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Professor Simon Hales, Department of Public Health

Simon hales photo

BA MB BChir (Cambridge) MPH PhD (Otago)

Research Professor; HEIRU

Contact details

Email simon.hales@otago.ac.nz

Research interests and activities

Simon is an environmental epidemiologist with an interest in the atmospheric environment and global issues.

Simon's current projects include:

  • empirical modelling of air pollution and health
  • assessing health aspects of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change
  • estimating the global burden of disease attributable to climate change
  • empirical modelling of communicable disease in relation to climate
  • health co benefits of climate change mitigation

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Publications

Chambers, T., Douwes, J., Mannetje, A., Woodward, A., Baker, M., Wilson, N., & Hales, S. (2022). Nitrate in drinking water and cancer risk: The biological mechanism, epidemiological evidence and future research. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.13222

Graham, F. F., Finn, N., White, P., Hales, S., & Baker, M. G. (2022). Global perspective of Legionella infection in community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 19, 1907. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19031907

Chambers, T., Joy, M., Wilson, N., Hales, S., & Baker, M. (2021). Quantifying the nitrate levels in bottled water in New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.13196

Richards, J., Chambers, T., Hales, S., Joy, M., Radu, T., Woodward, A., Humphrey, A., Randal, E., & Baker, M. G. (2021). Nitrate contamination in drinking water and colorectal cancer: Exposure assessment and estimated health burden in New Zealand. Environmental Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112322

Chambers, T., Hales, S., & Anglemyer, A. (2021). Correction: Nitrate-nitrite exposure through drinking water and diet and risk of colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Clinical Nutrition. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.09.027

Analitis, A., Becker, P., Biggeri, A., Bouchama, A., De'Donato, F., D'Ippoliti, D., … Hales, S., … Wolf, T. (2009). Improving public health responses to extreme weather/heat-waves: EuroHEAT. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization, 60p.

Authored Book - Research

Matthies, F., Bickler, G., Cardeñosa Marín, N., & Hales, S. (Eds.). (2008). Heat-Health action plans. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organisation, 45p.

Edited Book - Research

Howden-Chapman, P., Hales, S., Chapman, R., & Keskimäki, I. (Eds.). (2005). The impact of economic recession on youth suicide: A comparison of New Zealand and Finland. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health, 33p. Retrieved from http://www.moh.govt.nz

Edited Book - Research

Butler, C. D., Hales, S., Beggs, P. J., & Ebi, K. L. (2016). From Paris towards 1.5 degrees C. In C. D. Butler (Ed.), Climate change and global health. (Revised reprint ed.) (pp. 293-305). Wallingford, UK: CABI International.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bambrick, H., & Hales, S. (2014). Dengue: Distribution and transmission dynamics with climate change. In C. D. Butler (Ed.), Climate change and global health. (pp. 77-84). Abingdon, UK: CAB International.

Chapter in Book - Research

Hales, S., Lucas, R., & McMichael, A. J. (2011). Global environmental hazards. In B. S. Levy, D. H. Wegman, S. L. Baron & R. K. Sokas (Eds.), Occupational and environmental health: Recognizing and preventing disease and injury. (6th ed.) (pp. 98-118). New York: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

McMichael, A. J., Hales, S., & Lucas, R. M. (2006). Global environmental changes. In B. S. Levy, D. H. Wegman, S. L. Baron & R. K. Sokas (Eds.), Occupational and environmental health: Recognizing and preventing disease and injury. (5th ed.) (pp. 451-470). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Chapter in Book - Research

Blakely, T. A., Hales, S., Kieft, C. E., Wilson, N., & Woodward, A. (2004). Distribution of risk factors by poverty. In M. Ezzati, A. D. Lopez, A. Rodgers & C. J. L. Murray (Eds.), Comparative quantification of health risks: Volume 2: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. (pp. 1941-2127). Geneva: World Health Organization.

Chapter in Book - Research

Hales, S. E., Edwards, S. J., & Kovats, R. S. (2003). Impacts on health of climate extremes. In A. J. McMichael, D. H. Campbell-Lendrum, C. F. Corvalán, K. L. Ebi, A. Githeko, J. D. Scheraga & A. Woodward (Eds.), Climate change and human health - Risks and responses. (pp. 79-102). Geneva: World Health Organization.

Chapter in Book - Research

De Wet, N., & Hales, S. E. (2000). Human health. In T. Taeuea, I. Ubaitoi, N. De Wet & G. Kenny (Eds.), Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment for Kiribati. (pp. 112-130). Hamilton: University of Waikato, IGCI, SPREP, PICCAP.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bambrick, H., & Hales, S. (2016). Dengue: Distribution and transmission dynamics with climate change. In Climate change and global health. (Revised reprint ed.) (pp. 77-84). Wallingford, UK: CABI International.

Chapter in Book - Other

Ammar, S. E., McIntyre, M., Baker, M. G., & Hales, S. (2021). Imported arboviral infections in New Zealand, 2001 to 2017: A risk factor for local transmission. Travel Medicine & Infectious Disease, 102047. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102047

Journal - Research Article

Chambers, T., Joy, M., Wilson, N., Hales, S., & Baker, M. (2021). Quantifying the nitrate levels in bottled water in New Zealand. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.13196

Journal - Research Article

Chua, P. L. C., Huber, V., Ng, C. F. S., Seposo, X. T., Madaniyazi, L., Hales, S., Woodward, A., & Hashizume, M. (2021). Global projections of temperature-attributable mortality due to enteric infections: A modelling study. Lancet Planetary Health, 5, e436-e445. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00152-2

Journal - Research Article

Hales, S., Atkinson, J., Metcalfe, J., Kuschel, G., & Woodward, A. (2021). Long term exposure to air pollution, mortality and morbidity in New Zealand: Cohort study. Science of the Total Environment, 801, 149660. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149660

Journal - Research Article

Richards, J., Chambers, T., Hales, S., Joy, M., Radu, T., Woodward, A., Humphrey, A., Randal, E., & Baker, M. G. (2021). Nitrate contamination in drinking water and colorectal cancer: Exposure assessment and estimated health burden in New Zealand. Environmental Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112322

Journal - Research Article

Ye, T., Guo, S., Xie, Y., Chen, Z., Abramson, M. J., Heyworth, J., Hales, S., … Li, S. (2021). Health and related economic benefits associated with reduction in air pollution during COVID-19 outbreak in 367 cities in China. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 222, 112481. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112481

Journal - Research Article

Graham, F. F., Hales, S., White, P. S., & Baker, M. G. (2020). Global seroprevalence of legionellosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 10, 7337. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63740-y

Journal - Research Article

Lai, H., Hales, S., Woodward, A., Walker, C., Marks, E., Pillai, A., … Morton, S. M. (2020). Effects of heavy rainfall on waterborne disease hospitalizations among young children in wet and dry areas of New Zealand. Environment International, 145, 106136. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106136

Journal - Research Article

Tuyet Hanh, T. T., Huong, L. T. T., Huong, N. T. L., Linh, T. N. Q., Quyen, N. H., Nhung, N. T. T., … Hales, S., … Van Minh, H. (2020). Vietnam Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment, 2018. Environmental Health Insights, 14, 1-11. doi: 10.1177/1178630220924658

Journal - Research Article

Ammar, S. E., McIntyre, M., Swan, T., Kasper, J., Derraik, J. G. B., Baker, M. G., & Hales, S. (2019). Intercepted mosquitoes at New Zealand's ports of entry, 2001 to 2018: Current status and future concerns. Tropical Medicine & Infectious Disease, 4(3), 101. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030101

Journal - Research Article

Allan, P. D., Palmer, C., Chan, F., Lyons, R., Nicholson, O., Rose, M., Hales, S., & Baker, M. G. (2018). Food safety labelling of chicken to prevent campylobacteriosis: Consumer expectations and current practices. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 414. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5322-z

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Marshall, J., Benschop, J., Brock, A., Hales, S., Baker, M. G., & French, N. P. (2018). A Bayesian spatio-temporal framework to identify outbreaks and examine environmental and social risk factors for infectious diseases monitored by routine surveillance. Spatial & Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 25, 39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.sste.2017.10.004

Journal - Research Article

Schnitter, R., Verret, M., Berry, P., Fook, T. C. T., Hales, S., Lal, A., & Edwards, S. (2018). An assessment of climate change and health vulnerability and adaptation in Dominica. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 16(1), 70. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16010070

Journal - Research Article

Shaw, C., Hales, S., Edwards, R., Howden-Chapman, P., & Stanley, J. (2018). What can fuel price increases tell us about the air pollution health co-benefits of a carbon price? Journal of Transport & Health, 8, 81-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jth.2017.11.002

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Hashizume, M., & Hales, S. (2017). Indian Ocean Dipole and cryptosporidiosis in Australia: Short-term and nonlinear associations. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(14), 8119-8127. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b05146

Journal - Research Article

Hales, S., Lesher-Trevino, A., Ford, N., Maher, D., Ramsey, A., & Tran, N. (2016). Reporting guidelines for implementation and operational research. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94, 58-64. doi: 10.2471/BLT.15.167585

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Dobbins, T., Bagheri, N., Baker, M. G., French, N. P., & Hales, S. (2016). Cryptosporidiosis risk in New Zealand children under 5 years old is greatest in areas with high dairy cattle densities. EcoHealth, 13(4), 652-660. doi: 10.1007/s10393-016-1187-8

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Hales, S., Kirk, M., Baker, M. G., & French, N. P. (2016). Spatial and temporal variation in the association between temperature and salmonellosis in NZ. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 40(2), 165-169. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12413

Journal - Research Article

McIver, L., Kim, R., Woodward, A., Hales, S., Spickett, J., Katscherian, D., … Ebi, K. L. (2016). Health impacts of climate change in Pacific Island countries: A regional assessment of vulnerabilities and adaption priorities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(11), 1707-1714. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1509756

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., & Hales, S. (2015). Heterogeneity in hotspots: Spatio-temporal patterns in neglected parasitic diseases. Epidemiology & Infection, 143(03), 631-639. doi: 10.1017/s0950268814001101

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Lill, A. W. T., McIntyre, M., Hales, S., Baker, M. G., & French, N. P. (2015). Environmental change and enteric zoonoses in New Zealand: A systematic review of the evidence. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(1), 63-68. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12274

Journal - Research Article

Pega, F., Shaw, C., Rasanathan, K., Yablonski, J., Kawachi, I., & Hales, S. (2015). Climate change, cash transfers and health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93(8), 559-565. doi: 10.2471/BLT.14.150037

Journal - Research Article

Telfar Barnard, L. F., Baker, M. G., Hales, S., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2015). Novel use of three administrative datasets to establish a cohort for environmental health research. BMC Public Health, 15, 246. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1580-1

Journal - Research Article

Bennett, H., Jones, R., Keating, G., Woodward, A., Hales, S., & Metcalfe, S. (2014). Health and equity impacts of climate change in Aotearoa-New Zealand, and health gains from climate action [Special article]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1406). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Honda, Y., Kondo, M., McGregor, G., Kim, H., Guo, Y.-L., Hijioka, Y., … Hales, S., & Kovats, R. S. (2014). Heat-related mortality risk model for climate change impact projection. Environmental Health & Preventive Medicine, 19(1), 56-63. doi: 10.1007/s12199-013-0354-6

Journal - Research Article

Shaw, C., Hales, S., Howden-Chapman, P., & Edwards, R. (2014). Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector. Nature Climate Change, 4(6), 427-433. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2247

Journal - Research Article

Xiang, F., Lucas, R., Hales, S., & Neale, R. (2014). Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in relation to ambient UV radiation in white populations, 1978-2012: Empirical relationships. JAMA Dermatology, 150(10), 1063-1071. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.762

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Baker, M. G., Hales, S., & French, N. P. (2013). Potential effects of global environmental changes on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis transmission. Trends in Parasitology, 29(2), 83-90. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2012.10.005

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Ikeda, T., French, N., Baker, M. G., & Hales, S. (2013). Climate variability, weather and enteric disease incidence in new Zealand: Time series analysis. PLoS ONE, 8(12), e83484. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083484

Journal - Research Article

O'Sullivan, K. C., Howden-Chapman, P. L., Fougere, G. M., Hales, S., & Stanley, J. (2013). Empowered? Examining self-disconnection in a postal survey of electricity prepayment meter consumers in New Zealand. Energy Policy, 52, 277-287. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.09.020

Journal - Research Article

O'Sullivan, K. C., Howden-Chapman, P. L., Stanley, J., & Hales, S. (2013). Kids in the cold: Outcomes for New Zealand households with children using prepayment metering for electricity. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1371). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Åström, C., Rocklöv, J., Hales, S., Béguin, A., Louis, V., & Sauerborn, R. (2012). Potential distribution of Dengue fever under scenarios of climate change and economic development. EcoHealth, 9(4), 448-454. doi: 10.1007/s10393-012-0808-0

Journal - Research Article

Hales, S., Blakely, T., & Woodward, A. (2012). Air pollution and mortality in New Zealand: Cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66(5), 468-473. doi: 10.1136/jech.2010.112490

Journal - Research Article

Hales, S., Blakely, T., Foster, R. H., Baker, M. G., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2012). Seasonal patterns of mortality in relation to social factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66, 379-384. doi: 10.1136/jech.2010.111864

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Baker, M. G., French, N. P., Dufour, M., & Hales, S. (2012). The epidemiology of human salmonellosis in New Zealand, 1997-2008. Epidemiology & Infection, 140(9), 1685-1694. doi: 10.1017/s0950268811002470

Journal - Research Article

Lal, A., Hales, S., French, N., & Baker, M. G. (2012). Seasonality in human zoonotic enteric diseases: A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e31883. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031883

Journal - Research Article

Béguin, A., Hales, S., Rocklöv, J., Åström, C., Louis, V. R., & Sauerborn, R. (2011). The opposing effects of climate change and socio-economic development on the global distribution of malaria. Global Environmental Change, 21(4), 1209-1214. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.06.001

Journal - Research Article

Wilson, N., Slaney, D., Baker, M. G., Hales, S., & Britton, E. (2011). Climate change and infectious diseases in New Zealand: A brief review and tentative research agenda. Reviews on Environmental Health, 26(2), 93-99. doi: 10.1515/REVEH.2011.013

Journal - Research Article

Britton, E., Hales, S., Venugopal, K., & Baker, M. G. (2010). Positive association between ambient temperature and salmonellosis notifications in New Zealand, 1965-2006. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34(2), 126-129. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00495.x

Journal - Research Article

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