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Professor Abby Smith

Course Advisor

Fourth-Year Coordinator

Director of Oceanography Programme

Contact DetailsAbbySmith

Office 310 Castle Street, room 103
Tel +64 3 479 7470
Email abby.smith@otago.ac.nz

Academic Qualifications

BA (Geology, Biology) Colby College
SM (Earth Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences) Massachusetts Institute of Technology
DPhil (Earth Sciences) University of Waikato

Research Interests

Bryozoans are important carbonate producers

Marine bryozoans are the most important carbonate sediment producers on shelves in the Southern Hemisphere, and largely unstudied. My students and I work on taxonomy and systematics, identification, growth and production, ecology, and geochemistry of New Zealand's bryozoans. I am an active member (and currently Treasurer) of the International Bryozoology Association.

Geochemical signals in skeletons

Variations in isotopic composition and mineralogy of skeletal carbonate may contain information about age, environment, and productivity. Our research team investigates geochemical signals in carbonate (both modern and fossil), and how they can be used to understand calcification, age and growth in temperate organisms, particularly bryozoans, as well as how they might reflect longer-term changes in climate and water chemistry.

Temperate carbonate sediments

Cool water reefs and temperate carbonate sediments differ from their tropical counterparts, requiring new ideas about budgets, production, destruction, preservation and lithification. My students and I investigate these processes in a range of environments, from the coast out to the shelf and beyond. The Otago and Southland continental shelves are unusual in their cool-water carbonate reefs and mixing of carbonate and terrestrial sediments. We have studies underway off Otago Peninsula, in Paterson Inlet, through Foveaux Strait, and in Doubtful Sound.

Ocean acidification on the temperate shelf

Ocean acidification and its effect on calcification is emerging as the major global climate challenge. Rapid anthropogenic production of CO2 has driven the carbonate chemistry of the sea, causing lowered pH in surface waters and affecting calcification in some marine organisms. We study the temperate carbonate budget -- production, geochemistry, dissolution, and accumulation in cool temperate environments. Temperate shelf carbonate sediments, which blanket southern shelves of New Zealand and Australia, are key biological reservoirs, possibly ameliorating the effects of acidification in shelf depths.

Courses

Abby is the Chief Course Advisor for the Department of Marine Science.
She is also the fourth-year coordinator and Director of the Oceanography programme.

She teaches in:

  • MARI 202 Marine Invertebrate Ecology and Biology — lecturer
  • OCEN 301 Practical and Field Oceanography — Coordinator, principal lecturer
  • OCEN 323 Marine Geology and Geophysics — lecturer
  • MARI 401 Advanced Methods in Marine Science — Coordinator, principal lecturer
  • MARI480/490/495 Research Projects and Proposals -- Coordinator

Postgraduate Students

Katerina Achilleos – Thesis Title (PhD):Growth and calcification in articulated bryozoans as a response to environmental conditions.

Peter Batson – Thesis Title (PhD): Aspects of the biology of Hornerid bryozoans

Shannon Goodwin – Thesis Title (MSc): Biomineralogy, allometry and strength of skeletal components from the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus around New Zealand

Hannah Mello – Thesis Title (PhD): Protecting the Small: the effect of marine protection on New Zealand bryozoans.

Yuta Tamberg - Thesis Title (PhD): Aspects of feeding and anatomy of stenolaemate bryozoans, New Zealand

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Publications

Achilleos, K., Gordon, D. P., & Smith, A. M. (2020). Cellaria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the deep: New species from the souther Zealandian region. Zootaxa, 4801(2), 201-236. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4801.2.1

Batson, P. B., Tamberg, Y., Taylor, P. D., Gordon, D. P., & Smith, A. M. (2020). Skeletal resorption in bryozoans: Occurrence, function and recognition. Biological Reviews. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/brv.12613

Key, Jr, M. M., Smith, A. M., Phillips, N. J., & Forrester, J. S. (2020). Effect of removal of organic material on stable isotope values in skeletal carbonate from taxonomic groups with complex mineralogies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/rcm.8901

Tamberg, Y., & Smith, A. M. (2020). In search of predictive models for stenolaemate morphometry across the skeletal-polypide divide. Paleobiology, 46(2), 218-236. doi: 10.1017/pab.2020.13

Smith, A. M., & Key, Jr, M. M. (2020). Growth geometry and measurement of growth rates in marine bryozoans: A review. In P. Wyse Jackson & K. Zágoršek (Eds.), Bryozoan Studies 2019: Proceedings of the 18th International Bryozoology Association (IBA) Conference. (pp. 139-156). Prague, Czech Republic: Czech Geological Survey. [Full Paper]

Chapter in Book - Research

Bostock, H., Tracey, D., Dunbar, G., Handler, M., Baker, J., Smith, A., & Riedi, M. (2013). Deep-sea coral carbonate mineralogy. In D. Tracey, H. Bostock, K. Currie, S. Mikaloff-Fletcher, M. Williams, M. Hadfield, … V. Cummings (Eds.), The potential impact of ocean acidification on deep-sea corals and fisheries habitat in New Zealand waters [New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 117]. (pp. 20-29). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry for Primary Industries.

Barker, M., Brett, T., Darby, J., Dugan, J., Hubbard, D., Johnson, P., Mladenov, P., … Peake, B., Probert, K., Smith, A., Spencer, H., & Walker, S. (2003). The coast. In J. T. Darby, R. E. Fordyce, A. F. Mark, P. K. Probert & C. R. Townsend (Eds.), The natural history of southern New Zealand. (pp. 267-311). Dunedin: University of Otago Press.

Smith, A. M. (1999). Carbonate sediments. In C. P. Marshall & R. W. Fairbridge (Eds.), Encyclopedia of geochemistry. (pp. 73-75). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. [Encyclopaedia/Dictionary Entry].

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Journal - Research Article

Achilleos, K., Gordon, D. P., & Smith, A. M. (2020). Cellaria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the deep: New species from the souther Zealandian region. Zootaxa, 4801(2), 201-236. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4801.2.1

Tamberg, Y., & Smith, A. M. (2020). In search of predictive models for stenolaemate morphometry across the skeletal-polypide divide. Paleobiology, 46(2), 218-236. doi: 10.1017/pab.2020.13

Key, Jr, M. M., Smith, A. M., Phillips, N. J., & Forrester, J. S. (2020). Effect of removal of organic material on stable isotope values in skeletal carbonate from taxonomic groups with complex mineralogies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/rcm.8901

Batson, P. B., Tamberg, Y., Taylor, P. D., Gordon, D. P., & Smith, A. M. (2020). Skeletal resorption in bryozoans: Occurrence, function and recognition. Biological Reviews. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/brv.12613

Wells, S. R., Wing, L. C., Smith, A. M., & Smith, I. W. G. (2019). Historical changes in bivalve growth rates indicate ecological consequences of human occupation in estuaries. Aquatic Conservation, 29, 1452-1465. doi: 10.1002/aqc.3039

Peebles, B. A., & Smith, A. M. (2019). Wasting away in the intertidal: The fate of chiton valves in an acidifying ocean. Palaios, 34(6), 281-290. doi: 10.2110/palo.2018.095

Northern, T. J., Smith, A. M., McKinnon, J. F., & Bolstad, K. S. R. (2019). Trace elements in beaks of greater hooked squid Onykia ingens: Opportunities for environmental tracing. Molluscan Research, 39(1), 29-34. doi: 10.1080/13235818.2018.1495604

Orr, R. J. S., Waeschenbach, A., Enevoldsen, E. L. G., Boeve, J. P., Haugen, M. N., Voje, K. L., … Smith, A. M., Gordon, D. P., & Liow, L. H. (2019). Bryozoan genera Fenestrulina and Microporella no longer confamilial: Multi-gene phylogeny supports separation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 186, 190-199. doi: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly055

Cummings, V. J., Smith, A. M., Marriott, P. M., Peebles, B. A., & Halliday, N. J. (2019). Effect of reduced pH on physiology and shell integrity of juvenile Haliotis iris (pāua) from New Zealand. PeerJ, 7, e7670. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7670

Migliaccio, O., Pinsino, A., Maffioli, E., Smith, A. M., Agnisola, C., Matranga, V., … Palumbo, A. (2019). Living in future ocean acidification, physiological adaptive responses of the immune system of sea urchins resident at a CO2 vent system. Science of the Total Environment, 672, 938-950. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.005

Achilleos, K., Smith, A. M., & Gordon, D. P. (2019). The articulated bryozoan genus Cellaria in the southern Zealandian region: Distribution and associated fauna. Marine Biodiversity, 49, 2801-2812. doi: 10.1007/s12526-019-01009-y

Orr, R. J. S., Haugen, M. N., Berning, B., Bock, P., Cumming, R. L., Florence, W. K., … Smith, A. M., … Liow, L. H. (2019). A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, 235. doi: 10.1186/s12862-019-1563-4

Salter, M. A., Perry, C. T., & Smith, A. M. (2019). Calcium carbonate production by fish in temperate marine environments. Limnology & Oceanography, 64, 2755-2770. doi: 10.1002/lno.11339

Loxton, J., Spencer Jones, M., Najorka, J., Smith, A. M., & Porter, J. S. (2018). Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of Scottish bryozoans. PLoS ONE, 13(6), e0197533. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197533

Law, C. S., Bell, J. J., Bostock, H. C., Cornwall, C. E., Cummings, V. J., Currie, K., … Hepburn, C. D., Hurd, C. L., Lamare, M., … Smith, A. M., & Tracey, D. M. (2018). Ocean acidification in New Zealand waters: Trends and impacts. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 52(2), 155-195. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2017.1374983

Peebles, B. A., & Smith, A. M. (2018). Abrasion provides clues on a chiton taphonomic conundrum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 496, 183-191. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.01.036

Smith, A. M. (2018). Addicted to Bryozoans. Junctures, (19), 37-41.

Key, Jr, M. M., Rossi, R. K., Smith, A. M., Hageman, S. J., & Patterson, W. P. (2018). Stable isotope profiles of skeletal carbonate validate annually-produced growth checks in the bryozoan Melicerita chathamensis from Snares Platform, New Zealand. Bulletin of Marine Science, 94(4), 1447-1464. doi: 10.5343/bms.2017.1166

Peebles, B. A., Smith, A. M., & Spencer, H. G. (2017). Valve microstructure and phylomineralogy of New Zealand chitons. Journal of Structural Biology, 197(3), 250-259. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.12.002

Loxton, J., Najorka, J., Humphreys-Williams, E., Kuklinski, P., Smith, A. M., Porter, J. S., & Spencer Jones, M. (2017). The forgotten variable: Impact of cleaning on the skeletal composition of a marine invertebrate. Chemical Geology, 474, 45-57. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.10.022

Smith, A. M., & Spencer, H. G. (2016). Skeletal mineralogy of scaphopods: An unusual uniformity. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 82(2), 344-348. doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyv061

Smith, A. M., Key, Jr, M. M., Henderson, Z. E., Davis, V. C., & Winter, D. J. (2016). Pretreatment for removal of organic material is not necessary for x-ray-diffraction determination of mineralogy in temperate skeletal carbonate. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(12), 1425-1433. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2016.86

Cunningham, S. C., Smith, A. M., & Lamare, M. D. (2016). The effects of elevated pCO2 on growth, shell production and metabolism of cultured juvenile abalone, Haliotis iris. Aquaculture Research, 47, 2375-2392. doi: 10.1111/are.12684

Smith, A. M., Clark, D. E., Lamare, M. D., Winter, D. J., & Byrne, M. (2016). Risk and resilience: Variations in magnesium in echinoid skeletal calcite. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 561, 1-16. doi: 10.3354/meps11908

Roleda, M. Y., Cornwall, C. E., Feng, Y., McGraw, C. M., Smith, A. M., & Hurd, C. L. (2015). Effect of ocean acidification and pH fluctuations on the growth and development of coralline algal recruits, and an associated benthic algal assemblage. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0140394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140394

Bostock, H. C., Tracey, D. M., Currie, K. I., Dunbar, G. B., Handler, M. R., Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E., Smith, A. M., & Williams, M. J. M. (2015). The carbonate mineralogy and distribution of habitat-forming deep-sea corals in the southwest pacific region. Deep Sea Research Part I, 100, 88-104. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2015.02.008

Riedi, M. A., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Tube growth and calcification of two reef-building ecosystem engineers in southern New Zealand: Galeolaria hystrix and Spirobranchus cariniferus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Marine Geology, 367(1), 212-219. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.10.010

Brinkman, T. J., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Effect of climate change on crustose coralline algae at a temperate vent site, White Island, New Zealand. Marine & Freshwater Research, 66(4), 360-370. doi: 10.1071/MF14077

Taylor, P. D., Waeschenbach, A., Smith, A. M., & Gordon, D. P. (2015). In search of phylogenetic congruence between molecular and morphological data in bryozoans with extreme adult skeletal heteromorphy. Systematics & Biodiversity, 13(6), 525-544. doi: 10.1080/14772000.2015.1049673

Garden, C. J., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Voyages of Seaweeds: The role of macroalgae in sediment transport. Sedimentary Geology, 318, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2014.11.007

Byrne, M., Smith, A. M., West, S., Collard, M., Dubois, P., Graba-landry, A., & Dworjanyn, S. A. (2014). Warming influences Mg2+ content, while warming and acidification influence calcification and test strength of a sea urchin. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(21), 12620-12627. doi: 10.1021/es5017526

Cornwall, C. E., Boyd, P. W., McGraw, C. M., Hepburn, C. D., Pilditch, C. A., Morris, J. N., Smith, A. M., & Hurd, C. L. (2014). Diffusion boundary layers ameliorate the negative effects of ocean acidification on the temperate coralline macroalga Arthrocardia corymbosa. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e97235. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097235

Enke, S., Smith, A. M., & Hageman, S. J. (2014). Bryozoan settlement substrates and implications for carbonate sediment production. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali, 94, 95-99.

Smith, A. M. (2014). Growth and calcification of marine bryozoans in a changing ocean. Biological Bulletin, 226(3), 203-210.

Smith, A. M., Berman, J., Key, Jr, M. M., & Winter, D. J. (2013). Not all sponges will thrive in a high-CO2 ocean: Review of the mineralogy of calcifying sponges. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 463-472. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.10.004

Wolfe, K., Smith, A. M., Trimby, P., & Byrne, M. (2013). Microstructure of the paper nautilus (Argonauta nodosa) shell and the novel applicatoin of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to address effects of ocean acidification. Marine Biology, 160(8), 2271-2278. doi: 10.1007/s00227-012-2032-4

Smith, A. M., Riedi, M. A., & Winter, D. J. (2013). Temperate reefs in a changing ocean: Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of serpulids. Marine Biology, 160(9), 2281-2294. doi: 10.1007/s00227-013-2210-z

Smith, A. M., Sutherland, J. E., Kregting, L., Farr, T. J., & Winter, D. J. (2012). Phylomineralogy of the coralline red algae: Correlation of skeletal mineralogy with molecular phylogeny. Phytochemistry, 81, 97-108. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.06.003

Smith, A. M., Henderson, Z. E., Kennedy, M., King, T. M., & Spencer, H. G. (2012). Reef formation versus solitariness in two New Zealand serpulids does not involve cryptic species. Aquatic Biology, 16(1), 97-103. doi: 10.3354/ab00444

Wolfe, K., Smith, A. M., Trimby, P., & Byrne, M. (2012). Vulnerability of the paper nautilus (Argonauta nodosa) shell to a climate-change ocean: Potential for extinction by dissolution. Biological Bulletin, 223(2), 236-244.

Wood, A. C. L., Probert, P. K., Rowden, A. A., & Smith, A. M. (2012). Complex habitat generated by marine bryozoans: A review of its distribution, structure, diversity, threats and conservation. Aquatic Conservation, 22(4), 547-563. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2236

Garden, C. J., & Smith, A. M. (2011). The role of kelp in sediment transport: Observations from southeast New Zealand. Marine Geology, 281, 35-42. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2011.01.006

Garden, C. J., Craw, D., Waters, J. M., & Smith, A. (2011). Rafting rocks reveal marine biological dispersal: A case study using clasts from beach-cast macroalgal holdfasts. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science, 95(4), 388-394. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.10.008

Smith, A. M., Kregting, L., Fern, S., & Fraser, C. I. (2011). Sedimentology of a wreck: The Rainbow Warrior revisited. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(11), 2412-2419. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.08.028

Smith, A. M., & Lawton, E. I. (2010). Growing up in the temperate zone: Age, growth, calcification and carbonate mineralogy of Melicerita chathamensis (Bryozoa) in southern New Zealand. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298(3-4), 271-277. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.09.033

Smith, A. M., Wood, A. C. L., Liddy, M. F. A., Shears, A. E., & Fraser, C. I. (2010). Human impacts in an urban port: The carbonate budget, Otago Harbour, New Zealand. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science, 90(2), 73-79. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2010.07.004

Smith, A. M., & Girvan, E. (2010). Understanding a bimineralic bryozoan: Skeletal structure and carbonate mineralogy of Odontionella cyclops (Foveolariidae: Cheilostomata: Bryozoa) in New Zealand. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 289(1-4), 113-122. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.022

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