Smokefree Outdoor Area Research, Department of Public Health
- New Zealand - local authority experience
- New Zealand & international public opinion on smokefree outdoor policies
- International policies
- Recent research
- Environmental effects
- International policy evaluation
- Measurement or observation of outdoor smoking
- Presentations from the Smokefree Outdoors Policy Forum, Wellington, 23 February 2012
- Smokefree signs for outdoor places
- Video clips
New Zealand – local authority experience
- Smokefree councils in NZ
- Halkett L, Thomson G. Getting an outdoor smokefree policy: The case of Kapiti Coast District Council. N Z Med J 2010; 123(1308):28-41
- Hyslop B, Thomson G. Smokefree outdoor areas without the Smoke-Police: The New Zealand local authority experience. N Z Med J 2009;122(1303):67-79
- Tay S, Thomson G. What Wellington region city councillors think of smokefree outdoor places. NZ Med J 2008; 121(1276):15-28
- Case study of Auckland Zoo
- Botany (South Auckland) smokefree town centre
- Otara (South Auckland) smokefree town centre project
New Zealand & international public opinion on smokefree outdoor policies
In a 2011 survey of 198 business people on Wellington's Golden Mile (a major shopping route), the vast majority of respondents (83.3%) did not think a smokefree GM would hurt their business
- Patel V, Thomson G, Wilson N. Attitudes of Business People to Proposed Smokefree Shopping Streets. Nicotine & Tobacco Research [Advance Access published May 11, 2012]
Other reports and papers:
- Parry R, Prior B, Sykes A, et al. Smokefree streets: A pilot study of methods to inform policy. Nicotine Tob Res 2011;13:389-394
- Trappitt R, Li J, Peck R, & Tu D. (2011) Acceptability of smoking in public places – Health and Lifestyles Surveys 2008-2010 [In Fact]. Wellington: Health Sponsorship Council.
- Trappitt R, Li J, & Tu D. (2011). Acceptability of smoking around other people – Health and Lifestyles Survey 2008 [In Fact]. Wellington: Health Sponsorship Council.
- Trappitt R, Li J, & Tu D. (2011). Acceptability of smoking in outdoor places where children go – Health and Lifestyles Surveys 2008- 2010 [In Fact]. Wellington: Health Sponsorship Council.
- Thomson G, Wilson N, Weerasekera D, Edwards R. Strong smoker interest in 'setting example to children' by quitting: national survey data. Aus N Z J Public Health 2011;35(1)81-84.
- Wilson N, Weerasekera D, Blakely T, Edwards R, Thomson G, Gifford H. What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:498
- Wilson N, Blakely T, Edwards R, Weerasekera D, Thomson G. Support by New Zealand smokers for new types of smokefree areas: National survey data. N Z Med J 2009;122(1303);80-89
- Thomson G, Wilson N, Edwards R. At the frontier of tobacco control: A brief review of public attitudes to smokefree outdoor places. Nicotine Tob Res 2009;11: 584-590.
Italian public opinion about smokefree outdoor policies:
- Silvano Gallus et al. Attitudes towards the extension of smoking restrictions to selected outdoor areas in Italy. Tob Control 2012;21 59-62
The extent of some smokefree outdoor area policies globally is outlined in a report from the Global Smokefree Partnership - FCTC Article 8-plus Series, The Trend Toward Smokefree Outdoor Areas, December 2009.
Comprehensive outdoor secondhand smoke ordinances in California. Center for Tobacco Policy & Organizing: American Lung Association of California. Sacramento. February 2012.
Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services. Smoke-free malls. Hobart. March 2012.
Arguments used in the USA for outdoor smokefree policies
Case study: Queen Street Mall in Brisbane, Australia
Prior to the introduction of a smokefree Queen Street Mall, smoking in Queensland was already covered by very comprehensive state legislation prohibiting smoking in many public places.
Brisbane City Council chose to regulate smoking in the main city mall - Queen Street Mall after conducting surveys, interviews, observational studies (showing numbers of smokers in an area in a given time), social media research and cigarette butt counts. Very little negative feedback was encountered.
See the links below to articles in the Brisbane Times:
- Tan QH. Smell in the city: Smoking and Olfactory Politics. Urban Studies 2012:Online September 18, 2012, doi: 10.1177/0042098012453855
- Tan QH. Towards an Affective Smoking Geography. Geography Compass 2012;6(9):533-545.
- Collins D, Procter A. Smoking’s Shrinking Geographies. Geography Compass 2011;5(12): 918–931.
- Arisza E, Leatherman S. No-smoking policies and their outcomes on U.S. beaches. Journal of Coastal Research 2012;28(1A):143-147.
- Satterlund TD, Cassady D, Treiber J, et al. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies. J Community Health 2011;36(4):616-23.
- Satterlund TD, Cassady D, Treiber J, et al. Strategies implemented by 20 local tobacco control agencies to promote smoke-free recreation areas, California, 2004-2007. Prev Chronic Dis 2011;8(5):A111
- Novotny TE, Lum K, Smith E, et al. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health 2009;6(5):1691-705.
International policy evaluation
Evaluations of urban smokefree outdoor area policies are sparse. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted in Queensland and Woodstock, Ontario:
Measurement or observation of outdoor smoking
In a 2011 study, being within metres of smoking on the street was associated with higher air pollution levels than being adjacent to busy road traffic. Smokefree policies for city streets could protect the health of pedestrians who are currently unable to avoid exposure to tobacco smoke pollution.
Patel V, Thomson G, Wilson N. Study of air pollution on Lower Hutt city streets: Smoking associated with worse air quality than road traffic. University of Otago, Wellington, December 2011.
In March 2010, smoking was observed along a route of major shopping streets in central Wellington during Tuesday, Friday and Saturday of a single week. In 21 hours, 932 smokers were observed (seven smokers every ten minutes).
Parry et al. Smokefree streets: A pilot study of methods to inform policy. Nicotine Tob Res 2011;13:389-394.
A 2008 observational study of smoking in 12 outdoor public places in central Toronto found that 37% of smoking occurred within 9 metres of building entrances. Mean particulate (PM2.5) levels were significantly associated with both the occurrence of smoking and the number of lit cigarettes.
Kaufman P, Griffin K, Cohen J, Perkins N, Ferrence R. Smoking in urban outdoor public places: Behaviour, experiences, and implications for public health [Abstract]. Health Place 2010 Sep;16(5):961-8. Epub 2010 Jun 8.
A 2010 review suggests that ‘Because of repeated and cumulative exposure to SHS in outdoor settings like beer gardens and outdoor eating areas, occupational exposures to PM2.5 from SHS are likely to be far higher than those experienced by patrons who are present for far shorter periods. …. It is thus plausible that occupational exposure to PM2.5 in outdoor work settings where smoking is allowed could exceed the Australian National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality benchmark annual average target of 8μg/m3 .’
Chapman S, Hyland A. Environmental tobacco smoke in outdoor areas: a rapid review of the research literature. A report commissioned by the Sax Institute for NSW Health. Dec 15, 2010.
Presentations from the Smokefree Outdoors Policy Forum, Wellington, 23 February 2012
Smokefree signs for outdoor places
Smoke-Free Outdoors: The Woodstock Story (Canada)
In September 2008, the City of Woodstock in Ontario, Canada enacted a comprehensive outdoor smoking bylaw, which banned or restricted smoking in parks, recreational fields, around transit stops, doorways and downtown patios.
Smoke Free Sarasota (Florida)
North Sydney Council is proposing to ban smoking in places within 10 metres of children's playgrounds, sportsgrounds and recreational facilities, in outdoor dining areas and in covered bus shelters and taxi ranks