Article

Hilder, J., Gray, B., & Stubbe, M. (2019). Integrating health navigation and interpreting services for patients with limited English proficiency: Views of Pacific navigators. Pacific Health Dialog, 21(3), 116-127. doi: 10.26635/phd.2019.602

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B., & Brunger, F. (2018). (Mis)understandings and uses of ‘culture’ in bioethics deliberations over parental refusal of treatment: Children with cancer. Clinical Ethics, 13(2), 55-66. doi: 10.1177/1477750917738109

Journal - Research Article

McKinlay, E., Young, J., & Gray, B. (2018). General practice and patients' views of the social networks of patients with multimorbidity. Journal of Primary Health Care, 10(3), 258-266. doi: 10.1071/HC17050

Journal - Research Article

Ballantyne, A. J., Dai, E., & Gray, B. (2017). Patient participation in clinical ethics support services: Patient-centered care, justice and cultural competence. Clinical Ethics, 12(1), 11-18. doi: 10.1177/1477750916661976

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2017). How should we respond to non-dominant healing practices, the example of homeopathy. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 14(1), 87-96. doi: 10.1007/s11673-016-9760-y

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2017). Not-for-profit health services and hybridisation. Journal of Primary Health Care, 9(3), 193-196. doi: 10.1071/HC17021

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B., Hilder, J., Macdonald, L., Tester, R., Dowell, A., & Stubbe, M. (2017). Are research ethics guidelines culturally competent? Research Ethics, 13(1), 23-41. doi: 10.1177/1747016116650235

Journal - Research Article

Hilder, J., Gray, B., Dowell, A., Macdonald, L., Tester, R., & Stubbe, M. (2017). ‘It depends on the consultation’: Revisiting use of family members as interpreters for general practice consultations – when and why? Australian Journal of Primary Health, 23, 257-262. doi: 10.1071/PY16053

Journal - Research Article

McKinlay, E. M., Morgan, S. J., Gray, B. V., Macdonald, L. M., & Pullon, S. R. H. (2017). Exploring interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care: Case study based observational research. Journal of Comorbidity, 7(1), 64-78. doi: 10.15256/joc.2017.7.103

Journal - Research Article

Morgan, S. J., Pullon, S. R. H., Macdonald, L. M., McKinlay, E. M., & Gray, B. V. (2017). Case study observational research: A framework for conducting case study research where observation data are the focus. Qualitative Health Research, 27(7), 1060-1068. doi: 10.1177/1049732316649160

Journal - Research Article

Darlow, B., Donovan, S., Coleman, K., McKinlay, E., Beckingsale, L., Gallagher, P., Gray, B., Neser, H., Perry, M., & Pullon, S. (2016). What makes an interprofessional education programme meaningful to students? Findings from focus group interviews with students based in New Zealand. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 30(3), 355-361. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2016.1141189

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2016). Clinical ethics cultural competence and the importance of dialogue: A case study. Clinical Research & Bioethics, 7(1), 256. doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.1000256

Journal - Research Article

Moore, J., Stokes, T., & Gray, B. (2016). The New Zealand Coroners Amendment Bill's proposed approach to health care-related deaths that are reportable to the coroner. Journal of Law & Medicine, 23, 557-570.

Journal - Research Article

Pullon, S., Morgan, S., Macdonald, L., McKinlay, E., & Gray, B. (2016). Observation of interprofessional collaboration in primary care practice: A multiple case study. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 30(6), 787-794. doi: 10.1080/13561820.2016.1220929

Journal - Research Article

Darlow, B., Coleman, K., McKinlay, E., Donovan, S., Beckingsale, L., Gray, B., Neser, H., Perry, M., Stanley, J., & Pullon, S. (2015). The positive impact of interprofessional education: A controlled trial to evaluate a programme for health professional students. BMC Medical Education, 15, 98. doi: 10.1186/s12909-015-0385-3

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2015). Culturally competent bioethics: Analysis of a case study. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 12(2), 361-367. doi: 10.1007/s11673-015-9636-6

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B., & Gillett, G. (2014). Was the tragedy of Tovia Laufau caused by an absence of trust? Journal of Law & Medicine, 21(4), 780-788.

Journal - Research Article

Parry, R., Jones, B., Gray, B., & Ingham, T. (2014). Applying a Māori-centred consultation approach for engaging with Māori patients: An undergraduate medical student case study. Journal of Primary Health Care, 6(3), 254-260.

Journal - Research Article

Pullon, S., McKinlay, E., Beckingsale, L., Perry, M., Darlow, B., Gray, B., Gallagher, P., Hoare, K., & Morgan, S. (2013). Interprofessional education for physiotherapy, medical and dietetics students: A pilot programme. Journal of Primary Health Care, 5(1), 52-58.

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B., Hilder, J., & Stubbe, M. (2012). How to use interpreters in general practice: The development of a New Zealand toolkit. Journal of Primary Health Care, 4(1), 52-61. doi: 10.1071/HC12052

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B., Hilder, J., & Donaldson, H. (2011). Why do we not use trained interpreters for all patients with limited English proficiency? Is there a place for using family members? Australian Journal of Primary Health, 17, 240-249. doi: 10.1071/PY10075

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B., Stanley, J., Stubbe, M., & Hilder, J. (2011). Communication difficulties with limited English proficiency patients: Clinician perceptions of clinical risk and patterns of use of interpreters. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1342). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1342/4861/content.pdf

Journal - Research Article

McKinlay, E., McBain, L., & Gray, B. (2009). Teaching and learning about chronic conditions management for undergraduate medical students: Utilizing the patient-as-teacher approach. Chronic Illness, 5(3), 209-218. doi: 10.1177/1742395309343812

Journal - Research Article

Yang, C.-F., & Gray, B. (2008). Bilingual medical students as interpreters: What are the benefits and risks? New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1282). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1282/3273/content.pdf

Journal - Research Article

Gray, B. (2021). How should we respond to the global pandemic: The need for cultural change. Challenges, 12(1), 8. doi: 10.3390/challe12010008

Journal - Research Other

Hall, K. H., Doolan-Noble, F., McKinlay, E., Currie, O., Gray, B., Gray, L., Richard, L., Stubbe, M., & Jaye, C. (2020). Ethics and equity in the time of coronavirus. Journal of Primary Health Care, 12(2), 102-106. doi: 10.1071/HCv12n2_ED2

Journal - Research Other

Barthow, C., Hood, F., McKinlay, E., Hilder, J., Cleghorn, C., Huthwaite, M., Weatherall, M., Parry-Strong, A., Pullon, S., Gray, B., Wickens, K., Crane, J., & Krebs, J. (2019). Food 4 Health: He Oranga Kai: Assessing the efficacy, acceptability and economic implications of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and β-glucan to improve glycated haemoglobin, metabolic health, and general well-being in adults with pre-diabetes: Study protocol for a 2 x 2 factorial design, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial, with embedded qualitative study and economic analysis. Trials, 20, 464. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3553-7

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2019). New Zealand needs a comprehensive interpreting service. New Zealand Medical Journal, 132(1504), 95-98. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2019). Sun protection policy in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 132(1499), 78-79. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B., & Coker, T. R. (2019). When shared decision-making and evidence based practice clash: Infant sleep practices. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 55(9), 1009-1012. doi: 10.1111/jpc.14577

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2018). Acupuncture and the Medicines Act: A reply. New Zealand Medical Journal, 1476(131), 98-99. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2018). Culture, cultural competence and the cross-cultural consultation. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 54(4), 343-345. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13769

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2017). Response to case study “A case based reflection on communicating end of life information in non-English speaking patients”. Patient Education & Counseling, 100(6), 1242-1243. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2017.01.007

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2017). The Cynefin framework: Applying an understanding of complexity to medicine. Journal of Primary Health Care, 9(4), 258-261. doi: 10.1071/HC17002

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B., & Hardt, E. J. (2017). A comparison of the use of interpreters in New Zealand and the US. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1456), 70-75. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2016). Culturally competent clinical ethics: Case study response: Response to case study: A family requests that their grandmother, who does not speak English, is not informed of her terminal diagnosis. Clinical Ethics, 11(4), 214-216. doi: 10.1177/1477750916657668

Journal - Research Other

Gray, B. (2016). English as a second language and outcomes of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes: Results from the CONCORDANCE registry. Medical Journal of Australia, 205(3), 140. doi: 10.5694/mja16.00483

Journal - Research Other

More publications...