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Professor Abby Smith

Course Adviser
Fourth-Year Co-ordinator
Director of Oceanography Programme

Contact detailsAbbySmith

Office 310 Castle Street, room 101
Tel +64 3 479 7470
Email abby.smith@otago.ac.nz

Academic qualifications

BA (Geology, Biology) Colby College
SM (Earth Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences) Massachusetts Institute of Technology
DPhil (Earth Sciences) University of Waikato

Research interests

Bryozoans are important carbonate producers

Marine bryozoans are the most important carbonate sediment producers on shelves in the Southern Hemisphere, and largely unstudied. My students and I work on taxonomy and systematics, identification, growth and production, ecology, and geochemistry of New Zealand's bryozoans. I am an active member (and currently Treasurer) of the International Bryozoology Association.

Geochemical signals in skeletons

Variations in isotopic composition and mineralogy of skeletal carbonate may contain information about age, environment, and productivity. Our research team investigates geochemical signals in carbonate (both modern and fossil), and how they can be used to understand calcification, age and growth in temperate organisms, particularly bryozoans, as well as how they might reflect longer-term changes in climate and water chemistry.

Temperate carbonate sediments

Cool water reefs and temperate carbonate sediments differ from their tropical counterparts, requiring new ideas about budgets, production, destruction, preservation and lithification. My students and I investigate these processes in a range of environments, from the coast out to the shelf and beyond. The Otago and Southland continental shelves are unusual in their cool-water carbonate reefs and mixing of carbonate and terrestrial sediments. We have studies underway off Otago Peninsula, in Paterson Inlet, through Foveaux Strait, and in Doubtful Sound.

Ocean acidification on the temperate shelf

Ocean acidification and its effect on calcification is emerging as the major global climate challenge. Rapid anthropogenic production of CO2 has driven the carbonate chemistry of the sea, causing lowered pH in surface waters and affecting calcification in some marine organisms. We study the temperate carbonate budget – production, geochemistry, dissolution, and accumulation in cool temperate environments. Temperate shelf carbonate sediments, which blanket southern shelves of New Zealand and Australia, are key biological reservoirs, possibly ameliorating the effects of acidification in shelf depths.

Courses

Abby is the Chief Course Adviser for the Department of Marine Science.

She is also the fourth-year co-ordinator and Director of the Oceanography programme.

She teaches in:

  • MARI 202 Marine Invertebrate Ecology and Biology – Lecturer
  • OCEN 301 Practical and Field Oceanography – Co-ordinator, principal lecturer
  • OCEN 323 Marine Geology and Geophysics – Lecturer
  • MARI 401 Advanced Methods in Marine Science – Co-ordinator, principal lecturer
  • MARI 480/490/495 Research Projects and Proposals – Co-ordinator

Postgraduate students

  • Katerina Achilleos – Thesis Title (PhD):Growth and calcification in articulated bryozoans as a response to environmental conditions.
  • Peter Batson – Thesis Title (PhD): Aspects of the biology of Hornerid bryozoans
  • Hannah Mello – Thesis Title (PhD): Protecting the Small: the effect of marine protection on New Zealand bryozoans.
  • Yuta Tamberg – Thesis Title (PhD): Aspects of feeding and anatomy of stenolaemate bryozoans, New Zealand

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Publications

Batson, P. B., Tamberg, Y., Gordon, D. P., Negrini, M., & Smith, A. M. (2021). Hornera currieae n. sp. (Cyclostomatida: Horneridae): A new bathyal cyclostome bryozoan with reproductively induced skeletal plasticity. Zootaxa, 2, 257-287. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.5020.2.2

Smith, A. (2021, July). Put on your own mask first. Verbal presentation at the Association for Women in the Sciences (AWIS) Triennial Conference: Embracing Diversity, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Mello, H. L., Smith, A. M., & Wood, A. C. L. (2021). Voluntary fishing restrictions alone do not promote growth of bryozoan-dominated biogenic habitat on the Otago shelf, southeastern New Zealand. ICES Journal of Marine Science, fsab056. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsab056

Smith, A. M. (2021). It hasn't always been this way: A geological perspective on CO2 and OA. Proceedings of the 14th Annual New Zealand Ocean Acidification Conference: Ocean Acidification in a Decade of Ocean Science. (pp. 12). Retrieved from http://nzoac.nz/conferences

Orr, R. J. S., Di Martino, E., Gordon, D. P., Ramsfjell, M. H., Smith, A. M., & Liow, L. H. (2021). A broadly resolved molecular phylogeny of New Zealand cheilostome bryozoans as a framework for hypotheses of morphological evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 107172. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107172

Bostock, H., Tracey, D., Dunbar, G., Handler, M., Baker, J., Smith, A., & Riedi, M. (2013). Deep-sea coral carbonate mineralogy. In D. Tracey, H. Bostock, K. Currie, S. Mikaloff-Fletcher, M. Williams, M. Hadfield, … V. Cummings (Eds.), The potential impact of ocean acidification on deep-sea corals and fisheries habitat in New Zealand waters [New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 117]. (pp. 20-29). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry for Primary Industries.

Chapter in Book - Research

Barker, M., Brett, T., Darby, J., Dugan, J., Hubbard, D., Johnson, P., Mladenov, P., … Peake, B., Probert, K., Smith, A., Spencer, H., & Walker, S. (2003). The coast. In J. T. Darby, R. E. Fordyce, A. F. Mark, P. K. Probert & C. R. Townsend (Eds.), The natural history of southern New Zealand. (pp. 267-311). Dunedin: University of Otago Press.

Chapter in Book - Research

Smith, A. M. (1999). Carbonate sediments. In C. P. Marshall & R. W. Fairbridge (Eds.), Encyclopedia of geochemistry. (pp. 73-75). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. [Encyclopaedia/Dictionary Entry].

Chapter in Book - Research

Batson, P. B., Tamberg, Y., Gordon, D. P., Negrini, M., & Smith, A. M. (2021). Hornera currieae n. sp. (Cyclostomatida: Horneridae): A new bathyal cyclostome bryozoan with reproductively induced skeletal plasticity. Zootaxa, 2, 257-287. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.5020.2.2

Journal - Research Article

Fay, A. M., & Smith, A. M. (2021). In a pinch: Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of crabs (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2021.110219

Journal - Research Article

Mello, H. L., Smith, A. M., & Wood, A. C. L. (2021). Voluntary fishing restrictions alone do not promote growth of bryozoan-dominated biogenic habitat on the Otago shelf, southeastern New Zealand. ICES Journal of Marine Science, fsab056. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsab056

Journal - Research Article

Orr, R. J. S., Di Martino, E., Gordon, D. P., Ramsfjell, M. H., Smith, A. M., & Liow, L. H. (2021). A broadly resolved molecular phylogeny of New Zealand cheilostome bryozoans as a framework for hypotheses of morphological evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 107172. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107172

Journal - Research Article

Achilleos, K., Gordon, D. P., & Smith, A. M. (2020). Cellaria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the deep: New species from the souther Zealandian region. Zootaxa, 4801(2), 201-236. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4801.2.1

Journal - Research Article

Batson, P. B., Tamberg, Y., Taylor, P. D., Gordon, D. P., & Smith, A. M. (2020). Skeletal resorption in bryozoans: Occurrence, function and recognition. Biological Reviews, 95(5), 1341-1371. doi: 10.1111/brv.12613

Journal - Research Article

Key, Jr, M. M., Smith, A. M., Phillips, N. J., & Forrester, J. S. (2020). Effect of removal of organic material on stable isotope ratios in skeletal carbonate from taxonomic groups with complex mineralogies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 34, e8901. doi: 10.1002/rcm.8901

Journal - Research Article

Mello, H. L., Smith, A. M., Wood, A. C. L., & Tidey, E. J. (2020). Enhanced biodiversity and abundance of benthic invertebrate macrofauna in a New Zealand marine reserve. Aquatic Conservation, 30, 1854-1867. doi: 10.1002/aqc.3333

Journal - Research Article

Orr, R. J. S., Sannum, M. M., Boessenkool, S., Di Martino, E., Gordon, D. P., Mello, H. L., … Smith, A. M., & Liow, L. H. (2020). A molecular phylogeny of historical and contemporary specimens of an under-studied micro-invertebrate group. Ecology & Evolution. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/ece3.7042

Journal - Research Article

Tamberg, Y., & Smith, A. M. (2020). In search of predictive models for stenolaemate morphometry across the skeletal-polypide divide. Paleobiology, 46(2), 218-236. doi: 10.1017/pab.2020.13

Journal - Research Article

Achilleos, K., Smith, A. M., & Gordon, D. P. (2019). The articulated bryozoan genus Cellaria in the southern Zealandian region: Distribution and associated fauna. Marine Biodiversity, 49, 2801-2812. doi: 10.1007/s12526-019-01009-y

Journal - Research Article

Cummings, V. J., Smith, A. M., Marriott, P. M., Peebles, B. A., & Halliday, N. J. (2019). Effect of reduced pH on physiology and shell integrity of juvenile Haliotis iris (pāua) from New Zealand. PeerJ, 7, e7670. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7670

Journal - Research Article

Migliaccio, O., Pinsino, A., Maffioli, E., Smith, A. M., Agnisola, C., Matranga, V., … Palumbo, A. (2019). Living in future ocean acidification, physiological adaptive responses of the immune system of sea urchins resident at a CO2 vent system. Science of the Total Environment, 672, 938-950. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.005

Journal - Research Article

Northern, T. J., Smith, A. M., McKinnon, J. F., & Bolstad, K. S. R. (2019). Trace elements in beaks of greater hooked squid Onykia ingens: Opportunities for environmental tracing. Molluscan Research, 39(1), 29-34. doi: 10.1080/13235818.2018.1495604

Journal - Research Article

Orr, R. J. S., Haugen, M. N., Berning, B., Bock, P., Cumming, R. L., Florence, W. K., … Smith, A. M., … Liow, L. H. (2019). A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, 235. doi: 10.1186/s12862-019-1563-4

Journal - Research Article

Orr, R. J. S., Waeschenbach, A., Enevoldsen, E. L. G., Boeve, J. P., Haugen, M. N., Voje, K. L., … Smith, A. M., Gordon, D. P., & Liow, L. H. (2019). Bryozoan genera Fenestrulina and Microporella no longer confamilial: Multi-gene phylogeny supports separation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 186, 190-199. doi: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly055

Journal - Research Article

Peebles, B. A., & Smith, A. M. (2019). Wasting away in the intertidal: The fate of chiton valves in an acidifying ocean. Palaios, 34(6), 281-290. doi: 10.2110/palo.2018.095

Journal - Research Article

Salter, M. A., Perry, C. T., & Smith, A. M. (2019). Calcium carbonate production by fish in temperate marine environments. Limnology & Oceanography, 64, 2755-2770. doi: 10.1002/lno.11339

Journal - Research Article

Wells, S. R., Wing, L. C., Smith, A. M., & Smith, I. W. G. (2019). Historical changes in bivalve growth rates indicate ecological consequences of human occupation in estuaries. Aquatic Conservation, 29, 1452-1465. doi: 10.1002/aqc.3039

Journal - Research Article

Key, Jr, M. M., Rossi, R. K., Smith, A. M., Hageman, S. J., & Patterson, W. P. (2018). Stable isotope profiles of skeletal carbonate validate annually-produced growth checks in the bryozoan Melicerita chathamensis from Snares Platform, New Zealand. Bulletin of Marine Science, 94(4), 1447-1464. doi: 10.5343/bms.2017.1166

Journal - Research Article

Law, C. S., Bell, J. J., Bostock, H. C., Cornwall, C. E., Cummings, V. J., Currie, K., … Hepburn, C. D., Hurd, C. L., Lamare, M., … Smith, A. M., & Tracey, D. M. (2018). Ocean acidification in New Zealand waters: Trends and impacts. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 52(2), 155-195. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2017.1374983

Journal - Research Article

Loxton, J., Spencer Jones, M., Najorka, J., Smith, A. M., & Porter, J. S. (2018). Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of Scottish bryozoans. PLoS ONE, 13(6), e0197533. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197533

Journal - Research Article

Peebles, B. A., & Smith, A. M. (2018). Abrasion provides clues on a chiton taphonomic conundrum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 496, 183-191. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.01.036

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M. (2018). Addicted to Bryozoans. Junctures, (19), 37-41.

Journal - Research Article

Loxton, J., Najorka, J., Humphreys-Williams, E., Kuklinski, P., Smith, A. M., Porter, J. S., & Spencer Jones, M. (2017). The forgotten variable: Impact of cleaning on the skeletal composition of a marine invertebrate. Chemical Geology, 474, 45-57. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.10.022

Journal - Research Article

Peebles, B. A., Smith, A. M., & Spencer, H. G. (2017). Valve microstructure and phylomineralogy of New Zealand chitons. Journal of Structural Biology, 197(3), 250-259. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.12.002

Journal - Research Article

Cunningham, S. C., Smith, A. M., & Lamare, M. D. (2016). The effects of elevated pCO2 on growth, shell production and metabolism of cultured juvenile abalone, Haliotis iris. Aquaculture Research, 47, 2375-2392. doi: 10.1111/are.12684

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., & Spencer, H. G. (2016). Skeletal mineralogy of scaphopods: An unusual uniformity. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 82(2), 344-348. doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyv061

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., Clark, D. E., Lamare, M. D., Winter, D. J., & Byrne, M. (2016). Risk and resilience: Variations in magnesium in echinoid skeletal calcite. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 561, 1-16. doi: 10.3354/meps11908

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., Key, Jr, M. M., Henderson, Z. E., Davis, V. C., & Winter, D. J. (2016). Pretreatment for removal of organic material is not necessary for x-ray-diffraction determination of mineralogy in temperate skeletal carbonate. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(12), 1425-1433. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2016.86

Journal - Research Article

Bostock, H. C., Tracey, D. M., Currie, K. I., Dunbar, G. B., Handler, M. R., Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E., Smith, A. M., & Williams, M. J. M. (2015). The carbonate mineralogy and distribution of habitat-forming deep-sea corals in the southwest pacific region. Deep Sea Research Part I, 100, 88-104. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2015.02.008

Journal - Research Article

Brinkman, T. J., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Effect of climate change on crustose coralline algae at a temperate vent site, White Island, New Zealand. Marine & Freshwater Research, 66(4), 360-370. doi: 10.1071/MF14077

Journal - Research Article

Garden, C. J., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Voyages of Seaweeds: The role of macroalgae in sediment transport. Sedimentary Geology, 318, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2014.11.007

Journal - Research Article

Riedi, M. A., & Smith, A. M. (2015). Tube growth and calcification of two reef-building ecosystem engineers in southern New Zealand: Galeolaria hystrix and Spirobranchus cariniferus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Marine Geology, 367(1), 212-219. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.10.010

Journal - Research Article

Roleda, M. Y., Cornwall, C. E., Feng, Y., McGraw, C. M., Smith, A. M., & Hurd, C. L. (2015). Effect of ocean acidification and pH fluctuations on the growth and development of coralline algal recruits, and an associated benthic algal assemblage. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0140394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140394

Journal - Research Article

Taylor, P. D., Waeschenbach, A., Smith, A. M., & Gordon, D. P. (2015). In search of phylogenetic congruence between molecular and morphological data in bryozoans with extreme adult skeletal heteromorphy. Systematics & Biodiversity, 13(6), 525-544. doi: 10.1080/14772000.2015.1049673

Journal - Research Article

Byrne, M., Smith, A. M., West, S., Collard, M., Dubois, P., Graba-landry, A., & Dworjanyn, S. A. (2014). Warming influences Mg2+ content, while warming and acidification influence calcification and test strength of a sea urchin. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(21), 12620-12627. doi: 10.1021/es5017526

Journal - Research Article

Cornwall, C. E., Boyd, P. W., McGraw, C. M., Hepburn, C. D., Pilditch, C. A., Morris, J. N., Smith, A. M., & Hurd, C. L. (2014). Diffusion boundary layers ameliorate the negative effects of ocean acidification on the temperate coralline macroalga Arthrocardia corymbosa. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e97235. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097235

Journal - Research Article

Enke, S., Smith, A. M., & Hageman, S. J. (2014). Bryozoan settlement substrates and implications for carbonate sediment production. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali, 94, 95-99.

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M. (2014). Growth and calcification of marine bryozoans in a changing ocean. Biological Bulletin, 226(3), 203-210.

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., Berman, J., Key, Jr, M. M., & Winter, D. J. (2013). Not all sponges will thrive in a high-CO2 ocean: Review of the mineralogy of calcifying sponges. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 463-472. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.10.004

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., Riedi, M. A., & Winter, D. J. (2013). Temperate reefs in a changing ocean: Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of serpulids. Marine Biology, 160(9), 2281-2294. doi: 10.1007/s00227-013-2210-z

Journal - Research Article

Wolfe, K., Smith, A. M., Trimby, P., & Byrne, M. (2013). Microstructure of the paper nautilus (Argonauta nodosa) shell and the novel applicatoin of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to address effects of ocean acidification. Marine Biology, 160(8), 2271-2278. doi: 10.1007/s00227-012-2032-4

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., Henderson, Z. E., Kennedy, M., King, T. M., & Spencer, H. G. (2012). Reef formation versus solitariness in two New Zealand serpulids does not involve cryptic species. Aquatic Biology, 16(1), 97-103. doi: 10.3354/ab00444

Journal - Research Article

Smith, A. M., Sutherland, J. E., Kregting, L., Farr, T. J., & Winter, D. J. (2012). Phylomineralogy of the coralline red algae: Correlation of skeletal mineralogy with molecular phylogeny. Phytochemistry, 81, 97-108. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.06.003

Journal - Research Article

Wolfe, K., Smith, A. M., Trimby, P., & Byrne, M. (2012). Vulnerability of the paper nautilus (Argonauta nodosa) shell to a climate-change ocean: Potential for extinction by dissolution. Biological Bulletin, 223(2), 236-244.

Journal - Research Article

Wood, A. C. L., Probert, P. K., Rowden, A. A., & Smith, A. M. (2012). Complex habitat generated by marine bryozoans: A review of its distribution, structure, diversity, threats and conservation. Aquatic Conservation, 22(4), 547-563. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2236

Journal - Research Article

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