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Contact Details

Email
ross.kennedy@otago.ac.nz
Position
Clinical Associate Professor
Department
Department of Surgery and Critical Care (Christchurch)
Qualifications
MB ChB PhD FANZCA
Research summary
Anaesthesia

Research

  • model volatile anaesthetic uptake and distribution
  • effect-site volatile anaesthetic levels needed for various levels of surgical stimulus
  • nitrous oxide kinetic analysis
  • the effect of depth of anaesthesia on long-term outcomes

Publications

Kennedy, R. R. (2023). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug display and simulation systems in anesthesia practice [Review]. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, 36(4), 407-413. doi: 10.1097/aco.0000000000001278

Woirnarski, N. C. Z., Kennedy, R. R., Te, R., Agyekum, D. G., & Hao, D. (2021). Is low-flow anesthesia with sevoflurane safe? An interactive discussion. Translational Perioperative & Pain Medicine, 8(3), 359-364. doi: 10.31480/2330-4871/141

Peyton, P. J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2021). The big match: Lung ventilation and blood flow during inhalational anesthesia and recovery: Is there a winning combination? Anesthesiology, 135(6), 948-950. doi: 10.1097/aln.0000000000004038

Feldman, J. M., Hendrickx, J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2021). In response. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 133(2), e24-e25. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000005615

Kennedy, R. R. (2021). Seeing the wood for the trees: Insights into reducing inhalational agent consumption. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 65, 861-862. doi: 10.1111/aas.13926

Kennedy, R. R. (2020). Application of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and signal analysis to drug administration in anaesthesia. In P. L. Gambus & J. F. A. Hendrickx (Eds.), Personalized anaesthesia: Targeting physiological systems for optimal effect. (pp. 82-102). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781316443217.006

Chapter in Book - Research

Kennedy, R. (2017). Lessons from drug interaction displays. In A. R. Absalom & K. P. Mason (Eds.), Total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions: A comprehensive global anthology. (pp. 713-723). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47609-4_39

Chapter in Book - Research

Kennedy, R. R. (2023). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug display and simulation systems in anesthesia practice [Review]. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, 36(4), 407-413. doi: 10.1097/aco.0000000000001278

Journal - Research Article

Corcoran, T. B., Myles, P. S., Forbes, A. B., Cheng, A. C., Bach, L. A., O'Loughlin, E., … for the PADDI Investigators, the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Clinical Trials Network, and the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network, including Kennedy, R. R., & McKellow, M. A. (2021). Dexamethasone and surgical-site infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 384, 1731-1741. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2028982

Journal - Research Article

COVIDSurg Collaborative, and Benson, R. A., Haddow, J., Seigne, R., Kennedy, R., & Pascoe, R. (2020). Elective surgery cancellations due to the COVID-19 pandemic: Global predictive modelling to inform surgical recovery plans. British Journal of Surgery, 107(11), 1440-1449. doi: 10.1002/bjs.11746

Journal - Research Article

De Baerdemaeker, A., Poelaert, J., Kennedy, R. R., De Wolf, A. M., & Hendrickx, J. F. A. (2019). The effect of isocapnic hyperventilation on early recovery after remifentanil/sevoflurane anesthesia in O2/air: A randomized trial. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 63, 455-460. doi: 10.1111/aas.13293

Journal - Research Article

International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS) group, including Seigne, R., Kennedy, R., Pascoe, R., & Walsh, D. (2019). Prospective observational cohort study on grading the severity of postoperative complications in global surgery research. British Journal of Surgery, 106(2), e73-e80. doi: 10.1002/bjs.11025

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., Vesto, G., Hanrahan, J., & Page, J. (2019). The effect of fresh gas flow during induction of anaesthesia on sevoflurane usage: A quality improvement study. Anaesthesia, 74, 875-882. doi: 10.1111/anae.14669

Journal - Research Article

Short, T. G., Campbell, D., Frampton, C., Chan, M. T. V., Myles, P. S., Corcoran, T. B., … for the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Clinical Trials Network and the Balanced Anaesthesia Study Group, including Kennedy, R., & McKellow, M. (2019). Anaesthetic depth and complications after major surgery: An international, randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 394, 1907-1914. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32315-3

Journal - Research Article

van der Griend, B. F. H., Vincent, A. R., & Kennedy, R. R. (2019). Observational audit of sevoflurane consumption during paediatric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 47(3), 251-254. doi: 10.1177/0310057X19841008

Journal - Research Article

Abbott, T. E. F., Ahmad, T., Phull, M. K., Fowler, A. J., Hewson, R., Biccard, B. M., … for the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS) Group, including Seigne, R., Kennedy, R., Pascoe, R., & Walsh, D. (2018). The surgical safety checklist and patient outcomes after surgery: A prospective observational cohort study, systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 120(1), 146-155. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2017.08.002

Journal - Research Article

Kahan, B. C., Koulenti, D., Arvaniti, K., Beavis, V., Campbell, D., Chan, M., International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS) group, including Seigne, R., Kennedy, R., Pascoe, R., & Walsh, D. (2017). Critical care admission following elective surgery was not associated with survival benefit: Prospective analysis of data from 27 countries. Intensive Care Medicine, 43(7), 971-979. doi: 10.1007/s00134-016-4633-8

Journal - Research Article

Szakmany, T., Ditai, J., Kirov, M., Protsenko, D., Osinaike, B., Venara, A., … on behalf of the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS) group, including Seigne, R., Dixon, L., Kennedy, R., & Pascoe, R. (2017). In-hospital clinical outcomes after upper gastrointestinal surgery: Data from an international observational study. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 43, 2324-2332. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2017.08.002

Journal - Research Article

International Surgical Outcomes Study Group, including Haddow, J., Seigne, R., Dixon, L., Kennedy, R., & Pascoe, R. (2016). Global patient outcomes after elective surgery: Prospective cohort study in 27 low-, middle- and high-income countries. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(5), 601, 609. doi: 10.1093/bja/aew316

Journal - Research Article

Taylor, J., Dixon, L., Pascoe, R., Dobbs, B., Kennedy, R., & Frizelle, F. (2016). Elective surgical outcomes of patients in Christchurch, New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 129(1447), 64-71. Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal

Journal - Research Article

Hartwell, D. A., Grayling, M., & Kennedy, R. R. (2014). Low-cost high-fidelity anaesthetic simulation. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 42(3), 371-377.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R. (2014). New technology in anaesthesia: Friend or foe? Journal of Clinical Monitoring & Computing, 28(2), 113-116. doi: 10.1007/s10877-014-9557-7

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2014). A ten-year audit of fresh gas flows in a New Zealand hospital: The influence of the introduction of automated agent delivery and comparisons with other hospitals. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 42(1), 65-72.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R., McKellow, M., French, R., & Sleigh, J. (2013). Sevoflurane end-tidal to effect-site equilibration in women determined by response to laryngeal mask airway insertion. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 117(4), 786-791. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182a46d4e

Journal - Research Article

Drummond, G. B., Bleach, L., Thomson, A. J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2012). Kinetics of anesthetic onset measured with a direct index of neural activity. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 115(3), 547-553. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182549490

Journal - Research Article

Drummond, G. B., Fisher, L., Pumphrey, O., & Kennedy, R. R. (2012). Direct measurement of nitrous oxide kinetics. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 109(5), 776-781. doi: 10.1093/bja/aes260

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2011). The development of a system to guide volatile anaesthetic administration. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 39(2), 182-190.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & Merry, A. F. (2011). The effect of a graphical interpretation of a statistic trend indicator (Trigg's Tracking Variable) on the detection of simulated changes. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 39(5), 881-886.

Journal - Research Article

Moran, E. M. L., French, R. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (2011). A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 39(5), 946-950.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., McKellow, M. A., & French, R. A. (2010). The effect of predictive display on the control of step changes in effect site sevoflurane levels. Anaesthesia, 65, 826-830. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2010.06410.x

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R., Lee, A., & Frizelle, F. A. (2010). Influence of general health and degree of surgical insult on long-term survival. British Journal of Surgery, 97, 782-788. doi: 10.1002/bjs.6960

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., Merry, A. F., Warman, G. R., & Webster, C. S. (2009). The influence of various graphical and numeric trend display formats on the detection of simulated changes. Anaesthesia, 64(11), 1186-1191. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.06082.x

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2008). Changing patterns in anesthetic fresh gas flow rates over 5 years in a teaching hospital. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 106(5), 1487-1490.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., Minto, C., & Seethepalli, A. (2008). Effect-site half-time for burst suppression is longer than for hypnosis during anaesthesia with sevoflurane. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(1), 72-77. doi: 10.1093/bja/aem314

Journal - Research Article

Gendall, K. A., Kennedy, R. R., Watson, A. J., & Frizelle, F. A. (2007). The effect of epidural analgesia on postoperative outcome after colorectal surgery. Colorectal Disease, 9(7), 584-598. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2007.01274.x

Journal - Research Article

Gendall, K. A., Raniga, S., Kennedy, R., & Frizelle, F. A. (2007). The impact of obesity on outcome after major colorectal surgery. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 50(12), 2223-2237.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. (2006). Predictive performance of a model of anaesthetic uptake with desflurane. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 34(2), 197-202.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & Sakowska, M. M. (2006). The relationship between calculated effect-site sevoflurane levels and awakening from anaesthesia. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 34(6), 713-718.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R. (2005). The effect of using different values for the effect-site equilibrium half-time on the prediction of effect-site sevoflurane concentration: A simulation study. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 101, 1023-1028.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., French, R. A., & Gilles, S. (2004). The effect of a model-based predictive display on the control of end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations during low-flow anesthesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 99, 1159-1163.

Journal - Research Article

Turner, M. J., McCulloch, T. J., Kennedy, R. R., & Baker, A. B. (2004). Pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane uptake into the brain. Anaesthesia, 59, 1201-1206.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2003). The effect of the interval between blood pressure determinations on the delay in the detection of changes: A computer simulation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 96, 944-948.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R., & French, R. (2003). An audit of anaesthetic fresh-gas flow rates and volatile anaesthetic use in a teaching hospital. New Zealand Medical Journal, 116(1174). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/116-1174/438/content.pdf

Journal - Research Article

Audeau, A., Newell, P., Dobbs, B. R., Frizelle, F. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (2002). Postoperative epidural analgesia following elective major abdominal surgery in high risk patients. New Zealand Medical Journal, 115(1148), 69-72.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & Baker, A. B. (2001). The effect of cardiac output changes on end-expired volatile anaesthetic concentrations - a theoretical study. Anaesthesia, 56(11), 1034-1040.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & Baker, A. B. (2001). The effects of cardiac output changes on the end-tidal volatile anaesthetic concentrations. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 29(5), 535-538.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2001). A breathing circuit disconnection detected by anesthetic agent monitoring. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia / Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 48(9), 847-849.

Journal - Research Article

Mitchell, A. M., & Kennedy, R. R. (2001). Preoperative core temperatures in elective surgical patients show an unexpected skewed distribution. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia / Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 48(9), 850-853.

Journal - Research Article

French, R. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (1998). Common gas outlet disconnections with an Ayres T-piece. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 26, 665-670.

Journal - Research Article

French, R. A., & Kennedy, R. R. (1998). Disconnect alarm failure in detection of common gas outlet disconnection. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 26(6), 665-670.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R. (1996). Linear approximation of Brody's equation to predict oxygen consumption. Journal of Clinical Monitoring & Computing, 12(1), 111-112.

Journal - Research Article

Kennedy, R. R. (1995). A modified Triggs Tracking Variable: as an 'advisory' alarm during anaesthesia. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring & Computing, 12, 197-204.

Journal - Research Article

Feldman, J. M., Hendrickx, J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2021). Carbon dioxide absorption during inhalation anesthesia: A modern practice. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 132(4), 993-1002. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005137

Journal - Research Other

Feldman, J. M., Hendrickx, J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2021). In response. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 133(2), e24-e25. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000005615

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R. (2021). Seeing the wood for the trees: Insights into reducing inhalational agent consumption. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 65, 861-862. doi: 10.1111/aas.13926

Journal - Research Other

Peyton, P. J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2021). The big match: Lung ventilation and blood flow during inhalational anesthesia and recovery: Is there a winning combination? Anesthesiology, 135(6), 948-950. doi: 10.1097/aln.0000000000004038

Journal - Research Other

Woirnarski, N. C. Z., Kennedy, R. R., Te, R., Agyekum, D. G., & Hao, D. (2021). Is low-flow anesthesia with sevoflurane safe? An interactive discussion. Translational Perioperative & Pain Medicine, 8(3), 359-364. doi: 10.31480/2330-4871/141

Journal - Research Other

Wood, C. F., & Kennedy, R. R. (2020). [Review of the book Maths, physics and clinical measurement for anaesthesia and intensive care]. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 131(4), e182. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005076

Journal - Research Other

De Baerdemaeker, A., De Wolf, A. M., Poelaert, J., Kennedy, R. R., & Hendrickx, J. F. A. (2019). Effectiveness of isocapnic hyperventilation: It is not the technique, it is the way you use it. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 63, 835-836. doi: 10.1111/aas.13357

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R., Hendrickx, J. F. A., & Feldman, J. M. (2019). There are no dragons: Low-flow anaesthesia with sevoflurane is safe. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 47(3), 223-225. doi: 10.1177/0310057X19843304

Journal - Research Other

van der Griend, B. F. H., & Kennedy, R. R. (2019). Time to stop the go slow on the low flow. Pediatric Anesthesia, 29(4), 300-301. doi: 10.1111/pan.13618

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R. (2018). A second look at the second gas effect. Anesthesiology, 128(6), 1053-1054. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002206

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R. (2013). Effect-site estimation of volatile anaesthetic agents: Beyond MAC fractions as a target for anaesthesia delivery. Trends in Anaesthesia & Critical Care, 3(4), 211-215. doi: 10.1016/j.tacc.2013.02.014

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R., & French, R. A. (2013). Sustaining a reduction in fresh gas flow rates. Anesthesiology, 119(5), 1228. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a6b3a8

Journal - Research Other

van der Griend, B., & Kennedy, R. (2011). Procedural sedation in the emergency department: Good medicine or flirting with danger? [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1344). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1344/4901/content.pdf

Journal - Research Other

Fredrickson, M. J., & Kennedy, R. R. (2010). Regional anaesthesia and pain relief after surgery [Editorial]. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1324). Retrieved from http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1324/4384/content.pdf

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. (2010). Individualising target-controlled anaesthesia. Better models or better targets? [Editorial]. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 38(3), 421-423.

Journal - Research Other

Kennedy, R. R. (2010). Seeing the future of anesthesia drug dosing: Moving the art of anesthesia from impressionism to realism [Editorial]. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 111(2), 252-255. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e62ff1

Journal - Research Other

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