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Caroline Bell

Head of Mental Health Clinical Research Unit
Associate Professor

Bm BCh (Oxon, UK), MA (Cantab, UK), MRCPsych (London, UK), MD (Bristol, UK)

Email caroline.bell@otago.ac.nz

Caroline Bell is an Associate Professor at the Department of Psychological Medicine, UOC and Clinical Head of the Anxiety Disorders Service, CDHB.

Since the Canterbury earthquakes she has also been the Clinical Leader of a Specialist Mental Health service set up to treat people with post traumatic earthquake related distress.

Her research interests are in anxiety disorders, particularly understanding some of the neurobiological mechanism involved.

She has also researched the treatment of anxiety and has investigated the use of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT).

Her current research involves studying CBT treatments in clinical settings.

She is also studying the psychological and neurobiological effects of the earthquakes in both people presenting with significant earthquake related distress and those identifying as resilient.

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Publications

Calder, K., Begg, A., D'Aeth, L., Turner, S., Fox, C., Nobes, B., … Bell, C. (2021). Evaluation of the All Right? Campaign for tangata whaiora/mental health service users in Canterbury, New Zealand. Health Promotion International. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daab102

McLeod, G. F. H., Horwood, L. J., Darlow, B. A., Boden, J. M., Martin, J., Spittlehouse, J. K., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Bell, C., Douglas, K., … McIntosh, V. V. W., … Vierck, E. (2021). Recruitment and retention of participants in longitudinal studies after a natural disaster. Longitudinal & Life Course Studies. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1332/175795921X16168462584238

Jenkins, M., Hoek, J., Jenkin, G., Gendall, P., Stanley, J., Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2021). Silver linings of the COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. PLoS ONE, 16(4), e0249678. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249678

Bell, C., Beaglehole, B., Bell, R., Tanveer, S., Sulaiman-Hill, R., Boden, J., & Porter, R. (2021). Learning from previous disasters: Potential pitfalls of epidemiological psychosocial research in the COVID-19 environment. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0004867421998783

Colhoun, H. C., Kannis-Dymand, L., Rudge, M., Le Compte, D., O'Flaherty, S. J., Gilbert, C., … Harrow, S.-E., Chambers, R., Woolcock, C., … Bell, C. (2020). Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder in routine care. Behaviour Change. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/bec.2020.19

Nutt, D. J., Bell, C., Masterson, C., & Short, C. (2001). Mood and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. London: Martin Dunitz Limited, 110p.

Authored Book - Research

Bell, C. (2007). Dopamine and dopaminergic agents in social anxiety disorder. In D. Castle, S. Hood & M. Kyrios (Eds.), Anxiety disorders: Current controversies, future directions. (pp. 193-201). Fitzroy, Australia: Australian Postgraduate Medicine.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bell, C. J., & Hood, S. (2004). Mood disorders and anxiety disorders. In P. R. Joyce & P. B. Mitchell (Eds.), Mood disorders: Recognition and treatment. (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: The University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bell, C. J., Potokar, J. P., & Nutt, D. J. (2000). Non benzodiazepine anxiolytics acting on the GABA receptor. In Pharmacotherapy for mood and cognition. (pp. 451-463). American Psychiatric Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Nutt, D. J., Bell, C., Middleton, H., & Jezzard-Clarke, P. (1999). Anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders. In A. Gregoire (Ed.), Serious Mental Illness. London: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd.

Chapter in Book - Research

Nutt, D., & Bell, C. (1998). Psychiatry. In J. Van Jones & C. R. V. Thomson (Eds.), Essential medicine. (2nd ed.) (pp. 491-513). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Chapter in Book - Research

Calder, K., Begg, A., D'Aeth, L., Turner, S., Fox, C., Nobes, B., … Bell, C. (2021). Evaluation of the All Right? Campaign for tangata whaiora/mental health service users in Canterbury, New Zealand. Health Promotion International. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daab102

Journal - Research Article

Jenkins, M., Hoek, J., Jenkin, G., Gendall, P., Stanley, J., Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2021). Silver linings of the COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. PLoS ONE, 16(4), e0249678. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249678

Journal - Research Article

McLeod, G. F. H., Horwood, L. J., Darlow, B. A., Boden, J. M., Martin, J., Spittlehouse, J. K., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Bell, C., Douglas, K., … McIntosh, V. V. W., … Vierck, E. (2021). Recruitment and retention of participants in longitudinal studies after a natural disaster. Longitudinal & Life Course Studies. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1332/175795921X16168462584238

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Moor, S., Zhang, T., Hamilton, G. J., Mulder, R. T., Boden, J. M., Frampton, C. M. A., & Bell, C. J. (2020). Impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on dispensing of psychiatric medication for children and adolescents: Longitudinal quantitative study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 216(3), 151-155. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2019.273

Journal - Research Article

Blampied, M., Bell, C., Gilbert, C., & Rucklidge, J. J. (2020). Broad spectrum micronutrient formulas for the treatment of symptoms of depression, stress and/or anxiety: A systematic review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 20(4), 351-371. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1740595

Journal - Research Article

Colhoun, H. C., Kannis-Dymand, L., Rudge, M., Le Compte, D., O'Flaherty, S. J., Gilbert, C., … Harrow, S.-E., Chambers, R., Woolcock, C., … Bell, C. (2020). Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder in routine care. Behaviour Change. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/bec.2020.19

Journal - Research Article

Every-Palmer, S., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Hoek, J., Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Williman, J., Rapsey, C., & Stanley, J. (2020). Psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and wellbeing in New Zealand during the COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 15(11), e0241658. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241658

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bloomer, C., Zhang, T., Hamilton, G., Boden, J. M., Mulder, R. T., Bell, C., & Frampton, C. (2019). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on dispensing for older person's mental health. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 34, 1599-1604. doi: 10.1002/gps.5171

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Mulder, R. T., Boden, J. M., & Bell, C. J. (2019). A systematic review of the psychological impacts of the Canterbury earthquakes on mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 43(3), 274-280. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12894

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Foulds, J. A., Horwood, L. J., Mulder, R. T., & Boden, J. M. (2019). Childhood abuse and psychotic experiences in adulthood: Findings from a 35-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 214, 153-158. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.264

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Frampton, C. M., Colhoun, H. C., Douglas, K. M., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., … Porter, R. J. (2019). Earthquake brain: Impairment of spatial memory following long-term earthquake-related stress. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(1), 37-47. doi: 10.1177/0004867418789498

Journal - Research Article

Douglas, K. M., Groves, S., Porter, R. J., Jordan, J., Wilson, L., Melzer, T. R., … Bell, C. J. (2019). Traumatic imagery following glucocorticoid administration in earthquake-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(12), 1167-1178. doi: 10.1177/0004867419851860

Journal - Research Article

Wilkins, G., Andrews, G., Bell, C., Boyce, P., Gale, C., Rapee, R., & Lampe, L. (2019). Managing anxiety disorders in adults. Medicine Today, 20(12), 12-22.

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Mulder, R. T., Frampton, C. M., Boden, J. M., Newton-Howes, G., & Bell, C. J. (2018). Psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(6), 716-722. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.210

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., & Moor, S. (2017). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on successful school leaving for adolescents. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 70-73. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12625

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Frampton, C. M., Boden, J. M., Mulder, R. T., & Bell, C. J. (2017). An evaluation of Health of the Nation Outcome Scales data to inform psychiatric morbidity following the Canterbury earthquakes. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(11), 1098-1105. doi: 10.1177/0004867417714879

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., & Mulder, R. T. (2017). The role of peri-traumatic stress and disruption distress in predicting symptoms of major depression following exposure to a natural disaster. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(7), 711-718. doi: 10.1177/0004867417691852

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Frampton, C. M., Douglas, K. M., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Carter, J. D., … Porter, R. J. (2017). Earthquake brain: Altered recognition and misclassification of facial expressions are related to trauma exposure but not posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 278. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00278

Journal - Research Article

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2017). In some strange way, trouble is good for people: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 21(1), 31-42. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Carter, F., Boden, J., Wilkinson, T., McKenzie, J., & Ali, A. (2016). Psychological impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on university staff. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1430), 18-28. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., Ali, A. N., McKenzie, J. M., Boden, J. M., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2016). Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1434), 17-22. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2016). Thriving after trauma: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 20(2, Spec. Iss.), 125-134. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Journal - Research Article

Wilkinson, T. J., McKenzie, J. M., Ali, A. N., Rudland, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2016). Identifying medical students at risk of underperformance from significant stressors. BMC Medical Education, 16, 43. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0565-9

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Beveridge, J., & Frampton, C. (2015). Psychiatric admissions fall following the Christchurch earthquakes: An audit of inpatient data. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(4), 346-350. doi: 10.1177/0004867414560651

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., Hamilton, G., & McKean, A. (2015). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on prescribing for mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 742-750. doi: 10.1177/0004867415589794

Journal - Research Article

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., Ali, A. N., McKenzie, J., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2014). The impact of major earthquakes on the psychological functioning of medical students: A Christchurch, New Zealand study. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1398). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Bhikha, S., Colhoun, H., Carter, F., Frampton, C., & Porter, R. (2013). The response to sulpiride in social anxiety disorder: D2 receptor function. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(2), 146-151. doi: 10.1177/0269881112450778

Journal - Research Article

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., & Colhoun, H. C. (2013). Suitability and acceptability of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(2), 142-152. doi: 10.1177/0004867412461384

Journal - Research Article

Wilkinson, T. J., Ali, A. N., Bell, C. J., Carter, F. A., Frampton, C. M., & McKenzie, J. M. (2013). The impact of learning environment disruption on medical student performance. Medical Education, 47(2), 210-213. doi: 10.1111/medu.12065

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Carter, F. A., & Frampton, C. M. (2012). Effectiveness of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(7), 630-640. doi: 10.1177/0004867412437345

Journal - Research Article

Bourke, C., Porter, R. J., Carter, J. D., McIntosh, V. V., Jordan, J., Bell, C., Carter, F., Colhoun, H., & Joyce, P. R. (2012). Comparison of neuropsychological functioning and emotional processing in major depression and social anxiety disorder subjects, and matched healthy controls. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(10), 972-981. doi: 10.1177/0004867412451502

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Bourke, C., Colhoun, H., Carter, F., Frampton, C., & Porter, R. (2011). The misclassification of facial expressions in generalised social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(2), 278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.10.001

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Hood, S., Potokar, J., Nash, J., Adrover, M., Frampton, C., … Nutt, D. (2011). Rapid tryptophan depletion following cognitive behavioural therapy for panic disorder. Psychopharmacology, 213(2-3), 593-602. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1696-z

Journal - Research Article

Argyropoulos, S. V., Hicks, J. A., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. (2009). Redistribution of slow wave activity of sleep during pharmacological treatment of depression with paroxetine but not with nefazodone. Journal of Sleep Research, 18(3), 342-348. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00724.x

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Bhika, S., Porter, R., Frampton, C., Carter, J., McIntosh, V., Jordan, J., & Joyce, P. (2008). The response to sulpiride in major depression before and after cognitive behavioural therapy: D2 receptor function. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 20(4), 199-206.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Nicholson, H., Mulder, R. T., Luty, S. E., & Joyce, P. R. (2006). Plasma oxytocin levels in depression and their correlation with the temperament dimension of reward dependence. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(5), 656-660.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Hood, S. D., & Nutt, D. J. (2005). Acute tryptophan depletion. Part II: Clinical effects and implications. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 565-574.

Journal - Research Article

Hood, S. D., Bell, C. J., & Nutt, D. J. (2005). Acute tryptophan depletion. Part I: Rationale and methodology. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 558-564.

Journal - Research Article

Argyropolous, S. V., Hood, S. D., Adrover, M., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nash, J. R., … Nutt, D. J. (2004). Tryptophan depletion reverses the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 503-509.

Journal - Research Article

Argyropolous, S. V., Hicks, J. A., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. J. (2003). Correlation of subjective and objective sleep measurements at different stages of the treatment of depression. Psychiatry Research, 120, 179-190.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Wilson, S., Rich, A., Bailey, J., & Nutt, D. (2003). Effects on sleep architecture of pindolol, paroxetine and their combination in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 166, 102-110.

Journal - Research Article

Coupland, N. J., Wilson, S. J., Potokar, J. P., Bell, C., & Nutt, D. J. (2003). Increased sympathetic response to standing in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 118, 69-79.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Forshall, S., Adrover, M., Nash, J., Hood, S., Argyropolous, S., … Nutt, D. (2002). Does 5HT restrain panic? A tryptophan depletion study in panic disorder recovered on paroxetine. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 16, 5-14.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Vanderlinden, H., Hiersemenzel, R., Otoul, C., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. (2002). The effects of levetiracetam on objective and subjective sleep parameters in healthy volunteers and patients with partial epilepsy. Journal of Sleep Research, 11, 255-263.

Journal - Research Article

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