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Caroline Bell

Head of Mental Health Clinical Research Unit
Associate Professor

Bm BCh (Oxon, UK), MA (Cantab, UK), MRCPsych (London, UK), MD (Bristol, UK)

Email caroline.bell@otago.ac.nz

Caroline Bell is an Associate Professor at the Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago.

After the earthquakes she acted as the CDHB clinical advisor on psychosocial responses and input to the community and led a specialist service treating people with severe post traumatic earthquake related distress.

Since the March 15 mosque attacks Caroline has again acted as the CDHB clinical adviser on psychosocial responses and leads a large HRC funded study of the people most directly impacted by these attacks.

She is also studying the psychological and neurobiological effects of the earthquakes in both people presenting with significant earthquake related distress and those identifying as resilient.

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Publications

Bell, C., & Sulaiman-Hill, R. (2022, September). Early findings from the March 15 terror attacks study. Invited presentation at the Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) New Zealand Conference, Queenstown, New Zealand.

Bell, C., Moot, W., Porter, R., Frampton, C., McIntosh, V., Purnell, M., Smith, R., & Douglas, K. (2022). Examining the long-term cognitive effects of exposure to the Canterbury earthquakes in a resilient cohort. BJPsych Open, 8(4), e114. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2022.512

Beaglehole, B., Williman, J., Bell, C., Stanley, J., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Hoek, J., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2022). Thriving in a pandemic: Determinants of excellent wellbeing among New Zealanders during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional survey. PLoS ONE, 17(3), e0262745. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0262745

Calder, K., Begg, A., D'Aeth, L., Turner, S., Fox, C., Nobes, B., … Bell, C. (2022). Evaluation of the All Right? Campaign for tangata whaiora/mental health service users in Canterbury, New Zealand. Health Promotion International, 37, daab102. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daab102

McLeod, G. F. H., Horwood, L. J., Darlow, B. A., Boden, J. M., Martin, J., Spittlehouse, J. K., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Bell, C., Douglas, K., … McIntosh, V. V. W., … Vierck, E. (2022). Recruitment and retention of participants in longitudinal studies after a natural disaster. Longitudinal & Life Course Studies, 13(2), 287-306. doi: 10.1332/175795921X16168462584238

Nutt, D. J., Bell, C., Masterson, C., & Short, C. (2001). Mood and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. London: Martin Dunitz Limited, 110p.

Authored Book - Research

Bell, C. (2007). Dopamine and dopaminergic agents in social anxiety disorder. In D. Castle, S. Hood & M. Kyrios (Eds.), Anxiety disorders: Current controversies, future directions. (pp. 193-201). Fitzroy, Australia: Australian Postgraduate Medicine.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bell, C. J., & Hood, S. (2004). Mood disorders and anxiety disorders. In P. R. Joyce & P. B. Mitchell (Eds.), Mood disorders: Recognition and treatment. (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: The University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Chapter in Book - Research

Bell, C. J., Potokar, J. P., & Nutt, D. J. (2000). Non benzodiazepine anxiolytics acting on the GABA receptor. In Pharmacotherapy for mood and cognition. (pp. 451-463). American Psychiatric Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Nutt, D. J., Bell, C., Middleton, H., & Jezzard-Clarke, P. (1999). Anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders. In A. Gregoire (Ed.), Serious Mental Illness. London: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd.

Chapter in Book - Research

Nutt, D., & Bell, C. (1998). Psychiatry. In J. Van Jones & C. R. V. Thomson (Eds.), Essential medicine. (2nd ed.) (pp. 491-513). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Chapter in Book - Research

Beaglehole, B., Williman, J., Bell, C., Stanley, J., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Hoek, J., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2022). Thriving in a pandemic: Determinants of excellent wellbeing among New Zealanders during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional survey. PLoS ONE, 17(3), e0262745. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0262745

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Moot, W., Porter, R., Frampton, C., McIntosh, V., Purnell, M., Smith, R., & Douglas, K. (2022). Examining the long-term cognitive effects of exposure to the Canterbury earthquakes in a resilient cohort. BJPsych Open, 8(4), e114. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2022.512

Journal - Research Article

Calder, K., Begg, A., D'Aeth, L., Turner, S., Fox, C., Nobes, B., … Bell, C. (2022). Evaluation of the All Right? Campaign for tangata whaiora/mental health service users in Canterbury, New Zealand. Health Promotion International, 37, daab102. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daab102

Journal - Research Article

McLeod, G. F. H., Horwood, L. J., Darlow, B. A., Boden, J. M., Martin, J., Spittlehouse, J. K., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Bell, C., Douglas, K., … McIntosh, V. V. W., … Vierck, E. (2022). Recruitment and retention of participants in longitudinal studies after a natural disaster. Longitudinal & Life Course Studies, 13(2), 287-306. doi: 10.1332/175795921X16168462584238

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Williman, J., Beaglehole, B., Stanley, J., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2021). Challenges facing essential workers: A cross-sectional survey of the subjective mental health and well-being of New Zealand healthcare and 'other' essential workers during the COVID-19 lockdown. BMJ Open, 11(7), e048107. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048107

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Williman, J., Beaglehole, B., Stanley, J., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2021). Psychological distress, loneliness, alcohol use and suicidality in New Zealanders with mental illness during a strict COVID-19 lockdown. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/00048674211034317

Journal - Research Article

Colhoun, H. C., Kannis-Dymand, L., Rudge, M., Le Compte, D., O'Flaherty, S. J., Gilbert, C., … Harrow, S.-E., Chambers, R., Woolcock, C., … Bell, C. (2021). Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder in routine care. Behaviour Change, 38, 60-72. doi: 10.1017/bec.2020.19

Journal - Research Article

Jenkins, M., Hoek, J., Jenkin, G., Gendall, P., Stanley, J., Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Rapsey, C., & Every-Palmer, S. (2021). Silver linings of the COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. PLoS ONE, 16(4), e0249678. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249678

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Moor, S., Zhang, T., Hamilton, G. J., Mulder, R. T., Boden, J. M., Frampton, C. M. A., & Bell, C. J. (2020). Impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on dispensing of psychiatric medication for children and adolescents: Longitudinal quantitative study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 216(3), 151-155. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2019.273

Journal - Research Article

Blampied, M., Bell, C., Gilbert, C., & Rucklidge, J. J. (2020). Broad spectrum micronutrient formulas for the treatment of symptoms of depression, stress and/or anxiety: A systematic review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 20(4), 351-371. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1740595

Journal - Research Article

Every-Palmer, S., Jenkins, M., Gendall, P., Hoek, J., Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Williman, J., Rapsey, C., & Stanley, J. (2020). Psychological distress, anxiety, family violence, suicidality, and wellbeing in New Zealand during the COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 15(11), e0241658. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241658

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bloomer, C., Zhang, T., Hamilton, G., Boden, J. M., Mulder, R. T., Bell, C., & Frampton, C. (2019). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on dispensing for older person's mental health. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 34, 1599-1604. doi: 10.1002/gps.5171

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Mulder, R. T., Boden, J. M., & Bell, C. J. (2019). A systematic review of the psychological impacts of the Canterbury earthquakes on mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 43(3), 274-280. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12894

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Foulds, J. A., Horwood, L. J., Mulder, R. T., & Boden, J. M. (2019). Childhood abuse and psychotic experiences in adulthood: Findings from a 35-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 214, 153-158. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.264

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Frampton, C. M., Colhoun, H. C., Douglas, K. M., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., … Porter, R. J. (2019). Earthquake brain: Impairment of spatial memory following long-term earthquake-related stress. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(1), 37-47. doi: 10.1177/0004867418789498

Journal - Research Article

Douglas, K. M., Groves, S., Porter, R. J., Jordan, J., Wilson, L., Melzer, T. R., … Bell, C. J. (2019). Traumatic imagery following glucocorticoid administration in earthquake-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(12), 1167-1178. doi: 10.1177/0004867419851860

Journal - Research Article

Wilkins, G., Andrews, G., Bell, C., Boyce, P., Gale, C., Rapee, R., & Lampe, L. (2019). Managing anxiety disorders in adults. Medicine Today, 20(12), 12-22.

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Mulder, R. T., Frampton, C. M., Boden, J. M., Newton-Howes, G., & Bell, C. J. (2018). Psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(6), 716-722. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.210

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., & Moor, S. (2017). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on successful school leaving for adolescents. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 70-73. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12625

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Frampton, C. M., Boden, J. M., Mulder, R. T., & Bell, C. J. (2017). An evaluation of Health of the Nation Outcome Scales data to inform psychiatric morbidity following the Canterbury earthquakes. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(11), 1098-1105. doi: 10.1177/0004867417714879

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., & Mulder, R. T. (2017). The role of peri-traumatic stress and disruption distress in predicting symptoms of major depression following exposure to a natural disaster. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(7), 711-718. doi: 10.1177/0004867417691852

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Frampton, C. M., Douglas, K. M., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, F. A., Jordan, J., Carter, J. D., … Porter, R. J. (2017). Earthquake brain: Altered recognition and misclassification of facial expressions are related to trauma exposure but not posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 278. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00278

Journal - Research Article

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2017). In some strange way, trouble is good for people: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 21(1), 31-42. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Carter, F., Boden, J., Wilkinson, T., McKenzie, J., & Ali, A. (2016). Psychological impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on university staff. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1430), 18-28. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., Ali, A. N., McKenzie, J. M., Boden, J. M., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2016). Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1434), 17-22. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Smith, R., McIntosh, V. V. W., Carter, J. D., Colhoun, H., Jordan, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2016). Thriving after trauma: Posttraumatic growth following the Canterbury earthquake sequence. Australasian Journal of Disaster & Trauma Studies, 20(2, Spec. Iss.), 125-134. Retrieved from http://trauma.massey.ac.nz/index.html

Journal - Research Article

Wilkinson, T. J., McKenzie, J. M., Ali, A. N., Rudland, J., Carter, F. A., & Bell, C. J. (2016). Identifying medical students at risk of underperformance from significant stressors. BMC Medical Education, 16, 43. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0565-9

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Beveridge, J., & Frampton, C. (2015). Psychiatric admissions fall following the Christchurch earthquakes: An audit of inpatient data. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(4), 346-350. doi: 10.1177/0004867414560651

Journal - Research Article

Beaglehole, B., Bell, C., Frampton, C., Hamilton, G., & McKean, A. (2015). The impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on prescribing for mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 742-750. doi: 10.1177/0004867415589794

Journal - Research Article

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., Ali, A. N., McKenzie, J., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2014). The impact of major earthquakes on the psychological functioning of medical students: A Christchurch, New Zealand study. New Zealand Medical Journal, 127(1398). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Bhikha, S., Colhoun, H., Carter, F., Frampton, C., & Porter, R. (2013). The response to sulpiride in social anxiety disorder: D2 receptor function. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(2), 146-151. doi: 10.1177/0269881112450778

Journal - Research Article

Carter, F. A., Bell, C. J., & Colhoun, H. C. (2013). Suitability and acceptability of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(2), 142-152. doi: 10.1177/0004867412461384

Journal - Research Article

Wilkinson, T. J., Ali, A. N., Bell, C. J., Carter, F. A., Frampton, C. M., & McKenzie, J. M. (2013). The impact of learning environment disruption on medical student performance. Medical Education, 47(2), 210-213. doi: 10.1111/medu.12065

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Colhoun, H. C., Carter, F. A., & Frampton, C. M. (2012). Effectiveness of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders in secondary care. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(7), 630-640. doi: 10.1177/0004867412437345

Journal - Research Article

Bourke, C., Porter, R. J., Carter, J. D., McIntosh, V. V., Jordan, J., Bell, C., Carter, F., Colhoun, H., & Joyce, P. R. (2012). Comparison of neuropsychological functioning and emotional processing in major depression and social anxiety disorder subjects, and matched healthy controls. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(10), 972-981. doi: 10.1177/0004867412451502

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Bourke, C., Colhoun, H., Carter, F., Frampton, C., & Porter, R. (2011). The misclassification of facial expressions in generalised social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(2), 278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.10.001

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Hood, S., Potokar, J., Nash, J., Adrover, M., Frampton, C., … Nutt, D. (2011). Rapid tryptophan depletion following cognitive behavioural therapy for panic disorder. Psychopharmacology, 213(2-3), 593-602. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1696-z

Journal - Research Article

Argyropoulos, S. V., Hicks, J. A., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. (2009). Redistribution of slow wave activity of sleep during pharmacological treatment of depression with paroxetine but not with nefazodone. Journal of Sleep Research, 18(3), 342-348. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00724.x

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C., Bhika, S., Porter, R., Frampton, C., Carter, J., McIntosh, V., Jordan, J., & Joyce, P. (2008). The response to sulpiride in major depression before and after cognitive behavioural therapy: D2 receptor function. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 20(4), 199-206.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Nicholson, H., Mulder, R. T., Luty, S. E., & Joyce, P. R. (2006). Plasma oxytocin levels in depression and their correlation with the temperament dimension of reward dependence. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(5), 656-660.

Journal - Research Article

Bell, C. J., Hood, S. D., & Nutt, D. J. (2005). Acute tryptophan depletion. Part II: Clinical effects and implications. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 565-574.

Journal - Research Article

Hood, S. D., Bell, C. J., & Nutt, D. J. (2005). Acute tryptophan depletion. Part I: Rationale and methodology. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 558-564.

Journal - Research Article

Argyropolous, S. V., Hood, S. D., Adrover, M., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nash, J. R., … Nutt, D. J. (2004). Tryptophan depletion reverses the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 503-509.

Journal - Research Article

Argyropolous, S. V., Hicks, J. A., Nash, J. R., Bell, C. J., Rich, A. S., Nutt, D. J., & Wilson, S. J. (2003). Correlation of subjective and objective sleep measurements at different stages of the treatment of depression. Psychiatry Research, 120, 179-190.

Journal - Research Article

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